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Engine Exhaust Controls The engine exhaust emission control systems are designed to control combustion during idle, acceleration, cruise, and deceleration. These systems are entirely separate from the crankcase and evaporative emission control systems described previously. PGM-FI System The PGM-FI system consists of three independent subsystems; Air Intake, Electronic Control and Fuel Control, thus allowing more accurate control of air/fuel ratios under all operating conditions. The Electronic Control Unit (ECU) detects the amount of air drawn into the cylinders and determines the amount of fuel to be injected to provide the optimum air/fuel ratio for all engine needs. Ignition Timing Control System This system automatically controls the ignition timing to reduce the amount of HC and NOx. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) The EGR system is designed to control the formation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) caused when fuel mixture burns at high temperature. It works by recirculating exhaust gas through the EGR valve and intake manifold into the combustion chambers where it reduces peak temperature by diluting the air/fuel mixture. Catalytic Converter The catalyst is used to convert hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in the exhaust gas to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), dinitrogen (N2) and water vapor.
CAESAR II TRAINING 6. STATIC ANALYSIS Metode Static Analysis adalah memperhitungkan static load, yang akan menimpa pipa secara perlahan sehingga dengan demikian piping system memiliki cukup waktu untuk menerima, bereaksi dan mendistribusikan load tersebut keseluruh bagian pipa, hingga tercapainya keseimbangan. 6.1 Static dan Dynamic Load Loading yang mempengaruhi sebuah piping system dapat diklasifikasikan sebagai primary dan secondary. Primary loading terjadi dari sustain load seperti berat pipa, sedangkan secondary load dicontohkan sebagai thermal expansion load. Static Loading meliputi : 1. Weight effect (live loads and dead loads). 2. Thermal expansion and contraction effects. 3. Effect of support, anchor movement. 4. Internal or external pressure loading. Sedangkan yang termasuk Dynamic loading adalah : 1. Impact forces 2. Wind 3. Discharge Load 6.1.1 Load Case pada Caesar II Setelah kita selesai mendesain piping, maka langkah selanjutnya adalah melakukan analisa stress terhadap system piping tersebut. Hal tersebut harus dilakukan untuk mengetahui apakah desain yang telah kita buat dapat memenuhi persyaratan stress atau tidak, Page 2 CAESAR II TRAINING sehingga hal ini akan sangat berpengaruh pada kekuatan pipa ketika mengalami pembebanan ketika kondisi operasi. Ada berbagai macam jenis load case yang dapat kita gunakan dalam CAESAR II. Load case ini akan mendefinisikan pembebanan yang terjadi pada pipa, baik beban akibat berat pipa itu sendiri ataupun beban akibat faktor yang lain. Berikut ini definisi load case pada CAESAR II ver 4.2 : Load Design...
[275 Pages Report] Medical Gases and Equipment Market categorizes the global market by Gases (Oxygen, Nitrous-oxide, Nitrogen, Helium, Medical Air, Blood-gas Mixture, Nitrous Oxide-Oxygen Mixture), by Equipment (Cylinders, Regulators, Manifolds, Flowmeters) & by Geography
Kunci Jawaban Bab 1 Ayo Berlatih 1.1 2. Kemampuan yang dimiliki hewan untuk mengetahui arah terbang, makanan, dan keadaan lingkungan nya dengan menggunakan bunyi. Ayo Berlatih 1.2 2. Kantung semar dan tumbuhan kejora. Cara yang dilakukan pada kantong semar dengan menghasilkan cairan untuk menarik perhatian serangga. Serangga akan tergelincir masuk ke dalam daun karena daunnya mengandung lapisan lilin. Evaluasi Bab 1 A. Pilihan Ganda 2. c 4. b 6. d 8. d 10. b B. Isian 2. Pelekat 4. Kering 6. Malam hari 8. Nitrogen 10. Lidah yang panjang dan lengket C. Uraian 2. Karena cecak memiliki telapak kaki yang tidak rata, memiliki tonjolan berbentuk garis dan berfungsi sebagai pelekat. 4. Kantong semar menghasilkan cairan untuk menarik perhatian serangga. Serangga akan tertarik dan masuk ke dalam kantong. Bab 2 Ayo Berlatih 2.1 2. Bersikap tenang, jujur, terbuka, dan selalu menjaga kebersihan. Ayo Berlatih 2.2 2. • • Pembuahan di dalam tubuh: peng gabungan sel sperma dan sel telur di dalam tubuh. Pembuahan di luar tubuh: peng gabungan sel sperma dan sel telur di luar tubuh Ayo Berlatih 2.3 2. Serangga dan burung Evaluasi Bab 2 A. Pilihan Ganda 2. a 4. d 6. a 8. d 10. a 12. d 14. b B. Isian 2. Embrio 4. Menstruasi 6. Melahirkan 8. Penyerbukan 10. Cangkokan Kunci Jawaban 173 C. Uraian 2. Tertariknya pada lawan jenis 4. Menggabungkan mata tunas suatu tumbuhan pada batang tumbuhan lain.
