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SMART SOLUTION Tes Potensi Akademik SBMPTN 2013

Rangkuman Materi SBMPTN 2013 SELEKSI BERSAMA MASUK PERGURUAN TINGGI NEGERI Disertai Teori Ringkas dan Pembahasan Soal Tes Potensi Akademik (TPA) Disusun Oleh : Pak Anang Kumpulan SMART SOLUTION dan TRIK SUPERKILAT Ringkasan Materi SBMPTN Tes Potensi Akademik (TPA) Penalaran Verbal (Sinonim, Antonim, dan Analogi) By Pak Anang (http://pak-anang.blogspot.com) A. PENALARAN VERBAL 1. SINONIM (Padanan Kata) Soal-soal sinonim, kemampuan yang dituntut adalah adik-adik mampu mencari arti dari sebuah kata pada pilihan jawaban yang tersedia. Tips agar adik-adik mudah menyelesaikan soal tentang sinonim adalah sering membaca. Nah, saat menemukan kata-kata asing, jangan ditinggalkan begitu saja, catat dan coba mencari padanan katanya di Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia. TRIK SUPERKILAT: Seringkali ada pilihan jawaban yang hampir mirip dengan soal. Biasanya jawaban ini adalah diberikan sebagai jawaban jebakan. Contoh soal sinonim: PARTIKELIR = .... A. Tukang parkir B. Partisan C. Partisi D. Swasta E. Enterprener Pembahasan: Jawaban B dan C mirip dengan kata yang digunakan pada soal. Biasanya ini mudah kita eliminasi sebagai jebakan jawaban..... Sehingga mempemudah kita dalam menjawab soal sinonim ini. Jawaban yang tepat adalah ”swasta”. 2. ANTONIM (Lawan Kata) Soal tentang antonim ini kebalikan dari sinonim. Dalam soal antonim adik-adik dituntut untuk mencari lawan kata dari soal yang diberikan. Contoh soal antonim: TERKATUNG A.Melayang B.Pasti C.Ombak D.Terperosok E.Terbenam

Litvinjenkov otac misli da ga je Berezovski likvidirao

Sami Litvinjenko, iako jevrejin, je presao u Islam i bio vrlo aktivan u pomaganju Cecenskih terorista- pored njegovih ostalih veza sa raznim obavjestajnim sluzbama. ******* ЛИТВИЊЕНКО БЕРЕЗОВСКИ

Panduan penulisan Penerbitan Buku Teks - PDPT

Panduan Penulisan Buku Panduan ini merupakan petunjuk penulisan buku pelajaran (ilmiah populer) yang digunakan untuk menentukan kelayakan naskah bagi penerbit. Panduan ini membahas pengertian buku pelajaran & diktat, tujuan penulisan buku pelajaran, isi buku pelajaran, sampul buku, bagian pembuka, bagian utama dan bagian penutup serta ketentuan jumlah halaman. Buku Pelajaran (Text book) & Diktat Buku pelajaran adalah bahan/materi pelajaran yang dituangkan secara tertulis dalam bentuk buku dan digunakan sebagai bahan pelajaran (sumber informasi) sebuah mata kuliah bagi mahasiswa dan pengajar susuai dengan kebutuhan lapangan/industry dan tuntutan perkembangan teknologi dan atau kurikulum. Diktat adalah catatan tertulis suatu bidang studi yang disiapkan oleh guru/dosen untuk mempermudah pengayaan materi pelajaran atau bidang studi yang dibahas dalam proses pembelajaran (Ilvandri, 2011). Diktat yang baik merupakan draft buku ajar yang belum diterbitkan. Tujuan penulisan buku pelajaran a. Menyediakan buku susuai dengan kebutuhan mahasiswa, institusi dan lapangan/ industry serta serta tuntutan perkembangan teknologi atau kurikulum. b. Mendorong penulis/dosen untuk berkreasi dan kreatif membagikan ilmunya kepada masyarakat. c. Mendorong penulis untuk meng-update ilmunya sesuai dengan kriteria tuntutan buku layak terbit mencakup subdstansi, bahasa dan potensi pasar. d. Mendukung penulis untuk menerbitkan buku bila belum terbit. Isi Buku Pelajaran Isi buku pelajaran berupa teori, konsep, formula atau aturan terkini dilengkapi dengan contoh-contoh masalah atau studi kasus serta solusinya. Isi buku harus orsinil dengan merujuk dari berbagai sumber. Informasi tepat, dapat dipercaya dan dipertanggungjawabkan kepada pembaca dan semua pihak terkait. Isi tersusun dengan baik atau dengan alur informasi yang mudah dipahami. Buku pelajaran dan diktat yang baik memenuhi tiga aspek pendidikan yaitu ilmu pengetahuan (knowledge), keterampilan (skills) dan sikap atau perilaku (attitude). Aspek tersebut seperti yang dinyatakan oleh UNESCO (1994) yaitu...

