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THE WALL STREET JOURNAL REPORT • One minute business reports from the most trusted name in business journalism, THE WALL STREET JOURNAL. • Recognized as the most comprehensive, up-to-the-minute business news broadcast in radio. • Your station and your advertisers will partner with today’s preeminent business news brand. • You will hear top business, economic, financial market and consumer stories from newsmakers, analysts and Wall Street Journal reporters. • THE WALL STREET JOURNAL REPORT is the leader in radio business news reporting. THE WALL STREET JOURNAL ON THE RADIO – SELL THE BRAND • • • Integrity • Depth • Innovation Trust • Leadership Reliability • • Success • Quality Intelligence • • Authority Creativity THE BENEFITS • CREDIBILITY: The Wall Street Journal and Dow Jones, the most respected names in the business. • PULITZER PRIZE: The Wall Street Journal Radio Network is the broadcast extension of The Wall Street Journal which has been awarded this outstanding journalistic achievement 33 times. • AUDIENCE: affluent, educated consumers and professionals. • ENVIRONMENT: “in program” clearance. • OPPORTUNITY: The most efficient and effective way to target your clients’ audience goals. • IMMEDIACY: What Journal Network radio listeners hear today will be in tomorrow’s Wall Street Journal. • AUTHORITATIVE: Exclusive breaking news from over 1700 Wall Street Journal and Dow Jones reporters and editors world-wide. • APPOINTMENT LISTENING: Your audience tunes in at specific times daily. • VALUE ADDED MARKETING: For your key sponsors including WSJ ads • LOCAL EXCLUSIVITY: Own the reports with your :60 message TOP FIVE NATIONAL CATEGORIES • BUSINESS TO BUSINESS Barracuda Networks, Royal Bank of Scotland, Michigan Economic Development, American Institute of Architects • FINANCIAL Vanguard, Ameriprise, Fidelity, Principal Financial, Discover, New York Life, Progressive Insurance, Prudential, UBS Paine Webber, Wells Fargo, Geico Insurance, Mastercard International • AUTOMOTIVE Onstar, Goodyear, GM, Lincoln-Mercury, GMAC, American Honda, Ford, Volkswagen of America • CONSUMER Microsoft, General Mills, Home Depot, USPS, Zales, Turbo Tax, NAR, ABC-TV, Hewlett Packard, Bose, Dell, Gateway, Lowe’s, Match.com, NAPA, Office Depot, Office Max, Showtime, TempurPedic, The Wine Group, Verizon, ConsumerInfo.com, Emerson Electric • PHARMACEUTICAL Nexium, Merck, Glaxo SmithKline, Blue Cross/Blue Shield, Pfizer, Takeda, National Foundation for Diseases
Publié avec le concours du Ministère français chargé de la culture, Centre national du livre. Published with the assistance of the French Ministry of Culture’s National Center for the Book. The publisher gratefully acknowledges the generous contribution to this book provided by the Literature in Translation Endowment Fund of the University of California Press Foundation, which is supported by a major gift from Joan Palevsky. THE HISTORY OF TERRORISM FROM ANTIQUITY TO AL QAEDA Edited by Gérard Chaliand and Arnaud Blin Translated by Edward Schneider, Kathr yn Pulver, and Jesse Browner UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS BERKELEY LOS ANGELES LONDON University of California Press, one of the most distinguished university presses in the United States, enriches lives around the world by advancing scholarship in the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences. Its activities are supported by the UC Press Foundation and by philanthropic contributions from individuals and institutions. For more information, visit www.ucpress.edu. University of California Press Berkeley and Los Angeles, California University of California Press, Ltd. London, England © 2007 by The Regents of the University of California Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Histoire du terrorisme. English The history of terrorism : from antiquity to al Qaeda / edited by Gérard Chaliand and Arnaud Blin ; translated by Edward Schneider, Kathryn Pulver, and Jesse Browner. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. isbn-13: 978-0-520-24533-4 (cloth : alk. paper) isbn-13: 978-0-520-24709-3 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Terrorism—History. I. Chaliand, Gérard, 1934–. II. Blin, Arnaud. III. Title. HV6431.H5713 2007 363.32509—dc22 2006032389 Manufactured in the United States of America This book is printed on New Leaf EcoBook 50, a 100% recycled ﬁber of which 50% is de-inked postconsumer waste, processed chlorine free. EcoBook 50 is acid free and meets the minimum requirements of ansi/astm d5634–01 (Permanence of Paper).
