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contoh sijil spm keputusan 1990

Peluang Korupsi dalam Proses Pengadaan Barang dan Jasa ...

Jumlah pengadaan barang dan jasa di lembaga publik rata-rata mencapai sekitar 15%-30% dari GDP. Banyaknya pengadaan barang dan jasa di lembaga-lembaga pemerintah, merupakan peluang yang menggiurkan dan tentunya meningkatkan resiko terjadinya korupsi. Besarnya kerugian akibat korupsi diperkirakan mencapai 10%-25% pada skala normal. Dalam beberapa kasus, kerugian yang ditimbulkan mencapai 40%-50% dari nilai kontrak. “Pengadaan Barang dan Jasa” –atau dalam istilah asing disebut sebagai procurement– muncul karena adanya kebutuhan akan suatu barang atau jasa, mulai dari pensil, seprei, aspirin untuk kebutuhan rumah sakit, bahan bakar kendaraan milik pemerintah, peremajaan mobil dan armada truk, peralatan sekolah dan rumah sakit, perlengkapan perang untuk instansi militer, perangkat ringan atau berat untuk perumahan, pembangunan, untuk jasa konsultasi serta kebutuhan jasa lainnya (seperti pembangunan stasiun pembangkit listrik atau jalan tol hingga menyewa jasa konsultan bidang teknik, keuangan, hukum atau fungsi konsultasi lainnya). Istilah pengadaan barang dan jasa diartikan secara luas, mencakup penjelasan dari tahap persiapan, penentuan dan pelaksanaan atau administrasi tender untuk pengadaan barang, lingkup pekerjaan atau jasa lainnya. Pengadaan barang dan jasa juga tak hanya sebatas pada pemilihan rekanan proyek dengan bagian pembelian (purchasing) atau perjanjian resmi kedua belah pihak saja, tetapi mencakup seluruh proses sejak awal perencanaan, persiapan, perijinan, penentuan pemenang tender hingga tahap pelaksanaan dan proses administrasi dalam pengadaan barang, pekerjaan atau jasa seperti jasa konsultasi teknis, jasa konsultasi keuangan, jasa konsultasi hukum atau jasa lainnya. Transparency International (TI) mendefinisikan korupsi sebagai suatu tindakan penyalahgunaan kekuasaan yang bertujuan menghasilkan keuntungan pribadi. Pengertian “keuntungan pribadi” ini harus ditafsirkan secara luas, termasuk juga di dalamnya keuntungan pribadi yang diberikan oleh para pelaku ekonomi kepada kerabat dan keluarganya, partai politik atau dalam beberapa kasus ditemukan bahwa keuntungan tersebut disalurkan ke organisasi independen atau institusi amal dimana pelaku politik tersebut memiliki peran serta, baik dari sisi keuangan atau sosial. Sejauh ini, jarang sekali ditemukan penjelasan terperinci dalam hukum kriminal tentang definisi korupsi. Umumnya, hukum kriminal masih mencampur-adukan tindak kejahatan korupsi dengan tindak kejahatan lainnya, yang kemudian juga disebut sebagai tindak pidana korupsi misalnya, penyuapan (baik pemberi maupun penerima) oleh para pejabat pemerintah baik lokal maupun asing dan perusahaan-perusahaan pribadi, pemberian uang pelicin, penipuan, penipuan data dalam tender, penggelapan, pencurian, tender arisan (kolusi antar sesama peserta tender), suap di lembaga legislatif, dan lain-lain. Biasanya, bentuk dan hukuman atas pelanggaran terhadap hukum kriminal masing-masing negara berbeda, meski pada intinya perbuatan tersebut merupakan tindak pidana korupsi. Korupsi adalah tindak kejahatan yang diatur. Hal tersebut berdasar pada kenyataan bahwa pemberi dan penerima suap adalah penjahat, maka diperkirakan kedua belah pihak akan berupaya untuk menutupi kejahatan mereka. Bentuk Korupsi dalam Proses Pengadaan Barang dan Jasa Dikutip dan disarikan dari Buku Panduan Mencegah Korupsi dalam Pengadaan Barang dan Jasa Publik, TII, 2006 Dalam pengadaan barang dan jasa di pemerintah, ada beberapa bentuk korupsi. Bentuk yang paling sering dilakukan dan terang-terangan adalah penyuapan dan pemberian uang pelicin (uang rokok, uang bensin dan sebagainya) hingga bentuk lainnya yang lebih halus dalam bentuk korupsi politik. Penyuapan vs Uang Pelicin. Biasanya, kasus penyuapan dalam jumlah yang besar diberikan kapada pejabat senior pemerintah (pembuat keputusan) untuk menghasilkan keputusan menguntungkan si penyuap. Sedangkan Uang Pelicin, biasanya berupa pemberian uang dalam jumlah yang lebih kecil, yang pada umumnya diberikan kepada pegawai rendahan dengan maksud untuk mempercepat atau mempermudah masalah terutama yang terkait persoalan hukum (misalnya dalam pemeriksaan bagasi oleh pihak bea cukai) atau uang pelicin untuk memperlancar pembayaran akibat keterlambatan pembayaran,...