Factsheet about 9/11 - 9/11 Education Programme

Factsheet about 9/11 What happened on 11 September 2001? In the early morning of 11 September 2001, 19 hijackers took control of four airliners taking off from different airports in the US – Boston, Washington DC and Newark in New Jersey. View of the World Trade Center, New York, under attack on 11 September 2001 At 8.46am, American Airlines Flight 11 crashed into the North Tower of the World Trade Center in New York. Seventeen minutes later, United Airlines Flight 175 crashed into the South Tower. The third airliner, American Airlines Flight 77, crashed into the Pentagon in Washington DC at 9.37am, and the final plane, United Airlines Flight 93, crashed en route to Washington after passengers on board had fought with the hijackers. It is thought that the hijackers were aiming to hit either the Capitol building in Washington or the White House. All US airports were quickly shut down and all aircraft on their way to the country were turned away. The search for survivors at the sites of the attacks began immediately, although with little hope of success. At 9.59am, the fire that had been started by the crash caused the South Tower of the World Trade Center to collapse; this was followed by the collapse of the North Tower at 10.28am. Nearly 3,000 people were killed – most of them instantly. These horrific events were witnessed on TV by millions of people around the world, who by now had realised that the USA was coming under massive terrorist attack. Find out more by visiting: www.911educationprogramme.co.uk The Pentagon, Washington DC, minutes after it had been attacked on 11 September 2001 Page 2 At 8.30pm, US President of the George W. Bush addressed the nation on television and said: “Today, our fellow citizens, our way of life, our very freedom came under attack in a series of deliberate and deadly terrorist acts. These acts of mass murder were intended to frighten our nation into chaos and retreat. But they have failed. Our country is strong.” After the broadcast, he met his advisers to review the day. They already had evidence that the attacks had been organised by Osama bin Laden – the leader of the extreme terrorist group Al-Qaeda, which was based in Afghanistan. From his base in Afghanistan, bin Laden supported an increasing number of suicide missions against the USA during the 1990s. The attacks were planned with increasing care and attention to detail – and with a desire to capture the attention of the world. Osama bin Laden in 1997 Why did the attacks on the USA happen? In 2004, Osama bin Laden finally admitted that Al-Qaeda, an extremist terrorist organisation, had been responsible for organising the 9/11 attacks. This confirmed what the US Government had believed all along. For many years, Osama bin Laden had called on Muslims to attack US soldiers and citizens wherever they could. He saw the US as an arch enemy of Islam. His aim was to get the US military out of their bases in Saudi Arabia, where they had remained after the Gulf War in 1991. Saudi Arabia is home to Islam’s most holy sites in the cities of Mecca and Medina, and bin Laden felt that America’s presence there was an affront to all Muslims. He also strongly objected to America’s support for Israel, which he believed wrongly occupied lands that belonged to fellow Muslims....

