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A crankshaft contains two or more centrally-located coaxial cylindrical ("main") journals and one or more offset cylindrical crankpin ("rod") journals. The design of the Crankshaft considers the dynamic loading and the optimization an lead to a shaft diameter satisfying the requirements of Automobile’s specifications with cost and size effectiveness. Microsoft visual studio package was used in the development of this software, which is capable of designing the shaft with reference to its easy interface, being an open system and its ease of file formats acceptability. It was used during the entire cycle of this software development (analysis phase, design phase and implementation phase).
A Smart City is the integration of technology into a strategic approach to sustainability. 21st Century has brought with it a new global trend of “sustainable urban development” and this concept adds new dimensions to urbanization which require a quick need to upgrade existing cities. The concept of a smart city is a relatively new one. Throughout the years, with the significant contribution from various technologies like computer science, information technology, remote sensing, advance multimedia world etc, GIS evolved from traditional geographer’s or cartographer’s tool for surveying and planning to a rapidly expanding primary technology for understanding our planet and related geospatial opportunities to foster a sustainable world. This paper describes smart city projects in India and thoroughly explores the existing and extended capability of GIS to include modeling and visualization in order that decision makers will be able to
This paper assesses the net welfare associated with the adoption of Bench Terraces (BT), Contour Bunds (CB), and Napier Grass Strips (NGS) in the Saba Saba sub-catchment of the Upper Tana catchment in Kenya. An agro-economic survey and informal interviews were conducted in the Saba Saba sub-catchment to elicit farm level quantitative data for the Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA). Financial functions in excel were used to analyze the on-site costs and benefits of adopting the identified SWC technologies on farms with crops such as maize, coffee, and tea. In this research CBA was used as a decision tool after the computation of all cost and benefits were valued in local currency to obtain the Net Present Value (NPV) or net welfare. The results show that investment in SWC measures may not be a feasible short-term option from farmers’ perspective. There is, therefore, a strong case for intervention, especially in the initial years where SWC adoption yields negative returns.
Multi-attribute analysis is a useful tool in many economical, managerial, constructional, etc., problems. There is usually some uncertainty involved in all multi-attribute model inputs. The objective of this work is to demonstrate how simulation can be used to reflect fuzzy inputs, which allows more complete interpretation of model results. A case study is used to demonstrate the concept of general contractor choice of on the basis of multiple attributes of efficiency with fuzzy inputs applying COPRAS method. The work has concluded that the COPRAS method is appropriate to use.
In this online business world, SEO (search engine optimization) is known as the best fundamental tool of internet marketing. Increasing website traffic is the main motive of SEOs and in order to approach this goal SEO companies in India make every possible effort to render the highest website ranks in search engines.
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Open dumping is the most common method of solid waste disposal in many developing countries including Sri Lankan urban areas. Appropriate landfill site selection is important to minimize negative impacts associated with open dump sites. Landﬁll siting is an extremely difficult task to accomplish due to strong public opposition and regulations. Developing countries do not have a systematic process for landfill site selection and hence unsuccessful landﬁll siting leading to environmental degradation is typically the result especially in the developing world. Data were collected from Kandy district, Sri Lanka. Both GIS analysis and semi quantitative risk assessment were used and eight map layers such as surface water bodies, distance from transportation routes and urban areas, land use/land cover, soil, rainfall, population density, elevation were utilized. ArcGIS 9.3 software and its extensions were used as the GIS tool since it is able to perform suitability analysis usi