perjanjian kerja sama antara badan penanggulangan bencana ...

PERJANJIAN KERJA SAMA ANTARA BADAN PENANGGULANGAN BENCANA DAERAH KABUPATEN KEPULAUAN MENTAWAI DENGAN PUSAT PELAYANAN JASA DAN INFORMASI BADAN KOORDINASI SURVEI DAN PEMETAAN NASIONAL Tentang PELAKSANAAN PEKERJAAN PEMBUATAN PETA RAWAN BENCANA KABUPATEN KEPULAUAN MENTAWAI NOMOR: 01/SPK-PR/BPBD-KM//VII / 2012 NOMOR: 80/JASINFO.SPK/LP/7/2012 : Kepala Pelaksana Badan Penanggulangan Bencana Daerah Kabupaten Kepulauan Mentawai, dalam ha! ini bertindak untuk dan atas nama Pemerintah Daerah Kabupaten Kepulauan Mentawai di Jalan Raya Tuapeijat Km. 8, Tuapeijat - Sipora Mentawai, seianjutnya disebut PIHAK KESATU.: Kepala Pusat Pelayanan Jasa dan Informasi, dalam hal ini bertindak untuk dan atas nama Badan Koordinasi Survei dan Pemetaan Nasional, di Jalan Raya Jakarta - Bogor Km. 46 Cibinong, Jawa Barat, seianjutnya disebut PIHAK KEDUA. PIHAK KESATU dan PIHAK KEDUA yang seianjutnya disebut PARA PIHAK terlebih dahulu mengingat: Undang-Unciang Nomor 20 Tahun 1997 tentang Penerimaan Negara Bukan Pajak (Lembaran Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 1997 Nomor 43, Tambahan Lembaran Negara Republik Indonesia Nomor 3693); Undang-Untiang Nomor49 Tahun 1999, tanggal 4 Oktober 1999 tentang Pembentukan Kabupaten Kepulauan Mentawai; undang-Undang Nomor 4 Tahun 2011 tentang Informasi Geospasial (Lembar Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 2011 Nomor 49, Tambahan Lembaran Negara Republik Indonesia Nomor 5214); Undang-Undang Nomor 24 Tahun 2007 tentang Penanggulangan Bencana; Peraturan Pernerintah Nomor 57 Tahun 2007 sebagai pengganti Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 42 Tahun 2001, tentang Jenis dan Tarif atas Jenis Penerimaan Negara Bukan Pajak yang berlaku pada Badan Koordinasi Survei dan Pemetaan Nasional; Peraturan Presiden Nomor 54 Tahun 2010 tentang Pedoman Pelaksanaan Pengadaan Barang/Jasa Pemerintah; Peraturan Menteri Keuangan Nomor: 84/PMK.02/2011 tentang Standar Biaya Tahun Anggaran2012; Keputusan Menteri Keuangan Nomor 188 Tahun 2008 tentang Persetujuan Penggunaan Sebagian Dana Penerimaan Negara Bukan Pajak yang berasal dari Penerimaan Negara Bukan Pajak Badan Koordinasi Survei dan Pemetaan Nasional; Peraturan Bupati Kepulauan Mentawai Nomor 21 Tahun 2011 tentang Analisa Standar Belanja Tahun Anggaran 2012. Memperhaiikan Dokumen Pelaksanaan Anggaran Satuan Kerja Perangkat Daerah Badan Penanggulangan Bencana Kabupaten Mentawai, dengan Nomor Dokumen Pelaksanaan Anggaran 1 20.19.22.13.5.2, tanggal 16 Februari 2012; Surat Kepala Pelaksana Badan Penanggulangan Bencana Daerah Kabupaten Kepulauan Mentawai Nomor: 065/66/BPBD-KKM/V-2012 tentang Kerjasama Pelaksanaa*-; Pekerjaan Pembuatan Peta Rawan Bencana dan Peta Rawan Bencana Kabupaten Mentawai, tanggal 15 Mei 2012; Surat Kepala Pusat Pelayanan Jasa dan Informasi Badan Koordinasi Survei dan Pemetaan Nasional Nomor: B-1120/BIG/SESMA/LP/5/2012 tentang Kerjasama Pelaksanaar- Pekerjaan Pembuatan Peta Rawan Bencana dan Peta Rawan Bencana...

