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Natural Gas and the Transformation of the US Energy Sector - NREL

NOTICE This report was prepared by the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis and funded by its corporate sponsors. The Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis is operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC, on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the University of Colorado-Boulder, the Colorado School of Mines, the Colorado State University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Stanford University. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States government or any agency thereof. Available electronically at http://www.osti.gov/bridge Available for a processing fee to U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors, in paper, from: U.S. Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information P.O. Box 62 Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0062 phone: 865.576.8401 fax: 865.576.5728 email: mailto:reports@adonis.osti.gov Available for sale to the public, in paper, from: U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA 22161 phone: 800.553.6847 fax: 703.605.6900 email: orders@ntis.fedworld.gov online ordering: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.aspx Cover Photos: (left to right) PIX 12721, PIX 13995, © GM Corp., PIX 16161, PIX 15539, PIX 16701 Printed on paper containing at least 50% wastepaper, including 10% post consumer waste.

Natural Gas in China - IEA
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Energy markets and security/2009 International Energy Agency • Working Paper Series Natural Gas in China Market evolution and strategy June 2009 Nobuyuki Higashi © IEA/OECD 2009 Nobuyuki Higashi is a gas analayst in the International Energy Agency (IEA). The views expressed in this Working Paper are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views or policy of the IEA or 1 its individual member countries. This paper is a work in of progress, designed to elicit further discussion and debate. Comments should be directed to the author: nobuyuki.higashi@iea.org. Acknowledgements This study was achieved through invaluable input from a number of experts in Chinese institutes and companies including: the Development Research Center of The State Council Energy Research Institute of the National Development and Reform Committee; China Institute of International Studies; China Institute of Contemporary International Relations; Peking University; China University of Petroleum; Hong Kong Baptist University; Beijing Pacific Investment Consulting Center; CNPC; Guangdong Dapeng LNG Company Ltd.; CLP Power Hong Kong Ltd.; and Macau Natural Gas Company Ltd. Substantial input was provided by the following experts: Akira Ishii and Mika Takehara (Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation); Kensuke Kanekiyo, Ken Koyama and Koji Morita (The Institute of Energy Economics Japan); Kensaku Kumabe (Russia-Eurasia Research Institute); Shoichi Ito (Economic Research Institute for Northeast Asia); K.F. Yan and John C. Harris (CERA); Ma Shenyuan and Paul D’Arcy (Shell Gas & Power); Katsumi Kuroda and Kouhei Tsutsumi (Mitsubishi Corporation); and Minoru Asano (Mitsui Co. Ltd.). The author would like to express his sincere appreciation to all these experts. Dr. Keun-Wook Paik (Oxford Institute for Energy Studies) deserves special thanks for his comprehensive instructions and suggestions. The author also appreciates the assistance of the staff of the Japan Bank for International Co-operation, particularly Jennifer Pierotti who patiently contributed to editing the draft. The author of this paper is Nobuyuki Higashi, Analyst from the Directorate of Energy Markets and Security at the International Energy Agency (IEA). This study also benefited from the help of IEA colleagues, particularly Ian Cronshaw, Anne-Sophie Corbeau, Hiroshi Hashimoto, Yo Osumi, Jonathan Sinton, Tim Gould, Michael Chen and Akihiro Tonai. The views expressed in this paper are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views or policy of the IEA or its individual member countries. Contact: Nobuyuki Higashi (nobuyuki.higashi@iea.org or n-higashi@jbic.go.jp)

Designing Stairs and Laying Out Stair Stringers - Corvallis School ...

By Bruce W. Maki, Editor Introduction: Stair building is one of the most complex aspects of carpentry. My experience is that a good and accurate design is the only way to approach any complex geometry problem. I made these drawings on an inexpensive computer-aided drafting program called QuickCAD, which I bought for $60 several years ago. At first I hated QuickCAD because it was bass-ackwards from all the CAD programs I had used years before. I ignored the program for a couple of years, and eventually I took the time to struggle with it and (most importantly) read the manual for solutions to problems that kept arising. Eventually I figured out the darned thing, and now I can't live without QuickCAD. Without CAD software, stairs can be laid out on paper, using ordinary drafting tools. When complete, you can use a ruler to take measurements from the drawing, measurements that would be difficult and time-consuming to calculate. But... care needs to be taken to create precise linework. I would recommend using as large a sheet of paper as possible, even using poster board, which can be bought at OfficeMax, Staples, WalMart, etc. The larger the scale used (say... 3 inches on paper equals one foot in real life), the more accurate your results will be. Another alternative is a specialty spreadsheet for stair stringers at www.Shalla.net. This spreadsheet calculates all the necessary dimensions for stair stringers, and lets you print out a diagram and list of points that can be transferred to the stringer stock with a tape measure and marker. The spreadsheet does the hard work for ...