Founded in October 2004, al Qaeda in Iraq (AQI) emerged from a transnational terrorist group created and led by Abu Musab al-Zarqawi. The original iteration of the group, Bayat al Imam, began in Jordan in the early 1990s. The group first associated with al Qaeda’s senior leadership in 1999 and fought alongside al Qaeda core and the Taliban during the U.S. strikes in Afghanistan in late 2001. Shortly after, the group transferred to Iraq in anticipation of the U.S.-led invasion. From 2003 through 2007, the group galvanized the Iraqi insurgency until its high-profile, divisively brutal tactics and failure to deliver meaningful gains to its nominal constituents led to a reversal in its popularity. The death of Zarqawi in 2006 has been followed with a series of successful counterterror strikes against his successors. Nonetheless, the group has proven resilient and though its activities are greatly diminished since its operational peak in 2007, it has proven still capable of carrying out high-profile attacks, particularly against soft targets. The Al Qaeda and Associated Movements (AQAM) Futures Project is a joint study undertaken by the CSIS Transnational Threats Project and the CSIS Homeland Security and Counterterrorism Program. The initiative will produce a series of alternative futures regarding the state of AQAM in the year 2025 and generate recommendations to defeat the threat over the long term. Drawing on historical analysis, social science research, expert interviews, and targeted fieldwork, this project will provide to policymakers and strategists a vision beyond the next few years and will consider the trends and shocks that may shape AQAM over the next decade and a half. This case study is one of several examining the historic evolution and future prospects of al Qaeda and its range of affiliated groups. The purpose of the case studies is to determine the key drivers that have influenced a terrorist group’s trajectory over time. Ultimately, these drivers, in conjunction with additional supporting analysis, will be used to inform projections about the future of al Qaeda and its affiliates. 1800 k street nw, washington dc 20006 | p. 202.887.0200 | f. 202.775.3199 | www.csis.org/
Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) emerged from a decades-long militant Islamist tradition in Algeria. In 1998, the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (Groupe Salafiste pour la Prédication et le Combat, or GSPC) broke away from the Armed Islamic Group (Groupe Islamique Armé, or GIA) because of the GIA’s extensive targeting of civilians. Gradually, the GSPC evolved to encompass global jihadist ideology in addition to its historical focus on overturning the Algerian state. In 2006, the GSPC officially affiliated with al Qaeda core, soon rebranding itself as al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb. In the following years, AQIM was able to conduct a small number of large-scale attacks, most notably its 2007 bombing of the UN headquarters in Algiers. In recent years, counterterrorism pressure and weak governance have combined to shift the center of AQIM’s presence to the Sahara-Sahel region. AQIM continues to make its presence known through smuggling operations, kidnappings, and clashes with security forces in the desert. In the coming years, general instability within the region could allow AQIM to further expand its influence. The Al Qaeda and Associated Movements (AQAM) Futures Project is a joint study undertaken by the CSIS Transnational Threats Project and the CSIS Homeland Security and Counterterrorism Program. The initiative will produce a series of alternative futures regarding the state of AQAM in the year 2025 and generate recommendations to defeat the threat over the long term. Drawing on historical analysis, social science research, expert interviews, and targeted fieldwork, this project will provide to policymakers and strategists a vision beyond the next few years and will consider the trends and shocks that may shape AQAM over the next decade and a half. This case study is one of several examining the historic evolution and future prospects of al Qaeda and its range of affiliated groups. The purpose of the case studies is to determine the key drivers that have influenced a terrorist group’s trajectory over time. Ultimately, these drivers, in conjunction with additional supporting analysis, will be used to inform projections about the future of al Qaeda and its affiliates. 1800 k street nw, washington dc 20006 | p. 202.887.0200 | f. 202.775.3199 | www.csis.org/
a) If you are reading this, then you have experienced the Xbox 360 Red Ring of Death (RROD). These instructions will show you how to perform the “X-clamp” fix which, in most cases, repairs the Xbox 360 RROD. b) NOTE: If you are getting the three red lights and YOU HAVE NOT OPENED YOUR CONSOLE, then by all means call Microsoft first at 1-800-4MY-XBOX for customer support (CLICK HERE). Microsoft has extended the warranty of ANY console experiencing the 3 red lights failure for a full three years from the manufacture or purchase date. c) If YOU HAVE OPENED YOUR CONSOLE, then this fix is your best option. Just follow these instructions for the best results. 2. OPENING THE CASE a) First, remove the faceplate. The easiest way to remove the face is to use the finger hole at the bottom of the console and simply pull forward. (In this photo the Xbox is upside down) Give her a good tug and pop! CLICK ON ANY PICTURE TO ENLARGE. b) Starting with the gray bottom vent plate, you will see six tabs that hold it into place. All tabs are accessible from the sides through the vent holes. Gently pull up on the plate and simultaneously release the clips by pushing in with a small screwdriver or other tool that fits through the hole. c) Begin at the front of the case and work your way back alternating sides so each pair of tabs are released. Keep gentle pressure to pull it up and away as you go d) The top plate is a little more difficult. Three out of the six tabs are not in plain view. One of the rear tabs can be accessed by removing the foot that covers the vent hole. If you release the two in the back and two in the middle, you can work the front two out by wiggling the plate. e) With the top and bottom vent covers removed, lay the console upside down. This makes the process much easier because the chassis is screwed to the top. With the feet pointed up you can see 7 small holes. Inside the holes are clips that will need to be released. 4 f) You will need a very small tool to insert into the small holes. I use a 1.4mm miniature flat screwdriver. When releasing the clips, I find it helpful to spread the case with my thumb and forefinger, and then start with the two holes by the power cord. g) Press in with the screwdriver, you should hear crisp clicks as the clips release and the case should pop open a bit. h) Continue to spread the case apart and push in the clips across the console. With every clip, it will spread a little further apart. Continue until the case is free. Spread the back apart a couple inches it should be able to rest open while you turn the console to work on the front. i) Begin with the front clip nearest the DVD drive, use your fingernail to apply a little pressure and start spreading the lid apart. It should pop right open. Continue on with the rest of the tabs until the cover releases. j) Lift the lid and you’ll discover a steel chassis. The photo indicates which screws to remove. Remove the six screws with a Torx 10 driver. k) Turn it back right side up but before removing the other half of the case, remove the eject button with your fingernail. l) You should now have a spread of parts that looks something like this. FOR VIDEO OF 2a THRU 2l CLICK HERE.