kepolisian negara republik indonesia daerah maluku direktorat ...

KEPOLISIAN NEGARA REPUBLIK INDONESIA DAERAH MALUKU DIREKTORAT SABHARA LAPORAN HASIL PELAKSANAAN UNIT SAR DIT SABHARA POLDA MALUKU KEPOLISIAN NEGARA REPUBLIK INDONESIA DAERAH MALUKU DIREKTORAT SABHARA LAPORAN HASIL PELAKSANAAN UNIT SAR DIT SABHARA POLDA MALUKU 1. Umum a. Bahwa wilayah Indonesia khususnya wilayah Maluku yang memiliki kondisi geografis, geologis, hidrologis dan demografis rawan terhadap terjadinya bencana dengan frekuensi yang cukup tinggi, sehingga dapat mengakibatkan korban jiwa dan harta benda, sehingga perlu antisipasi dan ditangani sesegera mungkin secara arif, bijaksana, profesional, proporsional, transparansi dan akuntabel melalui pendekatan manajemen penanggulangan bencana. b. Sesuai Undang-undang Nomor. 2 Tahun 2002 tentang Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia pasal 13 dan pasal 14 ayat (1) huruf i mengamanatkan melindungi keselamatan jiwa raga, harta benda, masyarakat, dan lingkungan hidup dari gangguan ketertiban dan atau bencana termasuk memberikan bantuan dan pertolongan dengan menjunjung tinggi hak asasi manusia; c. Bahwa Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia khususnya pada Direktorat Sabhara bertugas melindungi keselamatan jiwa raga, harta benda, masyarakat dan lingkungan hidup dari gangguan ketertiban dan atau bencana termasuk memberikan bantuan dan pertolongan dengan menjunjung tinggi hak asasi manusia. d. Bahwa dalam permasalahan penanggulangan dan penanganan bencana, Dit Sabhara Polda Maluku akan memberikan pelayanan yang cepat dalam rangka pelayanan prima guna menyelamatkan nyawa maupun harta benda sebagai akibat bencana yang merupakan salah satu wujud pelaksanaan Quick Respon Sabhara. e. Kehadiran anggota Polri khususnya Unit SAR Dit Sabhara Polda Maluku menjadi prioritas utama untuk memberikan rasa aman dan terlayani kepada masyarakat pada saat penanggulangan bencana. Dalam rangka menjawab tuntutan persoalan masyarakat tersebut Dit Sabhara Polda Maluku telah melaksanakan Pencapaian Grand Strategi Polri diutamakan Quick Respon dalam pelayanan masyarakat berupa kegiatan SAR (Search And Rescue) dan untuk mempertanggung jawabkan hasil kepada pimpinan telah disusun Laporan hasil guna untuk menjadi bahan pertimbangan bagi pimpinan dalam melaksanakan tugas tersebut 2. Dasar.............. Undang – undang No. 2 tahun 2002 tentang Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia ( Lembaran Negara Republik Indonesia tahun 2002 nomor 2, tambahan lembaran Negara Republik Indonesia nomor 4168). Peraturan Pemerintah Republik Indonesia Nomor 21 Tahun 2008 tentang Penyelenggaraan penanggulangan bencana. Peraturan Pemerintah Republik Indonesia Nomor 23 Tahun 2008 tentang Peran serta Lembaga Internasional dan Lembaga Asing, Non Pemerintah dalam penanggulangan bencana. Keputusan Kapolri Nomor 22 Tahun 2010 tanggal 28 September 2010 tentang Susunan organisasi dan tata kerja pada tingkat Kepolisian Daerah...