Soal dan Pembahasan Matematika IPA SNMPTN 2011

Soal-Soal dan Pembahasan SNMPTN Matematika IPA Tahun Pelajaran 2010/2011 Tanggal Ujian: 01 Juni 2011 1. Diketahui vektor u = (a, -2, -1) dan v = (a, a, -1). Jika vektor u tegak lurus pada v , maka nilai a adalah ... A. -1 B. 0 C. 1 D. 2 E. 3 Jawab: Vektor: vektor u tegak lurus pada v maka u . v = 0 u = −2 , v = −1 −2 . −1 −1 (a – 1) (a-1) = 0 maka a = 1 −1 = a2 – 2a + 1 = 0 (a - 1)2 = 0 Jawabannya adalah C 2. Pernyataan berikut yang benar adalah ... A. Jika sin x = sin y maka x = y B. Untuk setiap vektor u , v dan w berlaku u . ( v . w ) = ( u . v ). w C. Jika b  f ( x) dx = 0, maka a D. Ada fungsi f sehingga E. 1 – cos 2x = 2 cos2 x f ( x )= 0 Lim f(x) ≠ f(c) untuk suatu c xc www.belajar-matematika.com - 1 Jawab: Trigonometri, vektor, integral, limit A. Ambil nilai dimana sin x = sin y  sin α = sin (1800 – α ) ambil nilai α = 600  sin 600 = sin 1200 ; tetapi 600 ≠ 1200 Pernyataan SALAH B. Operasi u . ( v . w ) tak terdefinisi karena v . w = skalar, sedangkan u = vektor vektor . skalar = tak terdefinisi Pernyataan SALAH C. Ambil contoh cari cepat hasil dimana b  f ( x) dx = 0 ; a 1 Didapat b = 1 dan a = -1 maka f(x)= x   x dx = 0  1 terbukti : f(x) = x bukan f(x) = 0 x2 | Pernyataan SALAH D. Ambil contoh f(x) = Lim xc f(x) = Lim x 1 ( ( = ( ( ) ( )( ) = ) ( ) Lim f(x) ≠ f(c)  2 ≠ 1 xc ) ( )( ) = ) ( ) =2 Pernyataan BENAR E. 1 – cos 2x = 1 – ( 2cos2 x – 1) = 1 + 1 - 2cos2 x = 2 - 2cos2 x = 2 ( 1 – cos2 x) Pernyataan SALAH Jawabannya adalah D www.belajar-matematika.com - 2 = (1 – 1) = 0 3. Luas daerah di bawah y = -x2 +8x dan di atas y = 6x - 24 dan terletak di kuadran I adalah.... a. ∫ (− b. ∫ (− c. ∫ (− +8 ) +8 ) +8 ) d. ∫ (6 − 24) e. ∫ (6 − 24) Jawab: Integral: +∫ ( + ∫ (− + ∫ (− + ∫ (− + ∫ (− − 2 − 24) + 2 + 24) + 2 + 24) +8 ) +8 ) kuadran I titik potong kedua persamaan : y1 = y2 -x2 +8x = 6x-24 -x2 +8x - 6x+24 = 0 -x2 +2x + 24 = 0 x2 -2x - 24 = 0 (x - 6) (x+4)0 x = 6 atau x = -4  karena di kuadran I maka yang berlaku adalah x = 6  y = 6.6 – 24= 12 berada di titik (6,12) www.belajar-matematika.com - 3 L = ∫ (− = ∫ (− +8 ) +8 ) + ∫ ((− + ∫ (− Jawabannya adalah B + 8 ) − (6 − 24)) + 2 + 24) 4. sin 350 cos 400 - cos 35 sin 400 = A. cos 50 B. sin 50 C. cos 950 D. cos 750 E. sin 750 Jawab: Trigonometri: Pakai rumus: sin (A - B) = sin A cos B - cos A Sin B A= 350 ; B = 400 = sin (350 - 400) = sin -50 Cos (90 0 -  ) = sin   rumus Cos (90 0 - (-50) ) = sin -50   = -50 Cos 950 = sin -50 Jawabannya adalah C 5. Diketahui g(x) = ax2 – bx + a – b habis dibagi x – 1. Jika f(x) adalah suku banyak yang bersisa a ketika dibagi x – 1 dan bersisa 3ax + b2 + 1 ketika dibagi g(x), maka nilai a adalah...... A. -1 B. -2 C. 1 D. 2 Jawab: Suku Banyak: g(x) = ax2 – bx + a – b habis dibagi x – 1  g(1) = 0 g(1) = a . 1 – b .1 + a – b = 0 =a–b+a–b=0 2a – 2b = 0 2a = 2b  a = b karena a = b maka: g(x) = ax2 – ax + a – a = ax2 – ax www.belajar-matematika.com - 4 E. 3 f(x) dibagi dengan f(x-1) sisa a  f(1) = a f(x) dibagi dengan g(x) sisa 3ax + b2 + 1 f(x) dibagi dengan ax2 – ax sisa 3ax + b2 + 1 f(x) dibagi dengan ax(x – 1) sisa 3ax + b2 + 1 teorema suku banyak: Jika suatu banyak f(x) dibagi oleh (x- k) akan diperoleh hasil bagi H(x) dan sisa pembagian S  f(x) = (x- k) H(x) + S f(x) dibagi dengan ax(x – 1) sisa 3ax + b2 + 1 f(x) = ax (x - 1) H(x) + (3ax + b2 + 1) substitusikan nilai nol dari pembagi yaitu x = 0 dan x = 1  dari ax (x - 1) ambil x = 1  untuk x = 1 f(1) = a . 1 (1 – 1) H(0) + 3a.1 + b2 + 1 a = 0 + 3a + b2 + 1  diketahu a = b, masukkan nilai a = b a = 3a + a2 + 1 a2 + 2a + 1 = 0 (a+1)(a+1) = (a+1)2 = 0 a = -1 Jawabannya adalah A 6. Rotasi sebesar 450 terhadap titik asal diikuti dengan pencerminan terhadap y = -x memetakan titik (3,4) ke .... A. √ B. − Jawab: ,√ √ ,√ C. D. √ √ ,−√ ,−√ E. − Transformasi Geometri:  cos  Rotasi sebesar 450 terhadap titik asal =   sin    sin    cos     0  1 pencerminan terhadap y = -x    1 0     www.belajar-matematika.com - 5 √ ,√

