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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER NUMERICAL CONTROL (CNC)

CONTENTS CHAPTER I Introduction to Computer Numerical Control Manufacturing I —I Chapter Objectives 1 2 Introduction — I I 1 3 Numerical Control Definition, Its Concepts and Advantages — I 1-4 Definition of Computer Numerical Control and Its Components 1-5 Advantages of CNC Compared with NC 4 1 6 Special Requirements for Utilizing CNC 4 — 1-7 Financial Rewards of CNC Investment 5 1 8 CNC Machining Centers and Turning Centers — 1-9 Other Types of CNC Equipment I —10 CNC Input and Storage Media I-11 Chapter Summary 6 8 8 II Review Exercises CHAPTER 1 13 Modern Machine Tool Controls 2-1 Chapter Objectives 2-2 Introduction 13 13 2-3 Different Types of System Control 13 2—4 Loop Systems f o r Controlling Tool Movement 16 2—5 Establishing Locations via Cartesian Coordinates 2-6 CNC Machine Axes of Motion 2-7 Types ofTool Positioning Modes 24 2-8 Units Used for Positioning Coordinates 2—9 Chapter Summary 19 20 25 25 Review Exercises CHAPTER 3 Too/ing for Hole and Milling Operations 3-1 Chapter Objectives 3—2 Introduction 32 32 32 3-3 Tooling for Drilling Operations 32 XI xii Contents 3 4 Carbide Insert Technology — 37 3 5 Tooling for Hole Operations That Follow Drilling — 3-6 Tool Speeds and Feeds for Hole Operations 41 3—7 Tooling for Profile Milling and Facing Operations 3-8 Coated Tooling 38 44 48 3-9 Tool Speeds and Feeds for Milling Operations 3-10 Feed Directions for Milling Operations 3-11 Cutting Fluids for CNC Operations 3-12 Chapter Summary 49 51 52 54 Review Exercises CHAPTER 4 Exploring Features of CNC Machining Centers 4-1 Chapter Objectives 4-2 Introduction 56 56 56 4-3 Background on CNC Machining Centers 56 4—4 Tooling Systems Used with Automatic Tool Changers 4-5 Methods of Securing Tools in Tool Holders 60 62 4—6 Methods of Securing Tooling Systems to the CNC Spindle 4-7 Automatic Tool Changer Systems 4-8 Pallet Loading Systems 64 65 67 4-9 Features of the Machine Control Unit (MCU) Machining Centers 4—10 Chapter Summary 70 77 Review Exercises CHAPTERS Review of Basic Blueprint Reading for CNC Programmers 5-1 Chapter Objectives 5-2 Introduction 5-3 Sheet Sizes 80 80 80 5 4 Drawing Formats — 81 5 5 Interpreting Lines in Drawings — 87 5-6 Projection Conventions Used in Drawings 91 5-7 Visualizing 3D Objects from 2D Othographic Views 5-8 Auxiliary Views 93 5-9 Sectional Views 93 5-10 Reading Dimensions 93 5-11 Reading Threads and Thread Notes 115 5-12 Reading Surface Finish Symbols and Notes 5-13 Chapter Summary Review Exercises Bibliography 80 131 125 93 Contents xiii CHAPTER 6 Review of Basic Material for CNC Programmers 6-1 Chapter Objectives 6-2 Introduction Specifications 133 133 133 6-3 Reading Material Specifications 133 6-4 Understanding Heat Treatment Notes 6—5 Interpreting Surface Coating Notes 6-6 Chapter Summary 141 145 150 Review Exercises Bibliography CHAPTER 7 Review of Basic Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for CNC Programmers 7-1 Chapter Objectives 7—2 Introduction 151 151 7-3 GDTTerminology 152 7—4 Part Form Controls 7-5 Datums 151 154 158 7-6 Part Profile Controls 159 7-7 Part Location, Orientation, and Runout Controls 7—8 Chapter Summary 166 159 < Review Exercises Bibliography CHAPTER 8 Mathematics 8-1 Chapter Objectives 8-2 Introduction for CNC Programming 168 168 8-3 Determining Sides of Right Triangles 8-4 Useful Angle Concepts 8—6 Oblique Triangles 168 169 8-5 Determining Angles of Right Triangles 173 175 8-7 KwikTrig Trigonometry/Geometry Software 8-8 Installation 168 175 176 8-9 Starting KwikTrig 8-10 Chapter Summary 176 178 Review Exercises CHAPTER 9 An Overview of CNC Shop Activities 9-1 Chapter Objectives 9-2 Introduction 182 182 182 xiv Contents 9-3 Essential CNC Shop Activities 9-4 Part Drawing Study 182 182 9—5 Methodizing o f Operations f o r C N C Machining Centers 9-6 Deciding on a CNC Machine 185 9-7 Methods of Holding the Part During Machining 9—8 Machining Determination 9-9 Cutting Conditions 186 193 194 9-10 Writing a Programming Manuscript 194 9-11 Inputting Programs to the Machine Control Unit 9-12 Setup Procedure 194 195 9-13 Debugging and Verifying the Program 9-14 Part Production 185 200 201 9-15 Chapter Summary 201 Review Exercises C H A P T E R 10 Word Address Programming 10-1 Chapter Objectives 10-2 Introduction 203 203 203 10-3 Programming Language Format 203 10-4 Programming Language Terminology 204 10-5 Arrangement of Addresses in a Block 205 10-6 Program and Sequence Numbers (O, N Codes) 10-7 Preparatory Functions (G Codes) 207 10-8 Dimension Words ( X . Y . Z . . . Codes) 10-9 Feed Rate (F Code)