Value of an Employment Based Green Card - College of Business ...

The Value of an Employment Based Green Card Sankar Mukhopadhyay1 and David Oxborrow2 Abstract: The need for and role of high skilled immigrants workers in the U.S. economy is fiercely debated. However proponents and opponents agree temporary workers are paid a lower wage compared to natives. This lower wage comes from restricted mobility of workers while on a temporary visa. In this paper we estimate the wage gain from acquiring permanent U.S. residency. We use data from New Immigrant Survey (2003) and implement a difference in difference propensity score matching estimator. We find that for employer sponsored immigrants’ the acquisition of a green card leads to an annual wage gain of about $11,860. The Value of an Employment Based Green Card The Value of an Employment Based Green Card Employment of foreign-born workers is a fiercely debated issue centering on the beneficial aspects of additional labor within the United States, balanced against its potential adverse effects on native workers. To work in the U.S., foreign-born workers must have either a valid employment visa or become a legal permanent resident (i.e. a green card holder). A legal permanent resident can easily change jobs and can work within the U.S. indefinitely. According to the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), during the period 1999-2008 the number of green cards approved averaged at about one million per year. About 15% of all green cards approved were employment based (EB), about 21% were family based, about 43% were relatives of U.S. citizens with the rest made up of diversity visas, refugees, and asylees (about 16%). Temporary visa holders, on the other hand, face more restrictions on the duration of their employment in the U.S. (maximum is six years for H-1B visa holders). They also face restricted mobility across jobs (especially if they have already applied for a green card). Two types of visas that are commonly used to bring skilled foreign workers to the U.S. include the H-1B and the L1 visas. These “Dual intent” immigration programs permits an immigrant to enter into the United States with a temporary visa, but with an intention for permanent migration. Such programs have been at the center of the controversy since this program was introduced by the U.S. Congress in 1990.1 In our analysis we do not distinguish between H-1B and L-1 temporary workers because our data do not have that information. While the use of L-1 visa has increased since the late 1990s the number of L-1 visas issued is still small compared to the H-1B program even though the number of L-1 visas is not capped (Kirkegaard 2005). Given the time frame of our sample we do The H-1B visa allows U.S. employers to temporarily employ foreign workers in “specialty” occupations for up to 6 years (NFAP 2009). Proponents of this program argue that it gives employers access to the skilled foreign workers they require in order to satisfy their staffing needs; however, opponents argue that the system is misused by the employers (Hira 2007; Miano 2007). The L-1 visa on the other hand is used for intra-company transfers. Although the effects of the use of temporary workers has been debated in the media and in popular press for years (Wayne 2001; Hafner and Preysman 2003; Hamm and Herbst 2009 among others) but careful empirical analysis of this topic is rare. There are two very much interrelated, nonetheless distinct, questions involved in this debate. First, do temporary workers work for less than the comparable natives (or legal permanent residents) and second, if so, does that adversely affect the wage of domestic workers? Even if the answer to the first question is yes (i.e. temporary workers get paid less than the natives) that does not necessarily imply a lower wage for the natives if the supply of foreign-born workers is restricted to a number that is not significant enough to affect the market for domestic workers at the aggregate level. Furthermore, if there are some “localized” effects they may not be evident in the aggregate data. On the former question, Kirkegaard (2005) reports “aggressive wage-cost cutting” and paying H-1B workers only the legally mandated wage (which is 95% of “prevailing wage”) but he did not find any evidence of systematic abuse. Hamm and Herbst (2009) on the other hand presents evidence of abuse by a section of employers. On the later question, National Research...