Aygül Özkan und die Vielgötterei - Institut für Medienverantwortung

Aygül Özkan und die Vielgötterei Immer wieder fällt auf, dass in Bezug auf Islam und Muslime in öffentlichen Debatten laizistisch argumentiert wird. Da ist von „Trennung von Religion und Staat“ die Rede bis hin zur Forderung nach der „Verbannung religiöser Symbole aus öffentlichen Einrichtungen“. Ansonsten beruft man sich eher auf die säkulare Ordnung, in der (christlich) religiöse Symbole als schützenswerte Elemente inkludiert sind. Nun hatte die designierte Sozialministerin Niedersachsens, Aygül Özkan, genau diese Unterscheidung aufzuheben versucht, indem sie gleichwertig die Verbannung von christlichen und islamischen Erkennungsmerkmalen wie (das staatliche verordnete Kreuz und (das private) Kopftuch aus Klassenzimmern forderte. Dies führte zu einer ersten Entschuldigung gegenüber ihrer Partei, der CSU, aus deren Reihen große Empörung zu vernehmen war: wegen der Bedrohung der Kreuze. Als mehrfach markierte Politikerin hätte Frau Özkan die besonders kritische Beobachtung, unter der sie steht, einkalkulieren müssen. Als Frau, Muslimin und mit türkischem Migrationshintergrund ist eine Skepsis auf der Basis lange gepflegter Vorurteile ihr gegenüber erwartbar. Deshalb war spätestens zu dem Zeitpunkt des Rückziehers und der Entschuldigung klar, dass sie fürderhin unter noch akribischerer Beobachtung stehen würde – und sie die Eidesformel auf keinen Fall schadlos überstehen könnte. Hätte sie auf einen Gottesbezug verzichtet, hätte man ihr Verrat an den deutschen (parlamentarischen?) Werten vorwerfen können. Hätte Sie das fremdsprachige Wort „Allah“ verwendet, hätte man ihr vermutlich das gleiche vorgeworfen. Die integrative Übersetzung des arabischen Terminus für Gott aber empfanden wiederum einige als Vereinnahmungsversuch. Vor allem aus kirchlichen Kreisen wurde ihr „so wahr mir Gott helfe“ als Anmaßung abgewehrt und die Begründung war teilweise delikat. Sie kommt auch in einem online-Kommentar zum Kommentar von Jost Müller-Neuhof im Tagesspiegel vom 2. Mai 2010 zum Ausdruck: „Auch wenn sich Frau Özkan „ausdrücklich auf den einen und einzigen Gott“ beruft, der bei ihnen Allah heißt, ist dieser - siehe auch diverse Kirchenkommentare - sicher nicht mit dem Gott und Jesus unseres Glaubens gleichzusetzen (sic!). Nennt man das Häresie?“ Die an die Meinungsäußerung angeschlossene Frage richtet sich freilich an Frau Özkan. Dabei müsste man den Schreiber und einige sich presserklärende Kirchenvertreter fragen, ob sie nicht mit dieser Art der Abgrenzungsargumentation „Häresie“ betreiben. Denn, wenn man darauf besteht, dass Gott und Allah nicht identisch sind, dann würde das ja bedeuten, dass es mehrere Götter gibt. Ausgerechnet die Vertreter christlicher Provenienz beschwören mit ihren Stellungnahmen also einen Polytheismus herauf, der jeglichem Selbstverständnis eigentlich widersprechen müsste. Ist der Ablehnungsimpuls gegenüber einer Ministerin, die Muslimin ist, so stark, dass man diesen Widerspruch selbst nicht bemerkt?...