PHP FRAMEWORK FOR DATABASE MANAGEMENT BASED ON ...

ABSTRACT PHP is a powerful language to develop dynamic and interactive web applications. One of the defining features of PHP is the ease for developers to connect and manipulate a database. PHP prepares the functions for database manipulation. However, database management is done by the Structure Query Language (SQL). Most novice programmers often have trouble with SQL syntax. In this paper, we present the PHP framework for database management based on the MVC pattern. The MVC pattern is very useful for the architecture of web applications, separating the model, view and controller of a web application. The PHP framework encapsulated, common database operations are INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE and SELECT. Developers will not be required to consider the specific SQL statement syntax, just to call it the method in the model module. In addition, we use White-Box testing for the code verification in the model module. Lastly, a web application example is shown to illustrate the process of …. … to solve the problem is develop a web application framework that is designed to support the development of dynamic website, web application and web services. The framework aims to alleviate the overhead associated with common activities performed in web development. For example, many frameworks provide libraries for database access, templating frameworks and session management, and they often promote code reuse [2]. The software frameworks significantly reduce the amount of time, effort, and resources required to develop and maintain web applications. Moreover, a framework is an open architecture based on commonly accepted standards [3]. Web application framework usually implements the Model View Controller (MVC) design pattern. The MVC pattern is a proven, effective way for the generation of organized modular applications [4]. The MVC pattern breaks an application into three modules: model, view and controller. The model module contains the underlying classes whose instances are to be used for manipulating the database. The programmers learn how to use each class and what the output is, rather than on SQL syntax. This advantage can reduce the syntax error of SQL commands. In addition, the programmers create the controller module merely to handle the user events and ...

A Science-Based Framework for Early Childhood Policy

Executive Summary It is widely recognized that the path to our nation’s future prosperity and security begins with the well-being of all our children. To this end, one of the most important tasks facing policymakers is to choose wisely among strategies that address the needs of our youngest children and their families. Until now, confusing messages about which strategies actually can improve children’s life chances have presented enormous challenges to this decisionmaking process. As scientists, we believe that advances in the science of early childhood and early brain development, combined with the findings of four decades of rigorous program evaluation research, can now provide a strong foundation upon which policymakers and civic leaders with diverse political values can design a common, effective, and politically viable agenda. With this goal in mind, we describe in this report the process by which brain architecture is formed in very young children, with special attention to the important influence of early experiences on the production of a weak or sturdy foundation for future development, and integrate this scientific knowledge with the identification of those factors from the program evaluation literature that appear to offer the best course toward positive outcomes for children. We believe that this combination of neuroscience, child development research, and program evaluation data can provide an informed and pragmatic framework for those engaged in policy design and implementation. This paper builds on a process of systematic analysis that began with the publication in 2000 of a landmark report by the National Academy of Sciences entitled From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development, followed by the ongoing work of the National Scientific Council on the Developing Child and the National Forum on Early Childhood Program Evaluation, both of which are based at the Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University. These groups of scientists and scholars engage in active debate about what the rapidly advancing biological and social sciences do and do not say about early childhood, … www.developingchild.harvard.edu

