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A Virtual Sensor estimates product objective or process conditions using mathematical models rather than and sometimes in conjunction with physical sensors. These mathematical models use other physical sensor readings to calculate the estimated property or condition. Virtual sensor may provide flexibility, cost effective solutions, promote diversity, ensure security and increase manageability.
Wireless ad-hoc sensor networks and routing data in them is a significant research area. The objective of this paper is to examine resource depletion attacks at the routing protocol layer, which attempts to permanently disable network nodes by quickly draining their battery power. This type of attack is called as vampire attack. Vampire attacks are very difficult to detect because they attack the node only by sending protocol-compliant messages.
Wireless sensor networks consist of sensor nodes with radio, processor, memory, battery and sensor hardware. With widespread deployment of these devices one can precisely monitor the environment. Sensor nodes are resource constrained in terms of radio range, processor speed, memory and power. WSNs are mostly unguarded and the wireless medium is broadcast. This makes them more vulnerable to attacks. Without proper security measures, an enemy can launch various kinds of attacks in hostile environments. These attacks can disrupt the normal working of WSNs and can defeat the purpose of their deployment. Therefore security is an important aspect of these networks. WSNs are often deployed to monitor important emergency events, such as forest fire and battlefield monitoring. System Monitoring Modules (SMM) should be integrated with Intrusion Detection Modules (IDM).
Sign language: a natural, linguistically complete and a primary medium for the humans to interact. Nowadays, this language is prevalent amongst the deaf, dumb or blind individuals. However, with the conventional sign language not known to the signers, it adversely affects their interpersonal relationships in the society. There is a need of much more sophisticated method than communication through interpreters or writing. Our aim is to design a system in which sensor glove is used to capture the signs of the American Sign Language (ASL) and translate them to English displayed on a LCD.
Due to the wide range of application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) the past few years have witnessed the potential use of it and also become a hot research area now a days. One the main degradation of WSN is that sensor nodes are battery powered and deployed in harsh environment so it is not possible to recharge or replace the batteries all the time the node fails or dead. WSN are used in various applications like environment monitoring, health care, military, industrial control units and in various other environments. Routing protocols developed for various other adhoc networks such as MANET, VANET etc can’t apply directly in WSN due to energy constrains of nodes. It is proved that sensor nodes require much energy to transmit data rather than sensing thus routing protocol developed for WSN should be efficient so that the network lifetime can be prolonged. In this paper, a survey on various Clustering routing protocols has been done indicating their merits
This research paper focuses on the analysis of the network that links governmental institutions, non-governmental organizations and United Nations agencies involved in the process of adapting to climate change in Sudan; to find out how they are communicating and cooperating. This paper has adopted qualitative method approach and Desk-based review of various documents and similar research papers as methodology to attain the results. Interviews and focus group discussions have been carried out with key ministries and institutions at national and sub-national levels, executive personnel in local nongovernmental organizations and with some United Nations agencies working in Sudan. The diagram drawn from the data collected during interviews has yielded a visualization of the main actors of the process of adapting to climate change in Sudan. The study has concluded that; using the concepts of network analysis methodologies has helped in acquiring a clear image of
Well-organized big data get together in the densely distributed sensor networks is, therefore, a challenging research area. One of the most effective solutions to address this challenge is to utilize the sink node’s mobility to facilitate the data gathering. While this technique can reduce energy consumption of the sensor nodes, the use of mobile sink presents additional Challenges such as determining the sink node’s trajectory and cluster formation prior to data collection. In this paper, we propose a new mobile sink routing and data gathering method through network clustering based on modified ExpectationMaximization (EM) technique. In addition, we derive an optimal number of clusters to minimize the energy consumption. The effectiveness of our proposal is verified through numerical results.
A crankshaft contains two or more centrally-located coaxial cylindrical ("main") journals and one or more offset cylindrical crankpin ("rod") journals. The design of the Crankshaft considers the dynamic loading and the optimization an lead to a shaft diameter satisfying the requirements of Automobile’s specifications with cost and size effectiveness. Microsoft visual studio package was used in the development of this software, which is capable of designing the shaft with reference to its easy interface, being an open system and its ease of file formats acceptability. It was used during the entire cycle of this software development (analysis phase, design phase and implementation phase).