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MLN Matters Article #SE0920 - Centers for Medicare & Medicaid ...

Note: This article was updated on January 25, 2013, to reflect current Web addresses. All other information remains unchanged. Medicare Fee-for-Services (MFFS) Billing for the Administration of the Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Vaccine Provider Types Affected Physicians, providers, and suppliers administering the H1N1 vaccine to Medicare patients are affected by this article. Provider Action Needed This article explains Medicare coverage and reimbursement rules for the H1N1 vaccine. All providers administering this vaccine should review this article and be sure that their billing staffs are aware of this information. Background Medicare Part B provides coverage for the seasonal influenza virus vaccine and its administration as part of its preventive immunization services. The Part B deductible and coinsurance do not apply for the seasonal influenza virus vaccine and its administration. Typically, the seasonal influenza vaccine is administered once a year in the fall or winter. Additional influenza vaccines (i.e., the number of Disclaimer This article was prepared as a service to the public and is not intended to grant rights or impose obligations. This article may contain references or links to statutes, regulations, or other policy materials. The information provided is only intended to be a general summary. It is not intended to take the place of either the written law or regulations. We encourage readers to review the specific statutes, regulations and other interpretive materials for a full and accurate statement of their contents. CPT only copyright 2008 American Medical Association.

Europe's Energy Security: Options and Challenges to Natural Gas ...

Summary Europe as a major energy consumer faces a number of challenges when addressing future energy needs. Among these challenges are rapidly rising global demand and competition for energy resources from emerging economies such as China and India, persistent instability in energy producing regions such as the Middle East, a fragmented internal European energy market, and a growing need to shift fuels in order to address climate change policy. As a result, energy supply security has become a key concern for European nations and the European Union (EU). A key element of the EU’s energy supply strategy has been to shift to a greater use of natural gas. Europe as a whole is a major importer of natural gas. Although second to Norway as a supplier to Europe, Russia remains one of Europe’s most important natural gas suppliers. Europe’s natural gas consumption is projected to grow while its own domestic natural gas production continues to decline. If trends continue as projected, Europe’s dependence on Russia as a supplier is likely to grow. And, while it could be in Europe’s interest to explore alternative sources for its natural gas needs, it is uncertain whether Europe as a whole can, or is willing to, replace a significant level of imports from Russia. Some European countries that feel vulnerable to potential Russian energy supply manipulation may work harder to achieve diversification than others. Russia has not been idle when it comes to protecting its share of the European natural gas market. Moscow, including the state-controlled company Gazprom, has attempted to stymie Europeanbacked alternatives to pipelines it controls by proposing competing pipeline projects and attempting to co-opt European companies by offering them stakes in those and other projects. It has attempted to dissuade potential suppliers (especially those in Central Asia) from participating in European-supported plans. Moscow has also raised environmental concerns in an apparent effort to hinder other alternatives to its supplies, such as unconventional natural gas. Successive U.S. administrations and Congresses have viewed European energy security as a U.S. national interest. Promoting diversification of Europe’s natural gas supplies, ...

Contingency Staffing Plan - U.S. Department of Health and Human ...

As shown on the attachment, HHS’ contingency plans for agency operations in the absence of appropriations would lead to furloughing 40,512 staff and retaining 37,686 staff as of day two of a near-term funding hiatus. Put another way, 52% of HHS employees would be on furlough, and 48% would be retained. These percentages vary among HHS’ agencies and offices, with grant-making and employee-intensive agencies (e.g., the Administration for Children and Families (ACF), the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA), the Administration for Community Living (ACL), and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)) having the vast majority of their staff on furlough, and agencies with a substantial direct service component (e.g., the Indian Health Service (IHS)) having most of their staff retained. Summary of Activities to Remain Open and to be Closed Consistent with legal advice that activities authorized by law, including those that do not rely on annual appropriations, and activities that involve the safety of human life and protection of property are to be continued, some of the HHS activities that would continue include: • Indian Health Service (IHS) – IHS would continue to provide direct clinical health care services as well as referrals for contracted services that cannot be provided through IHS clinics. • Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) – HRSA would continue activities funded through sources other than annual appropriations including the Community Health Centers, National Health Service Corps, Maternal Infant, and Child Health Home Visiting program. Additionally, HRSA would continue the National Practitioner Databanks and Hansen’s Disease Program. • Administration for Children and Families (ACF) – ACF would continue mandatory funded programs including the Federal Parent Locator Service, Personal Responsibility Education, and Health Profession Opportunity Grants. Child support and foster care services will also continue because they receive advanced appropriations in the FY 2013 appropriation process. All permissible activities for the Unaccompanied Alien Children program under an exception of preserving human life will continue. • Administration for Community Living (ACL) – ACL would continue to support the Aging and Disability Resource Centers and Health Care Fraud and Abuse Control through mandatory appropriations.