Toyota Estima, Emina, Lucida Service Repair Manual Download

Toyota Estima, Emina, Lucida Service Repair Manual Download DOWNLOAD HERE This is a complete repair manual / service manual for your Toyota Estima, Emina, Lucida. It covers every single detail on your car. All models, and all engines are included! This manual is the same manual that is given to your local service/repair shop. The PDF allow you to zoom in for to view detailed parts and then print out any pages you need... without GETTING GREASE ON ANY PAGES.Covers in detail years listed, OVER 2000 PAGES....ALL for easy, detailed viewing. I've listed below the main categories that can be found in our manuals. You can expect many more sub categories in any manual we offer! ====== THIS MANUAL COVERS: *ENGINE OVERHAUL AND REBUILDING *BRAKES *SUNROOF *TIMING BELT REPLACEMENT *TROUBLE CODES *WIRING DIAGRAMS *TROUBLESHOOTING AND DIAGNOSTICS *COMPUTER DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE TREE CHARTS *ENGINE PERFORMANCE *FRONT END AND ALIGNMENT PROCEDURES AND SPECIFICATIONS *SUSPENSION *TRANSMISSION REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION *AIR CONDITIONING SERVICE AND CAPACITIES *TRANSMISSION IN CAR SERVICING *COMPUTER DIAGNOSTIC CODES *FIRING ORDERS *DETAILED SPECIFICATIONS ON EVERY MODEL COVERED *FACTORY MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES AND CHARTS *SERPENTINE BELT ROUTINGS WITH DIAGRAMS *TIMING BELT SERVICE PROCEDURES *BRAKE SERVICING PROCEDURES *DRIVING CONCERNS *COMPLETE TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS *U-JOINT AND CV-JOINT SERVICE PROCEDURES *REPAIR PROCEDURES *COMPLETE WIRING DIAGRAMS *HUNDREDS OF ILLUSTRATIONS *VACUUM DIAGRAMS AND MORE... ====== FORMAT: PDF LANGUAGE: English Downloadable: YES COMPATIBLE: All Versions of Windows & Mac Requirements: Adobe PDF Reader. 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Event Inventory - Sparkling City Auto Auction

Event Inventory Sparkling City San Antonio Auto Auction - Tue, Jun 4, 2013 SCAA San Antonio # City Consignor Lane Date Run# Inv# Description Equipment VIN Color 1 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0001 29048 2004 Ford Explorer 2WD V6 4D Utility XLS 4.0L 6F AC RW AL 1FMZU62K54ZA13434 Red 175,922 Actual Miles Jun-4 A 0002 28283 2005 Hyundai Elantra 4D Sedan GLS 4G AC KMHDN46D25U031833 Silver 86,900 Actual Miles A 0004 30377 2006 Ford F350SD 4WD V8 Diesel Crew Cab DRW 8D LB AC AL 1FTWW33P26ED80683 White 124,844 Actual Miles 1FTSW31P64EA34005 White 91,488 Actual Miles Announcements: 2 AS IS | FRAME DAMAGE San Antonio, TX Announcements: A NAM 3 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 4 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 Announcements: Mileage A 0005 2004 Ford F350SD 4WD V8 Diesel Crew Cab XLT 6.0L 30378 8D LB AC AL DRIVE TRN ONLY | FRAME-STEP BRD WELD TO FRAME 5 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0006 29919 2012 Ford Fusion I-4 4D Sedan SEL 4G AL WA 3FAHP0JA5CR214322 Purple 40,589 Actual Miles 6 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0007 29921 2007 Chevrolet Uplander Wagon LT 6G RW WA 1GNDV33147D190520 Maroon 135,266 Actual Miles Jun-4 A 0008 30004 2004 Honda Accord I-4 4D Sedan