Al Qaeda and Affiliates: Historical Perspective, Global Presence ...

Al Qaeda (AQ) has evolved into a significantly different terrorist organization than the one that perpetrated the September 11, 2001, attacks. At the time, Al Qaeda was composed mostly of a core cadre of veterans of the Afghan insurgency against the Soviet Union, with a centralized leadership structure made up mostly of Egyptians. Most of the organization’s plots either emanated from the top or were approved by the leadership. Some analysts describe pre-9/11 Al Qaeda as akin to a corporation, with Osama Bin Laden acting as an agile Chief Executive Officer issuing orders and soliciting ideas from subordinates. Some would argue that the Al Qaeda of that period no longer exists. Out of necessity, due to pressures from the security community, in the ensuing years it has transformed into a diffuse global network and philosophical movement composed of dispersed nodes with varying degrees of independence. The core leadership, headed by Bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri, is thought to live in the mountainous tribal belt of northwest Pakistan bordering Afghanistan, where it continues to train operatives, recruit, and disseminate propaganda. But Al Qaeda franchises or affiliated groups active in countries such as Yemen and Somalia now represent critical power centers in the larger movement. Some affiliates receive money, training, and weapons; others look to the core leadership in Pakistan for strategic guidance, theological justification, and a larger narrative of global struggle. Over the past year senior government officials have assessed the trajectory of Al Qaeda to be “less centralized command and control, (with) no clear center of gravity, and likely rising and falling centers of gravity, depending on where the U.S. and the international focus is for that period.” While a degraded corporate Al Qaeda may be welcome news to many, a trend has emerged over the past few years that some view as more difficult to detect, if not potentially more lethal. The Al Qaeda network today also comprises semi-autonomous or self radicalized actors, who often have only peripheral or ephemeral ties to either the core cadre in Pakistan or affiliated groups elsewhere. According to U.S. officials Al Qaeda cells and associates are located in over 70 countries. Sometimes these individuals never leave their home country but are radicalized with the assistance of others who have traveled abroad for training and indoctrination through the use of modern technologies. In many ways, the dispersion of Al Qaeda affiliates fits into the larger strategy of Bin Laden and his associates. They have sought to serve as the vanguard of a religious movement that inspires Muslims and other individuals aspiring to join a jihadi movement to help defend and purify Islam through violent means. The name “Qaeda” means “base” or “foundation,” upon which its members hope to build a robust, geographically diverse network. Understanding the origins of Al Qaeda, its goals, current activities, and prospective future pursuits is key to developing sound U.S. strategies, policies, and programs. Appreciating the adaptive nature of Al Qaeda as a movement and the ongoing threat it projects onto U.S. global security interests assists in many facets of the national security enterprise, including securing the homeland; congressional legislative process and oversight; alignment of executive branch resources and coordination efforts; and prioritization of foreign assistance. The focus of this report is on the history of Al Qaeda, known (or attributed) actions and suspected capabilities of the organization and non-aligned entities, and an analysis of select regional Al Qaeda affiliates. This report may be updated as events warrant. Congressional Research Service Al Qaeda and Affiliates

