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Constructing Appetizing Food stuff Tastier Best Brown rice Cooker

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Wireless Driveway Alarm - Nelson Alarms

Solar Powered Photoelectric Dual Beam Sensors NOW the most ADVANCED WIRELESS Beam on the Market* Ideal for farms, lifestyle properties, driveways, gates, sheds and utility areas R Solar powered beams with battery backup Multiple RF Transmission Signals Sent R Two synchronized beams for added reliability R Open Signals (beam interrupted) R Small discrete all-in-one self-contained unit R Closed Signal (beam restored) R Activated by breaking both beams R Supervision Signal sent every 3.45 hours (Heartbeat) R Does not require a heat source for activation R Tamper Signal R Four zone receiver with four trouble zones R Low Battery Signal R Multi zone alarm panels R Optional JN-P01 Add on Solar Cell for shaded areas R Optional Chime or Counter on JN-VR-4P R Optional JN-RL-V - Repeater for longer transmission ranges R RF transmission up to 500m in open space* R A range of models: 20, 50, 100, 200m (outdoor) R Suitable for temporary or long-term protection R 12 Month warranty Visonic MCR-308 Receiver Optional Solar Cell Chime Box Counter Solar Repeater JNVR-4 Four Zone Receiver Available From Stoke, Nelson. Available Models: JNVR-4S - Switched NO/NC relay JNVR-4P - Power controlled output + constant supply Ph 03 548-6686 Copyright © 2008 Redlite Security Electronics Ltd P O Box 2145

Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency - Wiley Online Library

Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency: Case–Control Neurosonography Results Andrew D. Barreto, MD,1 Staley A. Brod, MD,1 Thanh-Tung Bui, MD, RVT,1 James R. Jemelka, MA,1 Larry A. Kramer, MD,2 Kelly Ton, BS,1 Alan M. Cohen, MD,2 John W. Lindsey, MD,1 Flavia Nelson, MD,1 Ponnada A. Narayana, PhD,2 and Jerry S. Wolinsky, MD1 Objective: Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). We sought to determine whether neurosonography (NS) provides reliable information on cerebral venous outflow patterns specific to MS. Methods: This was a single-center, prospective case–control study of volunteer MS and non-MS participants. A neurosonologist, blind to the subjects’ diagnosis, used high-resolution B-mode imaging with color and spectral Doppler to systematically investigate, capture, and record extracranial and intracranial venous drainage. These neuroimaging results were evaluated and scored by an expert blinded to subjects’ information and with no interactions with the participants. Results: Altogether, 276 subjects were studied: 206 with MS and 70 non-MS. MS patients were older than non-MS subjects (48.369.9 vs 44.3611.8 years, p<0.007), with durations from first symptoms and diagnosis of 13.7610 and 9.967.8 years, and Expanded Disability Status Scale of 2.662.0. Overall, 82 subjects (29.7%) fulfilled 1 of 5 NS criteria proposed for CCSVI; 13 (4.7%) fulfilled 2 criteria required for diagnosis, and none fulfilled >2 criteria. The distribution of subjects with 0, 1, or 2 criteria did not differ significantly across all diagnostic groupings, between MS and non-MS subjects, or within MS subgroups. CCSVI was present in 7.14% of non-MS and 3.88% of MS patients...

No Association Between Conventional Brain MR Imaging and ...

ORIGINAL RESEARCH R. Zivadinov G. Cutter K. Marr M. Ramanathan R.H.B. Benedict N. Bergsland C. Morgan E. Carl D. Hojnacki E.A. Yeh L. Willis M. Cherneva C. Kennedy M.G. Dwyer B. Weinstock-Guttman No Association Between Conventional Brain MR Imaging and Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency in Multiple Sclerosis BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: CCSVI has been reported to occur at high frequency in MS. Its signif- icance in relation to MR imaging parameters also needs to be determined, both in patients with MS and HCs. Therefore, this study determined the associations of CCSVI and conventional MR imaging outcomes in patients with MS and in HCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: T2, T1, and gadolinium lesion number, LV, and brain atrophy were assessed on 3T MR imaging in 301 subjects, of whom 162 had RRMS, 66 had secondary-progressive MS subtype, and 73 were HCs. CCSVI was assessed using extracranial and transcranial Doppler evaluation. The MR imaging measure differences were explored with 27 borderline cases for CCSVI, added to both the negative and positive CCSVI groups to assess sensitivity of the results of these cases.

Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI) in Multiple ...

Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI) in Multiple Sclerosis – From “The Big Idea” to “The Perfect Crime”? By Christos Krogias, on behalf of EFNS and ENS, Ruhr University Bochum, Germany Michel Clanet, on behalf of ECTRIMS and ENS, University of Toulouse, France Giancarlo Comi, on behalf of ENS, University Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy Ralf Gold, on behalf of ECTRIMS and EFNS, Ruhr University Bochum, Germany Gian Luigi Lenzi, on behalf of EFNS, University of Rome, Italy Xavier Montalban, on behalf of ECTRIMS, University of Barcelona, Spain Per Soelberg Sørensen, on behalf of ECTRIMS and EFNS, University of Copenhagen, Denmark April 2011 Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, primarily inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (Compston and Coles, 2008). Pathogenesis is triggered by environmental factors in combination with genetic susceptibility. Typically migration of autoreactive lymphocytes across the blood-brain barrier initiates the activation of a complex autoimmune cascade, where monocytes and microglial cells then step in and further augment tissue damage by oxidative mechanisms. The histological hallmark of the disease is a perivenous sclerotic plaque, characterised by inflammation, oligodendrocyte depletion, astrocytosis, de- and remyelination as well as subsequent axonal degeneration (Lucchinetti et al., 2000). This perivenous formation of the plaque has set the stage to introduce the hypothesis that a venous blockade may stand at the beginning of the chronic autoimmune process and may...

Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and multiple ... - SciELO

Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and multiple sclerosis Insuficiência venosa cérebro-espinhal crônica e esclerose múltipla Emerson Leandro Gasparetto 1, Claudia da Costa Leite 2 In a previous issue of Radiologia Brasileira, Radu & Gonçalves(1) published an editorial discussing the relation between chronic cerebrospinal insufficiency and multiple sclerosis, on the basis of articles published by Zamboni et al.(2,3). Such question has recently emerged and has been fervorously discussed in the scientific community, but definite conclusions are still to be drawn. Thus, as members of the editorial board of this journal, we are concerned about the conclusion of the mentioned article that says: “angioplasty seems a promising avenue mainly for the relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis course, offering significant improvement in long-term neurological outcome with no relapses in patients with stable venous patency”(1). So, we would like to bring forward more information on this subject to the readers of RB, particularly with the objective of emphasizing that, in the literature, there is not any reliable, proved and validated evidence that angioplasty presents any benefit for patients with multiple sclerosis. It should be emphasized that, according to a recent article published in the journal Nature(4), the initial study developed by Dr. Zamboni was a non-randomized, non-blinded trial based on a small series including only 65 patients. Thus, in spite of the findings of such study deserving attention and further investigation, nobody in the clinical community involved in treatment of multiple sclerosis has accepted venoplasty.

Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency - Multiple Sclerosis Society

Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency Have we found the cause and cure of MS? Robert J. Fox, MD Alex Rae-Grant, MD Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Robert J. Fox, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195 foxr@ccf.org Neurology® 2011;77:1 Multiple sclerosis (MS) has traditionally been considered an autoimmune disorder—an abnormal immune system attacking an otherwise healthy brain, spinal cord, or optic nerve. But even in its original description by Charcot, the perivenular predilection of MS lesions suggested a potential vascular etiology. In 1935, Tracy Putman1 reported an animal model of MS based on injecting obstructing agents into the venous sinuses. On the basis of this model he treated 74 patients with MS with the anticoagulant dicumarol, with mixed results.2 After lying dormant for over half a century, the vascular theory of MS re-emerged with a series of publications led by the Italian vascular surgeon Paolo Zamboni. He used ultrasound and catheter-based venography to describe venous insufficiency in the internal jugular veins (IJV), vertebral veins, and deep cerebral veins of patients with MS, coining the term chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI).3 Five ultrasound criteria were proposed (figure), although these have yet to be validated against a criterion standard. Using these criteria, Zamboni and colleagues reported a surprisingly high 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity in discriminating patients with MS from controls. The same group reported clinical improvements in an open-label study of catheter-based venoplasty,4 later provocatively named the liberation procedure. The public response to these reports was profound.5 Web sites, blogs, Facebook pages, and other...

Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in ... - NeuroCure

In 2009, Zamboni and colleagues1 reintroduced the theory that obstructions of the venous outflow from the CNS are associated with multiple sclerosis and they proposed a link with multiple sclerosis pathogenesis. This hypothesis, originally posed by Putnam in 1947,2 then attracted an enormous amount of attention from patients, physicians, and the media, but also caused substantial uncertainty. In fact, both the theory3 and the ultrasound and catheter venography studies on which the concept of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency is based have substantial methodological flaws, as has recently been shown convincingly.4,5 Many studies with ultrasound,6–8 MRI techniques (including flow measurements9), catheter venography,10 or combined methods11 have conclusively disproven a link between multiple sclerosis and findings suggestive of venous outflow obstructions in the head and neck. Nevertheless, the associated treatment for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency, in the form of angioplastic inter­ ventions, which was tendentiously termed liberation treatment and proposed as a valid approach to alleviate multiple sclerosis symptoms, earned widespread media coverage and kindled the hopes of desperate patients with the disease.12 Despite the absence of scientific evidence, chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency rapidly entered the multiple sclerosis glossary and there were testimonials of miraculous recoveries following angioplastic procedures. Although most researchers,...

The many sonographic faces of the chronic cerebrospinal venous ...

Multiple sclerosis patients nearly always are found abnormal venous outflow obstacles in extracranial veins draining the central nervous system. These venous outflow blockages are described as chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) and finding of CCSVI parameters in the sonographic examination is highly pathognomonic for multiple sclerosis. Venous obstacles compromising blood outflow from the brain and spinal cord can be very diverse. A whole constellation of venous pathologies can be found, including: occlusion, stenosis, narrowing, septum and inverted valves. Nowadays it is thought that these venous obstacles are primarily congenital, although a presence of post-traumatic or post-thrombotic lesions is also possible. However, irrespective of the actual origin of these venous occlusions and stenoses, to look properly for these venous pathologies by means of Doppler ultrasound it is necessary to understand hemodynamic principles ruling the venous outflow from the brain and spinal cord. Both the brain and spinal cord are enclosed in osseous chambers (skull in case of the brain and spinal canal in case of the spinal cord. Therefore, vessels directly draining the brain and spinal cord are: first, non-collapsible that means that they contain approximately the same volume of the blood, irrespective of velocity and direction of the flow; second, they cannot ...

Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: State of the art and ...

The idea that multiple sclerosis (MS) – a chronic neurological disease characterised by multifocal areas of inflammation, demyelination and neurodegeneration within the central nervous system – might be caused by stenoses in the veins draining the brain and spinal cord (the so-called chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency - CCSVI) is currently hotly debated by the scientific community. Proponents of venous paradigm claim for primary role of these blockages in initiating pathologic immune reactions. Some researchers support this revolutionary idea, while others vigorously challenge. Yet, the venous hypothesis is not necessarily contrary to its currently ruling autoimmune paradigm. The autoimmune and venous models may actually represent two sides of the same coin, with MS being a disease triggered and exacerbated by both immune and vascular mechanisms. At the moment, research on venous abnormalities related to MS is in its infancy. Still, three questions regarding venous insufficiency in the cerebral territory should primarily be answered: I. Does CCSVI actually exist?. II. If it does, is it exclusively associated with MS?. III. If associated,...

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