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Use of greenhouse cultures accompanied by new techniques such as soilless or hydroponic culture on the one hand improves suitable control of plants nutrition and on the other hand it has created a great progress in greenhouse productions. In order to greenhouse tomato cultivar of Hamra was cultured in a hydroponic system and effect of micronutrients different levels was studied on it. The experiment design was as randomized complete block with five treatments and four replications. Experimental treatments were included: Lack of micronutrients application, Full application of sulfate manganese (4.06 mg/lit), Full application of sulfate zinc (4.42 mg/lit), 50% sulfate manganese (2.03 mg/lit) + 50% sulfate zinc (2.21 mg/lit) and Full application of sulfate manganese + Full application of sulfate zinc. The results showed that the highest fresh fruit yield, fruit dry matter percentage and content of Mn and Zn in fruit obtained from full application Mn, Zn and Mn + Zn. However micronutrients different levels had significantly effect on content of nitrogen, but they haven’t significantly effect on fruit size of tomato. Key words: Micronutrients, Tomato, Hydroponic culture, Yield.
pH Management of Hydroponics Solutions A question often asked is what is the best pH for a particular crop nutrient solution. The answers given in many texts, and often by advisers to growers, are frequently based on misunderstood information. Many refer to the availability of nutrients to plants at different pHʼs based on research by Troug (1946) [Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. Am., 11:305-308] even using graphic illustrations of his ﬁndings in one form or another, generally showing a bar graph with wide portions in the pH area where the element is most widely available to the plant. I have seen similar representations said to show the availability of trace elements in a hydroponics solution. This graphic representation of availability of trace, and sometimes the major elements, only applies to plants being grown in mineral (clay based) soils. It is not relevant to hydroponics solutions.As plants use nutrients their roots release bicarbonate that raises the pH of nutrient solutions. By the early 1990ʼs I had observed that the published and advised pH at which crops were grown did not correspond to my observations. At the time phosphoric acid was being used to routinely acidify hydroponics solutions and was causing imbalances in nutrient solutions and blockages due to precipitates. It made sense to replace the phosphoric acid entirely with nitric acid which could, by monitoring pH, be added at a rate related to plant use replacing Nitrogen (N) used in growth periods and so maintain a better balanced solution free of unwanted precipitates.
Nitrogen is the most predominantly consumed nutrient among all the macro and micro elements required for plant growth. Nitrogenous fertilizers can be provided by soil application, fertigation or foliar application. In foliar process, concentration of nitrogen varies from 100ppm to 250ppm according to the needs of the plant.
Material Safety Data Sheet Copyright, 2012, 3M Company All rights reserved. Copying and/or downloading of this information for the purpose of properly utilizing 3M products is allowed provided that: (1) the information is copied in full with no changes unless prior written agreement is obtained from 3M, and (2) neither the copy nor the original is resold or otherwise distributed with the intention of earning a profit thereon. SECTION 1: PRODUCT AND COMPANY IDENTIFICATION PRODUCT NAME: 3M™ Universal Fuel Injector Cleaner PN 08956 MANUFACTURER: 3M DIVISION: Automotive Aftermarket ADDRESS: 3M Center, St. Paul, MN 55144-1000 EMERGENCY PHONE: 1-800-364-3577 or (651) 737-6501 (24 hours) Issue Date: 06/26/12 Supercedes Date: 06/11/12 Document Group: 06-2422-1 Product Use: Intended Use: Specific Use: Automotive Cleaner to remove deposits from auto fuel injectors SECTION 2: INGREDIENTS Ingredient C.A.S. No. % by Wt Toluene Diacetone Alcohol Xylene Methyl Alcohol Ethylbenzene Nitrogen Benzene 108-88-3 123-42-2 1330-20-7 67-56-1 100-41-4 7727-37-9 71-43-2 30 - 60 10 - 30 10 - 30 10 - 30 3- 7 0.5 - 1.5 < 0.1 SECTION 3: HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION 3.1 EMERGENCY OVERVIEW Specific Physical Form: Aerosol Odor, Color, Grade: solvent odor General Physical Form: Liquid Immediate health, physical, and environmental hazards: Flammable liquid and vapor. Closed containers exposed to heat from fire may build pressure and explode. Vapors may travel long distances along the ground or floor to an ignition source and flash back.
Detonation (also called "spark knock") is an erratic form of combustion that can cause head gasket failure as well as other engine damage. Detonation occurs when excessive heat and pressure in the combustion chamber cause the air/fuel mixture to auto-ignite. This produces multiple flame fronts within the combustion chamber instead of a single flame kernel. When these multiple flames collide, they do so with explosive force that produces a sudden rise in cylinder pressure accompanied by a sharp metallic pinging or knocking noise. The hammer-like shock waves created by detonation subject the head gasket, piston, rings, spark plug and rod bearings to severe overloading. Mild or occasional detonation can occur in almost any engine and usually causes no harm. But prolonged or heavy detonation can be very damaging. So if you hear knocking or pinging when accelerating or lugging your engine, you probably have a detonation problem. 1. Try a higher octane fuel. The octane rating of a given grade of gasoline is a measure of its detonation resistance. The higher the octane number, the better able the fuel is to resist detonation. Most engines in good condition will run fine on regular grade 87 octane fuel. But engines with high compression ratios (over 9:1), turbochargers, superchargers, or with accumulated carbon deposits in the combustion chamber may require 89 or higher octane fuel. How a vehicle is used can also affect its octane requirements. If a vehicle is used for towing or some other application where the engine is forced to work hard under load, a higher octane fuel may be necessary to prevent detonation. If switching to a higher octane fuel fails to eliminate a persistent detonation problem, it probably means something else is amiss. Anything that increases normal combustion temperatures or pressures, leans out the air/fuel mixture, or causes the engine to run hotter than normal can cause detonation. 2. Check for loss of EGR. The Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system is one of the engine's primary emission controls. Its purpose is to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOX) pollution in the exhaust. It does this by "leaking" (recirculating) small amounts of exhaust into the intake manifold through the EGR valve. Though the gases are hot, they actually have a cooling effect on combustion temperatures by diluting the air/fuel mixture slightly. Lowering the combustion temperature reduces the formation of NOX as well as the octane requirements of the engine.