Pinball Wizard – Does Repair of an Xbox 360 violate either Patent or Copyright Law? Is an Xbox 360 a work of Intellectual Property? Or is it a hardware platform on which games (creative content) are played? Why can the owner of a low‐tech pin‐ball machine repair that game platform, but the owner of an XBox 360 running a Pinball Game cannot? The argument allowing repair for the pinball machine goes something like this: The pinball machine is physical. No one can copy the game without copying the machine. The owner of a pinball machine can do whatever they want – including repainting the game to create their own custom machine without violating patent or copyright. The argument against repair for the Xbox 360 (or other game console) goes something like this; The game console is loaded with intellectual property. It may be a copyright violation to restore, update, or modify the on‐board code. This is copyright clap‐trap that only helps the manufacturers of game consoles enjoy a monopoly for the repair of their products, the real purpose of which is to sell more new game consoles. Microsoft is not in the repair business, but they are in the game console business. Their business interest is served by selling new game consoles, not extending the life of older models. Q. “Where are the Patents?” A. The XBox 360 game console is a platform for running games. The games are creative content, not the machine. This is the same relationship between an old‐fashioned turntable and a vinyl album. The individual parts of the turntable might be patented but there is no violation of law to repair patented items. In the case of the Xbox 360, the parts are generic computer parts and can be easily repurposed to function as a computer, as is common in some Asian markets. Q. “Where is the IP?” A. Chips used to build the game machine are loaded with “Intellectual Property” in the sense that they are loaded with millions (billions) of switches arranged to process on/off information. Imagine millions of common light‐switches arranged in a series – the arrangement of the switches is a form of programming but the wires are physical. Chips are wholly tangible and the patents held by Chip designers are very valuable. Q. “If not the Chip, then what IP is being protected?” A. Microsoft and other manufacturers are claiming that very hardware‐specific routines known as “Machine Code” are their IP. This entire category of programming is provided with the machine without a separate license. Most buyers have no idea that there is anything else to their game platform purchase until something breaks down. The problem, if it is one, is that repair or modification of an XBox 360 requires access to these low‐level but hidden routines. It is currently impossible to legally repair a DVD on the XBox 360 because Microsoft blocks access to the routines needed to “reflash” the drive to match the circuit board claiming “IP”. Q. “Why is this information kept from me?” A. It suits Microsoft to block access to repair functions in order to sell more game consoles. Users need to understand that the original DVD already had the code installed, and the restoration of the DVD involves replacing what already existed. If the XBox 360 came with a backup‐restore routine as allowed under the DMCA, the code could simply be restored with no infringement. Owners of game consoles should be free to repair their purchases any way they see fit. If this is of interest to you, please join the Digital Right to Repair Coalition and make your voice heard. About the Digital Right to Repair Coalition (www.digitalrighttorepair.org) The Mission of the Digital Right to Repair Coalition is to push for changes in Copyright Law that protect the rights of equipment owners of all digitally driven devices to repair, resell, and reused their purchases as they see fit.