Tooth Whitening/Bleaching - American Dental Association

Over the past two decades, tooth whitening or bleaching has become one of the most popular esthetic dental treatments (Note: this paper uses the terms "whitening" and “bleaching," interchangeably). Since the 1800s, the initial focus of dentists in this area was on in-office bleaching of non-vital teeth that had discolored as a result of trauma to the tooth or from endodontic treatment. By the late 1980s, the field of tooth whitening dramatically changed with the development of dentist-prescribed, home-applied bleaching (tray bleaching) and other products and techniques for vital tooth bleaching that could be applied both in the dental office and at home. The tooth whitening market has evolved into four categories: professionally applied (in the dental office); dentist-prescribed/dispensed (patient home-use); consumerpurchased/over-the-counter (OTC) (applied by patients); and other non-dental options. Additionally, dentist-dispensed bleaching materials are sometimes used at home after dental office bleaching to maintain or improve whitening results. Consumer whitening products available today for home use include gels, rinses, chewing gums, toothpastes, paint-on films and strips. The latest tooth whitening trend is the availability of whitening treatments or kits in non-dental retail settings, such as mall kiosks, salons, spas and, more recently, aboard passenger cruise ships. Nondental whitening venues have come under scrutiny in several states and jurisdictions, resulting in actions to reserve the delivery of this service to dentists or appropriately supervised allied dental personnel. Current tooth bleaching materials are based primarily on either hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide. Both may change the inherent color of the teeth, but have ...

To Kill a Centrifuge - Langner – The last line of cyber defense

Executive Summary This document summarizes the most comprehensive research on the Stuxnet malware so far: It combines results from reverse engineering the attack code with intelligence on the design of the attacked plant and background information on the attacked uranium enrichment process. It looks at the attack vectors of the two different payloads contained in the malware and especially provides an analysis of the bigger and much more complex payload that was designed to damage centrifuge rotors by overpressure. With both attack vectors viewed in context, conclusions are drawn about the reasoning behind a radical change of tactics between the complex earlier attack and the comparatively simple later attack that tried to manipulate centrifuge rotor speeds. It is reasoned that between 2008 and 2009 the creators of Stuxnet realized that they were on to something much bigger than to delay the Iranian nuclear program: History’s first field experiment in cyberphysical weapon technology. This may explain why in the course of the campaign against Natanz, OPSEC was lossened to the extent that one can speculate that the attackers really were no longer ultimately concerned about being detected or not but rather pushing the envelope. Another section of this paper is dedicated to the discussion of several popular misconceptions about Stuxnet, most importantly how difficult it would be to use Stuxnet as a blueprint for cyber-physical attacks against critical infrastructure of the United States and their allies. It is pointed out that offensive cyber forces around the world will certainly learn from history’s first true cyber weapon, and it is further explained why nation state resources are not required to launch cyber-physical attacks. It is also explained why conventional infosec wisdom and deterrence does not sufficiently protect against Stuxnet-inspired copycat attacks. The last section of the paper provides a wealth of plant floor footage that allows for a better understanding of the attack, and it also closes a gap in the research literature on the Iranian nuclear program that so far focused ...

Foundations of Technical Analysis: Computational ... - CiteSeer

Foundations of Technical Analysis: Computational Algorithms, Statistical Inference, and Empirical Implementation ANDREW W. LO, HARRY MAMAYSKY, AND JIANG WANG* ABSTRACT Technical analysis, also known as “charting,” has been a part of financial practice for many decades, but this discipline has not received the same level of academic scrutiny and acceptance as more traditional approaches such as fundamental analysis. One of the main obstacles is the highly subjective nature of technical analysis—the presence of geometric shapes in historical price charts is often in the eyes of the beholder. In this paper, we propose a systematic and automatic approach to technical pattern recognition using nonparametric kernel regression, and we apply this method to a large number of U.S. stocks from 1962 to 1996 to evaluate the effectiveness of technical analysis. By comparing the unconditional empirical distribution of daily stock returns to the conditional distribution—conditioned on specific technical indicators such as head-and-shoulders or double-bottoms—we find that over the 31-year sample period, several technical indicators do provide incremental information and may have some practical value. ONE OF THE GREATEST GULFS between academic finance and industry practice is the separation that exists between technical analysts and their academic critics. In contrast to fundamental analysis, which was quick to be adopted by the scholars of modern quantitative finance, technical analysis has been an orphan from the very start. It has been argued that the difference between fundamental analysis and technical analysis is not unlike the difference between astronomy and astrology. Among some circles, technical analysis is known as “voodoo finance.” And in his inf luential book A Random Walk down Wall Street, Burton Malkiel ~1996! concludes that “@u#nder scientific scrutiny, chart-reading must share a pedestal with alchemy.” However, several academic studies suggest that despite its jargon and methods, technical analysis may well be an effective means for extracting useful information from market prices. For example, in rejecting the Random Walk * MIT Sloan School of Management and Yale School of Management. Corresponding author: Andrew W. Lo ~alo@mit.edu!. This research was partially supported by the MIT Laboratory for Financial Engineering, Merrill Lynch, and the National Science Foundation ~Grant SBR– 9709976!. We thank Ralph Acampora, Franklin Allen, Susan Berger, Mike Epstein, Narasimhan Jegadeesh, Ed Kao, Doug Sanzone, Jeff Simonoff, Tom Stoker, and seminar participants at ...