EX-L LU 4G WA 1HGCM56824A035832 Silver 137,961 Actual Miles Jun-4 A 0009 30215 2003 Nissan Xterra 2WD V6 4D Utility V6 SE 3.3L 6G AC RW AL WA 5N1ED28T23C681071 Black 99,840 Exempt 1ZVHT80NX85141061 White 83,934 Actual Miles Announcements: 7 DRIVE TRAIN ONLY San Antonio, TX Announcements: 8 A DRIVE TRAIN ONLY San Antonio, TX Announcements: 9 San Antonio, TX Announcements: 10 A DRIVE TRAIN ONLY A A 0010 2008 Ford Mustang V6 2D Coupe Base 29128 6G WA DRIVE TRAIN ONLY | FRAME DAMAGE | NOT A COBRA-MIS MARKED A San Antonio, TX Announcements: Jun-4 Jun-4 A 0011 28439 2004 Dodge Ram 1500 2WD V8 Quad Cab ST 4.7L 8G SB AC AL WA 1D7HA18N74J201194 Grey 136,629 Actual Miles FRAME DAMAGE 11 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0012 29922 2005 Jeep Grand Cherokee 2WD V6 4D Utility Laredo 6G AC RW WA 1J4GS48K05C664854 White 153,375 Actual Miles 12 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0013 30036 2007 Chrysler 300 V6 4D Sedan Base 6G AC WA 2C3KA43R77H741103 Blue 122,783 Actual Miles Announcements: FRAME DAMAGE 13 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0014 30071 2006 Chevrolet HHR 4D Utility LS 2.2L 4G AC RW 3GNDA13D56S608253 Purple 145,935 Actual Miles 14 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0015 28192 2004 Jeep Grand Cherokee 4WD I-6 4D Utility Laredo LU 6G AC RW WA 1J4GW48S64C257527 Maroon 106,842 Actual Miles 15 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0016 30367 2007 Chevrolet Malibu V6 4D Sedan LT Maxx 6G AC WA 1G1ZT68N07F228386 Gold 155,337 Actual Miles 16 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0017 59833 2006 Chevrolet Cobalt 2D Coupe LS 4G AC AL WA 1G1AK15F367835200 Silver 75,931 Actual Miles Jun-4 A 0018 30364 2011 Ford Fusion I-4 4D Sedan SE 4G AC AL WA 3FAHP0HA5BR201963 Blue 48,145 Actual Miles Jun-4 A 0019 30369 2007 Ford Five Hundred 4D Sedan SEL 6G AC AL WA 1FAHP24177G164186 Gold 77,564 Actual Miles Jun-4 A 0020 30406 2005 BMW 3-Series I-6 4D Sedan 325i LU 6G AC AL WA WBAEV33475KX10691 Black 87,115 Actual Miles Jun-4 A 0021 29053 2004 GMC C7500 C7C042 C C RWD 6D AC AL 1GDJ7C1C94F902560 White 146,152 Actual Miles Announcements: 17 Announcements: 18 FRAME DAMAGE A DRIVE TRAIN ONLY San Antonio, TX Announcements: 20 A San Antonio, TX Announcements: 19 TMU San Antonio, TX A AS-IS | FRAME San Antonio, TX Print Date: Jun 4, 2013 A Page 1 of 16 # City Consignor Lane Date Run# Inv# Description Equipment VIN Color 21 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0022 26622 2006 INTERN 4000 SERIES 4300 RWD 6D AC 1HTMMAAM96H159643 White 129,584 Actual Miles 22 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0023 27441 2005 GMC SAVANA G3500 G G RWD 8G AC AL 1GDJG31V951908911 White 162,525 Actual Miles Jun-4 A 0024 28261 2005 GMC SAVANA G3500 G G RWD 8G AC AL 1GDJG31V051907744 White 137,804 Actual Miles Jun-4 A 0025 28485 2005 Ford Commercial Vans V8 Gas Parcel Delivery 8G AC AL 1FDWE35L35HA70872 White 157,400 Actual Miles Jun-4 A 0026 28750 2001 Toyota Camry Solara V6 2D Coupe V6 SE LU 6G AC WA 2T1CF22P61C446002 Gold 133,752 Exempt Announcements: 23 A FRAME DAMAGE San Antonio, TX Announcements: 25 DRIVE TRAIN ONLY San Antonio, TX Announcements: 24 A DRIVE TRAIN ONLY San