DESCRIPTION OF A COFLEXIP® FLEXIBLE LINE The Coflexip® Flexible Line Coflexip® products are designed for oilfield services, both on and offshore, where heavy duty is required in combination with Flexible lines are manufactured in long continuous sections (up to several kilometres) and are cut to fit each client's requirements. End fittings with the most common types of end connectors are kept in stock thus minimising delivery times. End connectors not kept in stock will be machined or obtained according to the client's specifications. Delivery time depends mainly on the type of end connectors required and our client’s particular specifications. The pipe structure Coflexip® pipes are composed of successive layers of steel and thermoplastic to produce unique structures that have the strength and durability of steel pipes combined with the flexibility of reinforced rubber hoses. Each layer works independently from the others, as no vulcanisation is used during manufacturing. This results in the structural stability of the pipe. flexibility and Functions of Coflexip® pipe components reliability. These requirements are in applications such as: Choke and kill lines Rotary and vibrator lines Test lines Hydraulic lines Acid and cement lines Nitrogen lines Coflexip® flexible pipes for drilling and service applications are manufactured by the Drilling & Refining Applications Division of the Technip Group 2 1. The thermoplastic inner tube makes the pipe leak-tight. 2. The interlocked zeta and flat steel spiral pressure carcass resist internal pressure and external crushing loads. 3. The intermediate thermoplastic sheath is an anti-friction layer. 4. The double crosswound steel armours resist axial loads, protect the pipe from torsional strain resulting from handling and working conditions. 5. The thermoplastic outer jacket protects the armours from external corrosion. 6. The Stainless Steel Outer Wrap (SSOW), protects the pipe from mechanical impact, abrasion, weathering and accidental mishandling.
Engine Exhaust Controls The engine exhaust emission control systems are designed to control combustion during idle, acceleration, cruise, and deceleration. These systems are entirely separate from the crankcase and evaporative emission control systems described previously. PGM-FI System The PGM-FI system consists of three independent subsystems; Air Intake, Electronic Control and Fuel Control, thus allowing more accurate control of air/fuel ratios under all operating conditions. The Electronic Control Unit (ECU) detects the amount of air drawn into the cylinders and determines the amount of fuel to be injected to provide the optimum air/fuel ratio for all engine needs. Ignition Timing Control System This system automatically controls the ignition timing to reduce the amount of HC and NOx. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) The EGR system is designed to control the formation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) caused when fuel mixture burns at high temperature. It works by recirculating exhaust gas through the EGR valve and intake manifold into the combustion chambers where it reduces peak temperature by diluting the air/fuel mixture. Catalytic Converter The catalyst is used to convert hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in the exhaust gas to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), dinitrogen (N2) and water vapor.
CAESAR II TRAINING 6. STATIC ANALYSIS Metode Static Analysis adalah memperhitungkan static load, yang akan menimpa pipa secara perlahan sehingga dengan demikian piping system memiliki cukup waktu untuk menerima, bereaksi dan mendistribusikan load tersebut keseluruh bagian pipa, hingga tercapainya keseimbangan. 6.1 Static dan Dynamic Load Loading yang mempengaruhi sebuah piping system dapat diklasifikasikan sebagai primary dan secondary. Primary loading terjadi dari sustain load seperti berat pipa, sedangkan secondary load dicontohkan sebagai thermal expansion load. Static Loading meliputi : 1. Weight effect (live loads and dead loads). 2. Thermal expansion and contraction effects. 3. Effect of support, anchor movement. 4. Internal or external pressure loading. Sedangkan yang termasuk Dynamic loading adalah : 1. Impact forces 2. Wind 3. Discharge Load 6.1.1 Load Case pada Caesar II Setelah kita selesai mendesain piping, maka langkah selanjutnya adalah melakukan analisa stress terhadap system piping tersebut. Hal tersebut harus dilakukan untuk mengetahui apakah desain yang telah kita buat dapat memenuhi persyaratan stress atau tidak, Page 2 CAESAR II TRAINING sehingga hal ini akan sangat berpengaruh pada kekuatan pipa ketika mengalami pembebanan ketika kondisi operasi. Ada berbagai macam jenis load case yang dapat kita gunakan dalam CAESAR II. Load case ini akan mendefinisikan pembebanan yang terjadi pada pipa, baik beban akibat berat pipa itu sendiri ataupun beban akibat faktor yang lain. Berikut ini definisi load case pada CAESAR II ver 4.2 : Load Design...
[275 Pages Report] Medical Gases and Equipment Market categorizes the global market by Gases (Oxygen, Nitrous-oxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Medical Air, Blood-gas Mixture, Nitrous Oxide-Oxygen Mixture), by Equipment (Cylinders, Regulators, Manifolds, Flowmeters) & by Geography