Disassembling the Xbox 360 Slim To get into the Xbox 360 you’ll need pretty much the same tools you needed to get into the old one. A flat head screwdriver helps, preferably one with a long, thin stem to help you pry bits of the case apart. You’ll need a torx driver with T8 bit. As always, proceed at your own risk - we're not responsible for any damage to your console that happens as a result of following these instructions. Also know that proceeding with this will surely void your warranty from Microsoft. 1. First remove the 2.5" hard drive. To get to it just pull back on a couple of the fins which will let you remove a part of the cover: 2. Yanking on the black ribbon will pull out the hard drive itself. 3. Next we have two plastic grates on the left and right of the system that pop right off. They are attached using clips along their edges so work one part out with your flat head driver and just pull the rest off. 4. The side without the hard drive pops out just as easy. I used the thin screwdriver to prize up one end of the plastic grate and pulled it the rest out with my fingers. Be careful not to scratch the case. 5. This next part is the first of two hard parts. Removing the two plastic grates will reveal two more black plastic covers. You can wedge your flathead between the plastic cover and the rest of the system and pry it off. TIP: Some users remove the chrome surrounds without taking out these black plastic covers - so you could always skip parts 5, 6, 7 & 8 and go straight to removing the chrome bezels (Note: some slims that are refurbs have the matt black plastic case and the bezels are black not chrome) - all you have to do it unclip one side of the black plastic cover to reveal the chrome bezel clips so you simply unclip one side then the rest should pull out easily. I only include these separate parts of the tutorial so you can actually see what each piece looks like 6. The cover is attached to the system by several plastic stands that fit through little holes behind them. The stands are wider at their outer most edge than they are at the base, too wide to just fit through the hole.
Infineon said Tuesday it will supply Microsoft's Xbox videogames with three components. The German semiconductor supplier will be providing a removable memory unit, as well as an integrated circuit wireless game pad controller and an advanced security chip for the Xbox 360 games. Consoles with Infineon parts are expected to be in the stores by the end of this year. "Collaboration with leading suppliers of semiconductors and electronic components is essential to the realization of Microsoft's vision to deliver entirely new capabilities in consumer entertainment," Marc Whitten, director of Xbox peripherals at Microsoft, said in a news release. "Infineon's broad and complementary IP portfolio, system integration skill, manufacturing expertise and proven track record were crucial factors in our decision to work with the company on these components," he added. Copyright 2005 by United Press International This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study, research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. "Infineon to supply Xbox parts." Phys.org. 30 Aug 2005. http://phys.org/news6110.html
On November 22, 2005, Microsoft released its new generation Xbox 360 in North America. The Xbox is a popular videogame system that competes directly with Sony’s PlayStation and Nintendo’s forthcoming Revolution. See Exhibit 1 for an illustration of the Xbox 360 and a list of features announced in Microsoft’s press release. On November 22, the day of the Xbox 360 release, iSuppli of El Segundo, California announced its tear-down analysis of a production unit. The company described its tear-down analysis as ‘applied market intelligence’ primarily targeted for use by analysts in assessing the economics of the Xbox for Microsoft, its suppliers and competitors.1 iSuppli’s analysis revealed that parts alone totaled $525 for the Xbox 360, which retailed for $399 (Exhibit 2).2 “Microsoft spokesperson Molly O'Donnell said the company does not comment or provide guidance on Xbox 360 cost information. Shares of Microsoft were down $0.23 to $27.69 in recent trading.” (RedHerring.com, November 25, 2005) The first commercial videogame system3 The concept of the modern home videogame is attributed to Ralph Baer, a 29-year old TV engineer, who worked at Loral, a TV manufacturing company, in 1951. Ralph wanted customers to be able to play games on their TV, but his boss rejected the idea. Fifteen years later in 1966, Ralph Baer was still working on his thwarted TV game idea and designed a series of prototypes. A prototype built in 1968 played ball & paddle and target shooting games. After several demonstrations to TV manufacturers, Magnavox signed an agreement with Baer’s company in 1971 and released the first commercial home videogame system – the ‘Odyssey’ – in May 1972. The game console retailed for $100 and was only distributed through Magnavox dealers. Each of the 12 games required its’ own circuit board. Video was in black and white, * This case was prepared by Robert M. Bowen of the Foster School of Business at the University of Washington. All sources are publicly available. Revised November 2008. Please do not reproduce without permission. The comments of Dave Burgstahler, Rocky Higgins, Jane Kennedy, Elizabeth Stearns, and Dan Turner are appreciated. 1 iSuppli’s tear-down analysis of the Microsoft Xbox 360 was priced at $1,299 and included a complete bill of materials, cost data, photos and descriptions of key components. Similar reports were available from iSuppli for other well-known consumer electronics devices including Apple’s video-capable iPod and iPod nano. 2 Merrill Lynch released a similar analysis on November 2, 2005 that was not based on a tear-down of an actual unit. 3 This section draws heavily on the history of the videogame, which is told in various versions at http://www.pong-story.com/intro.htm, http://www.emuunlim.com/doteaters/ and http://www.gamespot.com/. For a chronology of videogame systems, see http://www.islandnet.com/~kpolsson/vidgame/mini.htm.