Diesel ECU and Fuel Injector Drivers VISHAY components used for diesel ECU include: • Power MOSFETS • Diodes • Capacitors • Resistors • Inductors / EMI Filters • Transient / Overvoltage Protection Devices • ESD Protection Devices • Reverse Polarity Protection Devices Application Overview Electronic control of diesel engines for passenger cars and commercial vehicles is a critical function in today"s automotive industry. All functions in a modern diesel engine are controlled by an electronic control unit (ECU) that communicates with an elaborate array of sensors placed at strategic locations throughout the engine to monitor everything from engine speed to coolant and oil temperatures to piston position. Efficient electronic control means that fuel burns more thoroughly, delivers more power, provides greater fuel economy, and generates fewer emissions than yesterday"s diesel engines. Modern direct-injection diesel engines produce low amounts of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, reactive nitrogen compounds (NOx), and particulate matter (PM). VISHAY's broad product line provides component solutions for power supplies (SMPS), input signal conditioning, fuel injector drivers, relay drivers, solenoid drivers, and vehicle communications. page 2 Diesel ECU and Fuel Injector Drivers : CAN-BUS, ESD Protection Ceramic Capacitors Product Name Status VJ...31/ VJ...34 Automotive Description SMD Ceramic Capacitor Solutions High Temperature Application Boardflex-Sensitive Applications Features 1.0pF…1µF 10Vdc ... 3000Vdc Package Q-Level SMD 0402…1812 Small-Signal Diodes Product Name Status Description Features Package GL05T Low Capacitance ESD Protection; Data Line Protection; Ppk=300W, Vrrm=70V, Ippm=17A SMD SOT-23 GL24T Low Capacitance ESD Protection; Data Line Protection; Ppk=300W, Vrrm=70V, Ippm=5A Q-Level SMD SOT-23 Thick Film Resistors Product Name Status Description Features Package Q-Level CRCW0402 Bulk Resistors, Pulse-Resistant; Good Long-Term Stability; 1R..10M, 1%, TCR100 SMD 0402 AEC Q200 CRCW0603 Bulk Resistors, Pulse-Resistant; Good Long-Term Stability; 1R..10M, 1%, TCR100 SMD ...