Foundations of Technical Analysis: Computational ... - CiteSeer

THE JOURNAL OF FINANCE • VOL. LV, NO. 4 • AUGUST 2000 Foundations of Technical Analysis: Computational Algorithms, Statistical Inference, and Empirical Implementation ANDREW W. LO, HARRY MAMAYSKY, AND JIANG WANG* ABSTRACT Technical analysis, also known as “charting,” has been a part of financial practice for many decades, but this discipline has not received the same level of academic scrutiny and acceptance as more traditional approaches such as fundamental analysis. One of the main obstacles is the highly subjective nature of technical analysis—the presence of geometric shapes in historical price charts is often in the eyes of the beholder. In this paper, we propose a systematic and automatic approach to technical pattern recognition using nonparametric kernel regression, and we apply this method to a large number of U.S. stocks from 1962 to 1996 to evaluate the effectiveness of technical analysis. By comparing the unconditional empirical distribution of daily stock returns to the conditional distribution—conditioned on specific technical indicators such as head-and-shoulders or double-bottoms—we find that over the 31-year sample period, several technical indicators do provide incremental information and may have some practical value. ONE OF THE GREATEST GULFS between academic finance and industry practice is the separation that exists between technical analysts and their academic critics. In contrast to fundamental analysis, which was quick to be adopted by the scholars of modern quantitative finance, technical analysis has been an orphan from the very start. It has been argued that the difference between fundamental analysis and technical analysis is not unlike the difference between astronomy and astrology. Among some circles, technical analysis is known as “voodoo finance.” And in his inf luential book A Random Walk down Wall Street, Burton Malkiel ~1996! concludes that “@u#nder scientific scrutiny, chart-reading must share a pedestal with alchemy.” However, several academic studies suggest that despite its jargon and methods, technical analysis may well be an effective means for extracting useful information from market prices. For example, in rejecting the Random Walk * MIT Sloan School of Management and Yale School of Management. Corresponding author: ...

Thumbs on the Scale - Texas Watch
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The Texas Supreme Court has a profound effect on the lives of everyday Texans, yet perhaps due to the complex legal issues it handles, the court largely escapes public scrutiny. The laws that the legislature passes and the governor signs are, in essence, ink on paper until they are interpreted and enforced by the high court. Andrew Jackson said that our rights are a “mere bubble” except when they are protected and upheld “by an independent and virtuous Judiciary.” An independent, impartial, and just judiciary is vital to the proper functioning of a democratic government, but in Texas the bubble has burst under the weight of an activist, ideological Texas Supreme Court that is more interested in protecting the narrow desires of a few powerful special interests than the broader, more comprehensive needs of Texas families. Rather than operating in fidelity with the law to bring about justice, the Texas Supreme Court has marched in lock-step to consistently and overwhelmingly reward corporate defendants and the government at the expense of Texas families. Since 1996, Court Watch has tracked the Texas Supreme Court. This report draws upon this... 74% Texas Supreme Court’s jury reversal rate body of research to quantify how often defendants have won and consumers have lost their cases over the last decade. We focus on this period of time because it marks a paradigm shift on the court. The justices appointed to the turned that formulation on its head, employing twisted logic and eviscerating long-standing precedent to achieve political ends. We do not have the rule of law; rather, we have the rule of big business and big government, which makes law to enlarge and insulate its own power. high court under then-Governor Bush, while generally defense-oriented, demonstrated reasoned and temperate judgment in a number of cases. In stark contrast, the justices that Governor Perry has appointed to the bench, and who were subsequently elected, have relentlessly and recklessly pursued an activist ideological agenda focused on immunity for corporate and state wrongdoers, subverting the rule of law from within and effectively turning the granite walls of the court into a mausoleum for plaintiffs

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