Windows Easy Transfer (WET) comparison summary PCmover ...

The easiest way to move to Windows 7. ®. Visit us at laplink.com. Windows Easy Transfer (WET) comparison summary. In comparison to PCmover Professional, ...

Proposed Amendment to the Human Factors Design Standard - FAA

SUMMARY The Federal Aviation Administration Human Factors Group received a comment pertaining to handrail height and tread depth. The comment suggested that the Human Factors Design Standard design criteria be updated so as to be consistent with the current building codes and international standards, reflecting more recent research on stair safety. The commenter stated that the current minimum tread depth in the HFDS of 24 cm (9.5”) is not safe and that building codes currently require a handrail height of 34-38”, not the 30- 34” currently cited in the HFDS. In response to the comment, we reviewed multiple sources of information on stair design including OSHA, ADAAG, ANSI, and international building codes. Upon reviewing the sources cited by the commenter and current established codes, we agree with the commenter that the section is outdated and should be amended. SPECIFIC PURPOSE AND ACTUAL BASIS OF AMENDMENT Exhibit 10.4.8.3.1 (B) and (G) should be amended to bring the requirements for handrail height and stair tread depth in accordance with other federal and international standards. The amendment is necessary to facilitate the safety of people at FAA facilities, protecting them from potential workplace hazards. Previous HFDS Exhibit 10.4.8.3.1 Exhibit 10.4.8.3.1 Design requirements for stair dimensions. [Source: UCRL15673, 1985; MIL-STD-1472D, 1989; MIL-HDBK-759B, 1992; MIL-STD1800A, 1990]

A Science-Based Framework for Early Childhood Policy

Executive Summary It is widely recognized that the path to our nation’s future prosperity and security begins with the well-being of all our children. To this end, one of the most important tasks facing policymakers is to choose wisely among strategies that address the needs of our youngest children and their families. Until now, confusing messages about which strategies actually can improve children’s life chances have presented enormous challenges to this decisionmaking process. As scientists, we believe that advances in the science of early childhood and early brain development, combined with the findings of four decades of rigorous program evaluation research, can now provide a strong foundation upon which policymakers and civic leaders with diverse political values can design a common, effective, and politically viable agenda. With this goal in mind, we describe in this report the process by which brain architecture is formed in very young children, with special attention to the important influence of early experiences on the production of a weak or sturdy foundation for future development, and integrate this scientific knowledge with the identification of those factors from the program evaluation literature that appear to offer the best course toward positive outcomes for children. We believe that this combination of neuroscience, child development research, and program evaluation data can provide an informed and pragmatic framework for those engaged in policy design and implementation. This paper builds on a process of systematic analysis that began with the publication in 2000 of a landmark report by the National Academy of Sciences entitled From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development, followed by the ongoing work of the National Scientific Council on the Developing Child and the National Forum on Early Childhood Program Evaluation, both of which are based at the Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University. These groups of scientists and scholars engage in active debate about what the rapidly advancing biological and social sciences do and do not say about early childhood, … www.developingchild.harvard.edu

PATENT ASSERTION AND U.S. INNOVATION - The White House

Executive Summary Some firms that own patents but do not make products with them play an important role in U.S. innovation ecosystem, for example by connecting manufacturers with inventors, thereby allowing inventors to focus on what they do best. However, Patent Assertion Entities (PAEs, also known as “patent trolls”) do not play such roles. Instead they focus on aggressive litigation, using such tactics as: threatening to sue thousands of companies at once, without specific evidence of infringement against any of them; creating shell companies that make it difficult for defendants to know who is suing them; and asserting that their patents cover inventions not imagined at the time they were granted. Suits brought by PAEs have tripled in just the last two years, rising from 29 percent of all infringement suits to 62 percent of all infringement suits. Estimates suggest that PAEs may have threatened over 100,000 companies with patent infringement last year alone. While aggressive litigation tactics are a hallmark of PAEs, some practicing firms are beginning to use them as well. (“Practicing” firms use their patents to design or manufacture products or processes.) PAE activities hurt firms of all sizes. Although many significant settlements are from large companies, the majority of PAE suits target small and inventor-driven companies. In addition, PAEs are increasingly targeting end users of products, including many small businesses. PAEs take advantage of uncertainty about the scope or validity of patent claims, especially in softwarerelated patents because of the relative novelty of the technology and because it has been difficult to separate the “function” of the software (e.g. to produce a medical image) from the “means” by which that function is accomplished. A range of studies have documented the cost of PAE activity to innovation and economic growth. For example: One study found that during the years they were being sued for patent infringement by a PAE, health information technology companies ceased all innovation in that technology, causing sales to fall by one-third compared to the same firm’s sales of similar products not subject to the PAEowned patent. Another study found that the ...