Alternative Fuel Injectors Advanced components for Hydrogen and CNG applications H2 and CNG Injectors At Quantum we design, manufacture, and market state-of-the-art Type IV fuel storage tanks and gaseous fuel components. Connector: Injector mates with AMP™ connector Supply Voltage: 8-16 Volts typical Resistance: 2.05 +/- 0.25 Ω at 20°C Inductance: 3.98 +/- 0.3 mH at 1000 Hz typical Drive Circuit: Peak and Hold Quantum Part # Description 110764 100078 Hydrogen injector CNG injector The Quantum alternative fuel injector is designed for multi-port internal combustion engine applications and for metering hydrogen in fuel cells. Existing liquid fuel injector designs suffer from premature failure in dry gas applications and are subject to both orifice contamination and flow capacity limitations for today’s applications. The Quantum injector provides freedom from frictional wear and sticking to enhance durability. Quantum’s alternative fuel injectors have been designed and tested to achieve over 500 million cycles with CNG and over 150 million cycles with hydrogen. Quantum Fuel Systems Technologies Worldwide Inc. 25242 Arctic Ocean Drive, Lake Forest, CA 92630 An ISO / TS 16949 Certified Company Voice. 949 930 3497 Fax. 949 930 3401 Email. email@example.com Web. www.qtww.com Fuel Systems Division Alternative Fuel Injector Specifications Description Length Diameter (max) Flow capacity (Static) Dynamic Flow Rate Working Pressure Durability Hydrogen Durability CNG Pulse period (Frequency) Peak/Hold current levels Internal (Tip) Leakage External Leakage Specifications 80 mm 24.5mm (excl. connector) 3.2g/s @ 345kPa (50psi) tested with air 8.5 mg/pulse @ 3.5 ms pulse width (air) 345kPa (50psi) 150 million cycles 500 million cycles 10 ms (100Hz) 4/1 amps Max 0.50 SCCM Nitrogen @ 345 kPa Max 0.05 SCCM Nitrogen @ 345 kPa The Quantum injector is a low impedance device requiring a peak and hold drive circuit. The system voltage is supplied during the peak current time followed by a hold current for the remainder of the pulse. Quantum Fuel Systems Technologies Worldwide Inc. 25242 Arctic Ocean Drive, Lake Forest, CA 92630 An ISO / TS 16949 Certified Company Voice. 949 930 3497 Fax. 949 930 3401 Email. firstname.lastname@example.org Web. www.qtww.com
Nutrient Solution Formulation for Hydroponic (Perlite, Rockwool, NFT) Tomatoes in Florida1 George J. Hochmuth and Robert C. Hochmuth2 Plants require 16 elements for growth and these nutrients can be supplied from air, water, and fertilizers. The 16 elements are carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), boron (B), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo), and chlorine (Cl). The key to successful management of a fertilizer program is to ensure adequate concentrations of all nutrients throughout the life cycle of the crop. Inadequate or excessive amounts of any nutrient result in poor crop performance. Excessive amounts can be especially troublesome since they can damage the crop, waste money and fertilizer resources, and pollute the environment when fertilizer is released during flushing of the nutrient delivery system. problem comes early in the season when plants become too vegetative (bullish) from too much N. The bullish growth distorts the leaves and stems, causing cracks and grooves in the stems. These openings are excellent entry ports for decay-causing organisms such as soft rot. Bullish plants usually produce misshapen fruits often with significant amounts of blossom-end rot and cat-facing. Keeping the N level low (60 to 70 parts per million) early in the season helps eliminate bullishness. For Florida greenhouse vegetable producers, management focuses on all nutrients except for C, H, and O. The latter three elements are usually supplied in adequate amounts from air and water. Growers in northern climates, where greenhouses are not ventilated in the winter, see benefits from additions of C from carbon dioxide (CO2). Increased yields in Florida from additions of CO2 are unlikely due to the need for frequent ventilation. Nutrient management programs should begin with an understanding of the nutrient solution concentrations in parts per million (ppm) for the various nutrients required by tomato plants. By managing the concentrations of individual nutrients, growers can control the growth and yield of the crop. Table 1 presents the fertilizer recommendations for tomatoes for the various growth stages during the season in Florida. These recommendations are applicable to all types of production systems (perlite, rockwool, and NFT) in which healthy roots are maintained, and are a suitable base when determining a nutrient solution plan for cucumbers and peppers. However, cucumbers will need more N early in the season than tomato.