The Origins of al Qaeda's Ideology - Strategic Studies Institute

“The fight against the enemy nearest to you has precedence over the fight against the enemy farther away. . . . In all Muslim countries the enemy has the reins of power. The enemy is the present rulers.” — Muhammad Abd al-Salam Faraj, tried and hanged in connection with the 1 1981 assassination of Anwar al-Sadat “Victory for the Islamic movements . . . cannot be attained unless these movements possess an Islamic base in the heart of the Arab region.” — Ayman al-Zawahiri, 2 Bin Laden deputy, 2001 “We do not want stability in Iran, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, and even Saudi Arabia. . . . The real issue is not whether, but how to destabilize. We have to ensure the fulfillment of the democratic revolution.” — Michael Ledeen, 3 American Enterprise Institute, 2002 T he leader of Sadat’s assassins, Bin Laden’s chief ideologue, and a leading American neoconservative supporter of Israel all call for a revolutionary transformation of the Middle East. However, the United States, the existing Arab regimes, and the traditional Sunni clerical establishments all share an interest in avoiding instability and revolution. This shared interest makes the establishments in the Sunni world America’s natural partners in the struggle against al Qaeda and similar movements. If American strategists fail to understand and exploit the divide between the establishments and the revolutionaries within Sunni Islam, the United States will play into the radicals’ hands, and turn fence-sitting Sunnis into enemies. Spring 2005 69 Outsiders of the Sunni World Sunni Islam is a very big tent, and there always have been insiders and outsiders within Sunnism playing out their rivalries with clashing philosophies.4 Throughout the past century, the most important of these clashes have occurred between Sunni reformers and the traditional Sunni clerical establishment. The ideology espoused today by al Qaeda and similar groups can be traced directly from the 19th-century founders of modernist reform in Sunnism. Al Qaeda’s leading thinkers are steeped in these reformers’ long struggle against the establishment. The teaching of the reformers has been heterodox and revolutionary from the beginning; that is, the reformers and their intellectual descendants in al Qaeda are the outsiders of today’s Sunni world. For the most part this struggle has been waged in Egypt, Sunni Islam’s center of gravity. On one side of the debate, there is Cairo’s Al-Azhar, a seminary and university that has been the center of Sunni orthodoxy for a thousand years. On the other side, al Qaeda’s ideology has its origins in late-19thcentury efforts in Egypt to reform and modernize faith and society. As the 20th century progressed, the Sunni establishment centered on Al-Azhar came to view the modernist reform movement as more and more heterodox. It became known as Salafism, for the supposedly uncorrupted early Muslim predecessors (salaf, plural aslaf ) of today’s Islam. The more revolutionary tendencies in this Salafist reform movement constitute the core of today’s challenge to the Sunni establishment, and are the chief font of al Qaeda’s ideology. A Century of Reformation In contemporary Western discussions of the Muslim world, it is common to hear calls for a “reformation in Islam” as an antidote to al Qaeda.5 These calls often betray a misunderstanding of both Sunni Islam and of the early modern debate between Catholics and Protestants. In fact, a Sunni “reformation” has been under way for more than a century, and it works against Western security interests. The Catholic-Protestant struggle in Europe weakened traditional religious authorities’ control over the definition of doctrine, emphasized scripture over tradition, idealized an allegedly uncorrupted primitive religious community, and simplified theology and rites. The Salafist movement in the Sunni Muslim world has been pursuing these same ...