What software do I need to run a CNC mill? - LittleMachineShop.com

What software do I need to run a CNC mill? Creating a part on a CNC mill is a three phase process. The part is drawn in a CAD (Computer Aided Design) drawing program such as AutoCAD. Then a CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) program is used to convert the CAD drawing to G-Code. Finally, the G-code controls the CNC mill as it makes the part. We will take a look at what is involved in using these three kinds of software by sketching out the creation of a very simple part. Creating a CAD Drawing There are dozens of CAD programs with which you can create a drawing. Costs vary from free to many thousands of dollars. We are not going to get into reviews or recommendations here, but simply describe the CAD program that we know the best; TurboCAD. Let’s take a look at the steps required to create a drawing. A new drawing in TurboCAD is based on a template. In this case the template defines an A-size (8.5 x 11”) sheet using inches for dimensions and including the title block. This view is the Paper view. This is the page that prints. To work on the drawing we switch to Model view. The title block is gone and a grid appears. This is where we create our drawing. 1 To start the drawing of our sample part, use the Rectangle tool on the left side of the drawing area to create a rectangle that is 2.5” tall and 1.5” wide. You can use your mouse to define the corners of the rectangle, but you will quickly find that you need to use the parameter block at the bottom of the screen to enter the values you want if you want your drawing to be accurate. Your finished part will not be any more accurate than your drawing. Create a double line ¾” long and ¼” wide. Center it ½” above the bottom of the part.

Form 4868 - Internal Revenue Service
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It’s Convenient, Safe, and Secure IRS e-file is the IRS’s electronic filing program. You can get an automatic extension of time to file your tax return by filing Form 4868 electronically. You will receive an electronic acknowledgment once you complete the transaction. Keep it with your records. Do not mail in Form 4868 if you file electronically, unless you are making a payment with a check or money order (see page 3). Complete Form 4868 to use as a worksheet. If you think you may owe tax when you file your return, you will need to estimate your total tax liability and subtract how much you have already paid (lines 4, 5, and 6 below). Several companies offer free e-filing of Form 4868 through the Free File program. For more details, go to IRS.gov and click on freefile. Pay Electronically You do not need to submit a paper Form 4868 if you file it with a payment using our electronic payment options. Your extension will be automatically processed when you pay part or all of your estimated income tax electronically. You can pay online or by phone (see page 3). E-file Using Your Personal Computer or Through a Tax Professional Refer to your tax software package or tax preparer for ways to file electronically. Be sure to have a copy of your 2012 tax return—you will be asked to provide information from the return for taxpayer verification. If you wish to make a payment, you can pay by electronic funds withdrawal or send your check or money order to the address shown in the middle column under Where To File a Paper Form 4868 (see page 4).

Forest Landowners' Guide to the Federal Income Tax

February 2013 John L. Greene, Research Forester, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Research Triangle Park, NC William C. Siegel, Attorney and USDA Forest Service Volunteer, River Ridge, LA William L. Hoover, Professor of Forestry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN Mark Koontz, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN The Office of the Chief Counsel of the Internal Revenue Service reviewed this publication and made valuable suggestions for improvement. Supersedes “Forest Landowners’ Guide to the Federal Income Tax,” Agriculture Handbook No. 718, issued March 2001. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, disability, and where applicable, sex, marital status, familial status, parental status, religion, sexual orientation, genetic information, political beliefs, reprisal, or because all or a part of an individual’s income is derived from any public assistance program. (Not all prohibited bases apply to all programs.) Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for communication of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact USDA’s TARGET Center at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TDD). To file a complaint of discrimination write to USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights, 1400 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20250-9410 or call (800) 795-3272 (voice) or (202) 720-6382 (TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.