Safety Recall D0H (D1H) - Preliminary Notice Certain 2010 Model Year Prius Vehicles Brake Booster Pump Assembly (Accumulator) Customer Frequently Asked Questions Published Early June, 2013 We at Toyota care greatly about your safety while we prepare the remedy for this condition. We are providing the following information to keep you informed of the recall details. Please check back frequently as this document will be updated. Q1: A1: What is the condition? The subject vehicles are equipped with brake pressure accumulators consisting of a metal plunger containing brake fluid encased in a metal housing. The plunger is designed with metal pleated bellows to allow for motion. Nitrogen gas is sealed between the plunger and housing. There is a possibility that a fatigue crack could develop in the bellows due to the vertical vibration of the plunger while driving. If this occurs, nitrogen gas could leak into the brake fluid and gradually cause the brake pedal stroke to become longer, resulting in decreased hydraulic pressure. Under certain circumstances, this condition could affect stopping distance and increase the risk of a crash. Q1a: A1a: Q1b: A1b: Q2: A2: What is the Brake Pressure Accumulator? Brake fluid is discharged by the Brake Booster Pump and passes through a check valve where it is then stored in the accumulator. The brake fluid that is stored in the accumulator provides the hydraulic pressure that is needed for brake operation. What is the cause of the condition? The cause of this condition is insufficient strength of components inside the brake pressure accumulator. Are there any warnings that this condition exists? Yes. You may notice a squeak from the engine compartment during brake application. Additionally, the brake pedal may have a longer stroke and/or spongy feeling. If this condition is present, the warning lights listed in the table below may illuminate and the skid control buzzer may sound. Warning Lights Brake System Warning Light (red indicator) Brake System Warning Light (yellow indicator) ABS Warning Light Master Warning Light Please note that the warning lights shown above may also illuminate for conditions not related to this Safety Recall. Page 1 of 2 © 2013 Toyota Motor Sales, USA Q2a: A2a: Q3: A3: What if I experience the warnings described before the remedy is available? If you experience one or more of the warnings described above, please contact your local authorized Toyota dealer for diagnosis and repair. If the condition is related to this Safety Recall, the repair will be performed at No Charge to you. What is Toyota going to do? Toyota is currently preparing the remedy for this condition. Once preparations are complete, Toyota will send an owner notification letter by first class mail to owners of vehicles covered by this Safety Recall. When available, the remedy will entail an inspection and, if necessary, replacement of the Brake Booster Pump Assembly at No Charge. Q3a: A3a: When does Toyota anticipate the remedy will be available? Toyota is currently working on obtaining the remedy parts for this Safety Recall. Toyota anticipates it will take several weeks to prepare a sufficient quantity of remedy parts. Q3b: A3b: How does Toyota obtain my mailing information? Toyota uses industry provider who works with each states Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) to receive registration or title information, based upon the DMV records. Please make sure your registration or title information is correct. Q3c: When the remedy becomes available, do I need my owner letter to have the remedy performed? You do not need an owner letter to have this recall completed; however, to assist the dealer in confirming vehicle eligibility, we request that you present this notice at the time of your service appointment.
West Hills Honda: Additional Service & Maintenance Options AIR CONDITIONING Service Four WAY WHEEL Alignment Evacuate system, vacuum leak test, & recharge A/C system with up to 1.0 lbs. R134a refrigerant. Perform a performance test and visually inspect for leaks. Set front caster and toe. Inspect steering linkage & shocks. Check tire wear & pressure. Brake System Flush Transmission Service Removes moisture and other contaminants from your brake system. We flush entire system and install new brake fluid. By making it a regular part of your vehicle’s maintenance program, you help extend the life of your transmission. 169.95 79.95 $ 69.95 $ Coolant SYSTEM Service Replace engine coolant (one gallon), drain & pressure test cooling system. 89.95 $ $ 69.95 $ Automatic or Manual Transmissions. CVT add $10.00. Timing Belt Replacement Replacement of this vital engine part to maximize performance & reliability. Recommended every 105,000 miles or 84 months. See service advisor for pricing. NITROGEN FOR YOUR TIRES Fuel System Cleaning (MOTORVAC) • Honda factory trained and certified technicians know your Honda better than anyone else. • State of the art Service and Parts Departments with the latest diagnostic equipment and tools available. • Professional service advisors and technicians to assist you with all of your automotive needs. • Competitive pricing on all maintenance & services offered. • Secure “Early Bird” drop off available. • Computerized service history of your Honda. • Extensive genuine Honda parts inventory. • Rental cars and free shuttle service within local area. • All service installed parts are warranted for 12 months/12,000 miles. • Complimentary lattés and coffee served in our comfortable waiting area and Bean Counter Café. Reasons Why You Should Purchase Only Genuine Honda Parts At West Hills Honda: Genuine Honda Parts & Accessories deliver the fit, reliability & performance you want. They also are covered by your factory warranty, giving you peace of mind to go along with great looks. Your Honda vehicle deserves nothing less! Genuine Honda Parts and Accessories will enhance the experience of owning your Honda. A visit to our Parts and Accessories Department is well worth your time. Perhaps there is a particular accessory that will make your Honda vehicle more personalized. Or, you can purchase a personal item that will serve as a reminder of the satisfaction and enjoyment that driving your Honda brings.