Antonio, TX Announcements: Mileage A FRAME DAMAGE 26 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0027 60041 2002 Dodge Ram 2500 2WD I-6 Quad Cab ST 5.9L 6D AC 3B7KC23632M313314 Blue 252,766 Exempt 27 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0028 30734 2003 GMC Yukon 2WD 4D Utility SLE 5.3L LU 8F AC 1GKEC13Z73R151094 Tan 144,087 Exempt 28 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0029 30735 2003 Dodge Grand Caravan Wagon EX 6G AC 2D4GP74L03R106209 Blue 134,702 Exempt 29 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0036 59914 1990 HONDA ACCORD LX LX FWD 4G AC 1HGCB7551LA107238 Silver 211,070 Exempt 30 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0037 59912 2004 Dodge Intrepid 4D Sedan SE 6G AC 2B3HD46R74H707684 Silver 110,962 Actual Miles 31 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0038 60045 2002 Chevrolet Silverado 2500 4WD Diesel Crew Cab 8D AC 1GCHK23122F219894 White 215,249 Exempt 32 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0039 30977 2009 Ford F150 2WD Reg Cab XL 4.6L 8G AC 1FTRF12W19KB43800 White 96,288 Actual Miles 33 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0040 30978 2008 Lexus RX 350 4D Utility 3.5L LU 6G AC 2T2GK31U08C035405 Blue 95,847 Actual Miles 34 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0041 30979 2005 Chevrolet Tahoe 4WD 4D Utility LT 5.3L 8G AC 1GNEK13T65R267620 Gold 134,029 Actual Miles 35 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0042 30988 2004 Dodge Dakota 2WD V6 Quad Cab SXT 3.7L 6G AC 1D7HL38K84S579403 Black 100,551 Actual Miles 36 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0043 30980 2000 BMW 5-Series I-6 4D Sedan 528i LU 6G AC WBADM6347YGU13413 Silver 37 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0044 30981 2007 Pontiac G6 V6 4D Sedan GT LU 6G AC 1G2ZH57N074172566 Silver 111,910 Actual Miles 38 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0045 30987 2004 Dodge Ram 1500 2WD V8 Quad Cab SLT 5.7L 8G AC 1D7HA18D74S661294 Blue 165,000 Actual Miles 39 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0046 30983 2006 Jeep Grand Cherokee 2WD V6 4D Utility Laredo 6G AC 1J4GS48K26C308519 Red 73,570 Actual Miles 40 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0047 30984 2006 Dodge Charger V6 4D Sedan SXT 6G AC 2B3KA43G46H372467 Grey 101,333 Actual Miles 41 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0048 30985 2007 Toyota Camry I-4 4D Sedan LE 4G AC 4T1BE46K57U051695 Red 116,340 Actual Miles 42 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0049 30986 2008 Chevrolet Cobalt 4D Sedan LT 4G AC 1G1AL58F687272906 Blue 85,123 Actual Miles 43 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0050 30982 2006 Lincoln Zephyr 4D Sedan LU 6G AC 3LNHM26126R626530 Maroon 98,918 Actual Miles 44 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0054 59957 2004 Saturn VUE I-4 4D Utility at 2.2L 4G AC 5GZCZ33D64S834298 Red 113,622 Actual Miles 45 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0055 60020 2008 Jeep Grand Cherokee 2WD V6 Gas 4D Utility 6G AC 1J8GS48K58C113855 Green 137,687 Actual Miles 46 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0056 60017 2003 GMC Yukon XL 4WD 4D Utility 