Uptown School   New Campus Information

Uptown School is an authorised International Baccalureate (IB) Primary Years School and PYP IB World School. Uptown School is in the candidacy process for its IB Middle Years Programme, with the IB Diploma Program to follow. Uptown delivers the IB curriculum to grades Pre-K (3 by September 15) to Grade 9. In academic year September 2014 Grade 10 will be added with Grades 11 and 12 in 2015 and 2016.

Why All Girls   American Academy in Al Mizhar

American Academy in Al Mizhar is committed to meeting the needs of families with an international outlook who have chosen an American education. By offering a co-educational early childhood program for dual language learners leading to a single gender college preparatory school for girls, our mission is to promote intellectual curiosity, independent and critical thinking, communication and problem solving skills, a lifelong passion for learning, and an exposure to and a respect for cultural diversity. By expecting academic excellence, we inspire personal growth and develop intrinsically motivated global citizens who are committed to being leaders in community service and environmental responsibility.

Al Mizhar American Academy   School Mission

American Academy in Al Mizhar is committed to meeting the needs of families with an international outlook who have chosen an American education. By offering a co-educational early childhood program for dual language learners leading to a single gender college preparatory school for girls, our mission is to promote intellectual curiosity, independent and critical thinking, communication and problem solving skills, a lifelong passion for learning, and an exposure to and a respect for cultural diversity. By expecting academic excellence, we inspire personal growth and develop intrinsically motivated global citizens who are committed to being leaders in community service and environmental responsibility.

Engine oils for passenger cars 2 / 2013 - fuchs europe schmierstoffe ...

The information contained in this product information is based on the experience and know-how of FUCHS EUROPE SCHMIERSTOFFE GMBH in the development and manufacturing of lubricants and represents the current state-of-the-art. The performance of our products can be influenced by a series of factors, especially the specific use, the method of application, the operational environment, component pre-treatment, possible external contamination, etc. For this reason, universally-valid statements about the function of our products are not possible. The information given in this product information represents general, non-binding guidelines. No warranty expressed or implied is given concerning the properties of the product or its suitability for any given application. We therefore recommend that you consult a FUCHS EUROPE SCHMIERSTOFFE GMBH application engineer to discuss application conditions and the performance criteria of the products before the product is used. It is the responsibility of the user to test the functional suitability of the product and to use it with the corresponding care. Our products undergo continuous improvement. We therefore retain the right to change our product program, the products, and their manufacturing processes as well as all details of our product information sheets at any time and without warning. With the publication of this product information, all previous editions cease to be valid. Any form of reproduction requires express prior written permission from FUCHS ...

KHDA Rating û Uptown Primary School

Uptown School is an authorised International Baccalureate (IB) Primary Years School and PYP IB World School. Uptown School is in the candidacy process for its IB Middle Years Programme, with the IB Diploma Program to follow. Uptown delivers the IB curriculum to grades Pre-K (3 by September 15) to Grade 9. In academic year September 2014 Grade 10 will be added with Grades 11 and 12 in 2015 and 2016.

Creating a WordPress Network - WP eBooks

Hello there intrepid reader. This here guide is to explain in plain English the multisite feature in WordPress 3.0 and above. This feature is used when you want to run multiple sites from one install of WordPress without having to actually create many separate installs on the same server. It's also very similar to what runs WordPress.com, so if you have big dreams of becoming a free blog host, almost all the code you need to do so have been provided FREE. How cool is that? So this is what it was originally intended for – multiple separate blogs with a shared codebase and global users. Where did this code come from? Well, before it landed in 3.0, this feature was a completely separate program called WordPress MU (http://mu.wordpress.org) and was developed by Donncha O Caoimh. Eventually, the decision was made to roll it in with core WordPress for easier maintenance, since it shared over 95% of the same codebase. Running a network, especially if you are letting other users sign up, involves sometimes substantially more knowledge about servers that just being a customer on a shared host. If you have difficulty installing WordPress via something like Fantastico and have never done it manually, then running a network is probably not for you. Oh yeah, the community refers to it as both multisite and running a network. The admin area references the Network terminology. It is a step up from beginner level, and well into intermediate. If you're ready to learn & improve your skill set, read on.

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