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Potensi bencana alam yang tinggi pada dasarnya tidak lebih dari sekedar refleksi fenomena alam yang secara geografis sangat khas untuk wilayah tanah air kita. Indonesia merupakan Negara kepulauan tempat dimana tiga lempeng besar dunia bertemu, yaitu: lempeng Indo-Australia, Eurasia dan Pasifik. Interaksi antar lempeng-lempeng tersebut lebih lanjut menempatkan Indonesia sebagai wilayah yang memiliki aktivitas kegunungapian dan kegempaan yang cukup tinggi. Lebih dari itu, proses dinamika lempeng yang cukup intensif juga telah membentuk relief permukaan bumi yang khas dan cukup bervariasi, dari wilayah pegunungan dengan lereng-lerengnya yang curam dan seakan menyiratkan potensi longsor yang tinggi hingga wilayah yang landai sepanjang pantai dengan potensi ancaman banjir, penurunan tanah dan tsunaminya (Sadisun, 2005-2006). Berbagai potensi bencana alam yang mungkin timbul sudah sebaiknya harus kita kenal agar karakter bahaya alam tersebut dapat kita minimalkan dampaknya. Selain itu, potensi bencana alam ini telah diperparah oleh beberapa permasalahan lain yang muncul di tanah air kita yang memicu peningkatan kerentanannya. Laju pertumbuhan penduduk yang sangat tinggi merupakan salah satu contoh nyata, sehingga akan banyak membutuhkan kawasan-kawasan hunian baru yang pada akhirnya kawasan hunian tersebut akan terus berkembang dan menyebar hingga mencapai wilayah-wilayah marginal yang tidak selayaknya dihuni. Tidak tertib dan tepatnya perencanaan tata guna lahan, sebagai inti dari permasalahan ini merupakan faktor utama yang menyebabkan adanya peningkatan kerentanan. Peningkatan kerentanan ini akan lebih diperparah bila masyarakat sama sekali tidak menyadari dan tanggap terhadap adanya potensi bencana alam di daerahnya. Pengalaman memperlihatkan bahwa kejadian-kejadian bencana alam selama ini telah banyak menimbulkan kerugian dan penderitaan yang cukup berat sebagai akibat dari perpaduan bahaya alam dan kompleksitas permasalahan lainnya. Untuk itu diperlukan upaya-upaya yang komprehensif untuk mengurangi resiko bencana alam, antara lain yaitu dengan melakukan kegiatan migitasi. Bencana (disaster) merupakan fenomena sosial akibat kolektif atas komponen bahaya (hazard) yang berupa fenomena alam/buatan di satu pihak, dengan kerentanan (vulnerability) komunitas di pihak lain. Bencana terjadi apabila komunitas mempunyai tingkat kapasitas/kemampuan yang lebih rendah dibanding dengan tingkat bahaya yang mungkin terjadi padanya. Misalnya, letusan G. Merapi dan bahaya lainnya gempa bumi, banjir, gerakan tanah, dan lainnya tidak akan sertamerta menjadi bencana apabila komunitas memiliki kapasitas mengelola bahaya. Bencana cenderung terjadi pada komunitas yang rentan, dan akan membuat komunitas semakin rentan. Kerentanan komunitas diawali oleh kondisi lingkungan fisik, sosial, dan ekonomi yang tidak aman (unsave conditions) yang melekat padanya. Kondisi tidak aman tersebut terjadi oleh tekanan dinamis internal maupun eksternal (dynamic pressures), misalnya di komunitas institusi lokal tidak berkembang dan ketrampilan tepat guna tidak dimiliki. Tekanan dinamis terjadi karena terdapat akar permasalahan (root causes) yang menyertainya. Akar permasalahan internal umumnya karena komunitas tidak mempunyai akses sumberdaya, struktur dan kekuasaan, sedang secara eksternal karena sistem politik dan ekonomi yang tidak tepat. Oleh karenanya penanganan bencana perlu dilakukan secara menyeluruh dengan meningkatkan kapasitas dan menangani akar permasalahan untuk mereduksi resiko secara total. Siklus penanggulangan bencana yang perlu dilakukan secara utuh. Upaya pencegahan (prevention) terhadap munculnya dampak adalah perlakuan utama. Tsunami tidak dapat dicegah. Pencegahan dapat dilakukan pada bahaya yang manusia terlibat langsung maupun tidak langsung. Pada tsunami misalnya. Pencegahan dapat dilakukan rakyat dengan membuat bendung penahan ombak, bangunan panggung tahan ombak, penataan ruang dan sebagainya. Agar tidak terjadi jebolnya tanggul, maka perlu disusun save procedure dan kontrol terhadap kepatuhan perlakuan. Walaupun pencegahan sudah dilakukan, sementara peluang adanya kejadian masih ada, maka perlu dilakukan upaya-upaya mitigasi...

Documents on Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture

There are many models in the entire history of architecture which have travelled across the world, from one to another part of the big world. For various reasons, very frequently not at all scientific or professional, in our part of the world, be it Serbian or Yugoslav, or south Slav, some like to remain silent, when it comes to the transition of a Byzantine model, which by nature is rooted in the Orthodox Christian faith at the south east of Europe and the outmost west of Asia, to their areas, pervaded to a great extent by the Roman Catholic Christian belief, or Islam. There are numerous evidences of the transition of a model, one of many which found their new home on the west-European soil after the fall of Byzantium, mostly after the Crusades, when looters, but also scientists and artists in Italy, came by new wealth, and new knowledge, in the capital of the fallen Empire, observing its magnificent edifices, and taking its parts to their boats and shipping them to Venice and other cities in Italy and placing them on their buildings and squares, as they have done with the columns of the Augusteion of Constantinople, the square dedicated to Justinian's mother Augusta, which now decorate the square near the famous Venetian church of Saint Marco. Some other, also numerous accounts, explain how the Ottoman Turkish architecture in almost the same way, adopted its mosque construction model at the same place, in the same manner, retaining the actual structures but changing the religious insignia, or by copying this Byzantine model in building the new mosques. Key words: Early Christianity, Byzantium, documents, theory of architecture.  ...

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