Eight In-office Tooth Whitening Systems Evaluated ... - ResearchGate

SUMMARY This in vivo pilot study evaluated eight products with hydrogen peroxide (HP) concentrations ranging from 15% to 35%. The treatment contact *Bruce A Matis, DDS, MSD, professor, director, Clinical Research Section, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Indianapolis, IN, USA Michael A Cochran, DDS, MSD, professor, director, Graduate Operative Dentistry Program, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Indianapolis, IN, USA Miguel Franco, DDS, MSD, naval dental officer, United States Navy, Naval Health Clinic, Great Lakes, IL, USA Wafa Al-Ammar, MSD, associate consultant, Operative Dentistry Section, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia George J Eckert, MAS, biostatistician, Indiana University School of Medicine, Division of Biostatistics, Indianapolis, IN, USA Michael Stropes, DDS, assistant professor, clinical dentist, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Indianapolis, IN, USA *Reprint request: 1121 West Michigan Street, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA; e-mail: bmatis@iupui.edu DOI: 10.2341/06-135 time varied from 15 minutes to 60 minutes. Patients were evaluated for color at baseline, immediately after treatment and at one, two, four and six weeks after treatment using a colorimeter, shade guide and photos. All eight products were effective in bleaching teeth. Colorimeter data for ∆E immediately after treatment was 6.77. At one and six weeks after bleaching, there were 51% and 65% reductions in ∆E, respectively. INTRODUCTION Bleaching has been accepted as the least aggressive method for treating discolored teeth. However, the effectiveness of in-office systems has been controversial. Bleaching appears to be time and concentration dependent.1 The questions remain whether in-office tooth whitening products with lower concentrations are as effective as products with higher concentrations and whether some products are more effective than others. These types of questions have long been on the minds of dental practitioners. Manufacturers have introduced “bleaching” lights that are reported to accelerate the bleaching process, while some researchers have stated that no acceleration or increase in efficacy occurs when using light or ...

Teeth Whitening Instructions - Dr. Nina Foley

Patient Instructions Quick Summary: • Best results to whitening are after you have had your teeth cleaned professionally. • Brush your teeth and floss before whitening. • Put the appropriate amount of gel in the tray on the area of the tray that would sit on the front of your teeth. • Swallow or wipe out any excessive saliva from your teeth. • Place whitening gel into trays with and place them in your mouth. Diligently wipe off any excess gel on your gums with a moist Q-tip. • Remove the trays after 40-60 minutes and rinse the trays with COLD water. Brush your teeth with luke-warm water. • If your teeth are not sensitive you can apply another application of whitening gel and do what is called “Power-Whitening”. Repeating the above procedure. Just be careful with any sensitivity. • Everyone’s teeth whiten at different rates. Some peoples’ teeth absorb the whitening gel very well, while others are more whitening resistant. We will check your teeth in about 2 ½ to 3 weeks to see how you are progressing, at that time, and we will make any necessary changes to get you the best results possible. Detailed Directions • You have been given special trays fabricated on the impressions we took of your teeth. You have also been given a whitening kit which includes 6 tubes of whitener. Each of these 6 tubes of whitener provides enough material for about 3-4 nights of whitening for one arch of your mouth (upper or lower). • After brushing and flossing, dry your teeth by swallowing well and wiping any excess saliva off the teeth if ...

To Kill a Centrifuge - Langner – The last line of cyber defense

Executive Summary This document summarizes the most comprehensive research on the Stuxnet malware so far: It combines results from reverse engineering the attack code with intelligence on the design of the attacked plant and background information on the attacked uranium enrichment process. It looks at the attack vectors of the two different payloads contained in the malware and especially provides an analysis of the bigger and much more complex payload that was designed to damage centrifuge rotors by overpressure. With both attack vectors viewed in context, conclusions are drawn about the reasoning behind a radical change of tactics between the complex earlier attack and the comparatively simple later attack that tried to manipulate centrifuge rotor speeds. It is reasoned that between 2008 and 2009 the creators of Stuxnet realized that they were on to something much bigger than to delay the Iranian nuclear program: History’s first field experiment in cyberphysical weapon technology. This may explain why in the course of the campaign against Natanz, OPSEC was lossened to the extent that one can speculate that the attackers really were no longer ultimately concerned about being detected or not but rather pushing the envelope. Another section of this paper is dedicated to the discussion of several popular misconceptions about Stuxnet, most importantly how difficult it would be to use Stuxnet as a blueprint for cyber-physical attacks against critical infrastructure of the United States and their allies. It is pointed out that offensive cyber forces around the world will certainly learn from history’s first true cyber weapon, and it is further explained why nation state resources are not required to launch cyber-physical attacks. It is also explained why conventional infosec wisdom and deterrence does not sufficiently protect against Stuxnet-inspired copycat attacks. The last section of the paper provides a wealth of plant floor footage that allows for a better understanding of the attack, and it also closes a gap in the research literature on the Iranian nuclear program that so far focused ...

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