PRODUCT FEATURES/ APPLICATIONS • Negative working, aqueous processable dry film photoresist. • Three layer package • Suitable for application with acid and alkaline etchant solutions. • Compatible with acid copper, tin, tin/lead, nickel sulfamate, and acid gold electrolytic plating baths. • • Strong Print-Out (Phototropic) Image after exposure. MX5000 series is compatible with the following typical surfaces: Silicon Silicon Nitride Sputtered copper Sputtered gold • MX5000 series exhibits good adhesion to: Glass Polymers Other metals and oxides Resist Thickness: 15, 20, 30, 40, 50μm Unexposed Color in Yellow Light: Light Green Exposed Color in Yellow light: Dark Blue MX5000 is capable of tenting (bridging) over features already etched on the surface. This property is highly dependant on feature size, polymer thickness, and lamination conditions. DS04-109 (0409) 1 PART 1: SURFACE PREPARATION PART 3: POST-LAMINATION HOLD TIME Surface must be free of any kind of organic contamination and metal oxides from previous processes. It is recommended, whenever possible, to clean the surface with light acid solution (2-3% sulfuric acid solution) followed by D.I. water rinse and dry with nitrogen gas. Cleaning immediately prior to lamination is recommended to remove surface particles and avoid recontamination. All photoresists experience some change in photospeed and line widths held over time following lamination. Results differ depending on resist type, duration of hold time, and the relative humidity (RH) under which the panels are stored prior to exposure. Low to moderate RH (e.g. 2050%) has less effect than very high RH (e.g.80-98%). Do not exceed hold time of 5 days. PART 2: LAMINATION PART 4: Post-lamination bake (optional) The optional process step can be used to assure full resist adhesion. Post lamination bake (PLB) is recommended to enhance film adhesion on extra smooth surfaces and/or for aggressive applications. Oven Bake: Temperature: Dwell Time: 55 - 75°C (122-158°F); 65°C preferred. 15 - 20 min; 20 min preferred. Hot Plate Bake: Temperature: 90 - 110°C (194-230°F); 100°C preferred. Dwell Time: 20 - 80 sec; 45 preferred. The main objective of the lamination step is to provide intimate contact between the polymer and the substrate, eliminating any air entrapment, ensuring the polymer flows into the substrate cavities encountered on the surface roughness, maximizing the polymer adhesion. HRL Hot Roll Laminator Conditions • Roll Temperature 85 - 110°C (185-230°F); • Roll Speed: 95°C preferred 0.6 - 1.5 m/min (2-5 ft/ min); 1.2 m/min Note: Temperature will vary according to film thickness, substrate type, and process requirements. PART 5: EXPOSURE Note: Do not remove polyester coversheet film. Coversheet has minimum light absorption and provides protection against mask contamination. Note: MPF MX5000 has peak absorption at 365nm, i-line exposure lamps are highly recommended Note: 20 mW/cm2 or higher intensity is recommended for high resolution preferred • Pressure: 15 - 40 psig Recommended Exposure MX5000 Automatic Dry Photoresist Laminator (Taper) MX5015 MX5020 mJ/cm2 20 – 65 35 –105 MX5030 40 – 115 MX5040 MX5050 45 – 125 50 - 140 See equipment manufacturer recommendations.