1500 SLT 5.3L LU 8F AC 3GKFK16Z03G285688 Silver 149,365 Exempt 47 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0057 60063 2007 Jeep Compass 4WD 4D Utility Sport 2.4L 4G AC 1J8FF47W67D178310 Silver 97,836 Actual Miles 48 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0064 60031 2004 Ford F250SD 4WD V8 Diesel Crew Cab XLT 6.0L 8D 1FTNW21P84ED89233 White 107,874 Actual Miles 49 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0065 60046 2008 Nissan Sentra 4D Sedan Base 4G AC 3N1AB61E18L728004 White 87,599 Actual Miles Print Date: Jun 4, 2013 Page 87,504 Exempt 2 of 16 # City Consignor Lane Date Run# Inv# Description Equipment VIN Color 50 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0068 30512 2005 Chevrolet Malibu V6 4D Sedan LS 6G AC 1G1ZT54885F149748 Maroon 51 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0069 59920 2003 Chevrolet Monte Carlo 2D Coupe LS 6G AC 2G1WW12E639173807 Maroon 63,401 Exempt 52 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0070 59840 2005 Chevrolet Trailblazer 2WD I-6 4D Utility LS 4.2L 6G AC 1GNDS13SX52133561 Silver 81,235 Actual Miles 53 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0071 59841 2008 Chevrolet Cobalt 4D Sedan LT 4G AC 1G1AL58F887131271 Black 84,990 Actual Miles 54 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0077 59843 2007 Ford Expedition EL 2WD 4D Utility Eddie Bauer LU 8G AC 1FMFK17597LA91835 Black 118,646 Actual Miles 55 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0078 59842 2008 Nissan Titan 4WD Crew Cab LE 5.6L 8G AC 1N6AA07C78N358340 Black 92,225 Actual Miles 56 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0079 59844 2006 Dodge Caravan V6 Wagon SXT 6G AC 1D4GP45R36B697933 Blue 131,489 Actual Miles 57 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0082 30976 2008 Toyota Tundra 2WD V8 Crew Max SR5 5.7L LU 8G AC 5TFEV54128X044690 Red 75,365 Actual Miles 58 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0094 28422 2012 Volkswagen Golf I-4 2D Hatchback TDI 4D AC RW AL WA WVWBM7AJ4CW189119 Grey 21,656 Actual Miles Announcements: Mileage 116,843 Actual Miles 15 CERTIFY 59 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0098 30817 2007 Nissan Altima V6 4D Sedan SE 6G AC 1N4BL21E57C147452 Black 91,878 Actual Miles 60 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0099 30816 2006 Jeep Commander 4WD V8 4D Utility Limited 5.7L LU 8G AC 1J8HG58296C265226 Black 96,691 Actual Miles 61 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0100 30819 2005 BMW 5-Series I-6 4D Sedan 525i LU 6G AC WBANA53535B859101 Grey 76,600 Actual Miles 62 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0101 30818 2006 BMW 7-Series V8 4D Sedan 750Li LU 8G AC WBAHN835X6DT29006 Black 90,657 Actual Miles 63 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0103 59709 2007 Chrysler Pacifica 4D Utility Touring 6G AC 2A8GM68XX7R126799 White 73,903 Actual Miles 64 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0104 60018 2008 Ford Fusion V6 4D Sedan V6 SEL 6G AC 3FAHP08168R139434 Silver 78,241 Actual Miles 65 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0105 60034 2004 Chevrolet Suburban 2WD 4D Utility 1500 LS 5.3L 8F AC 1GNEC16Z74J138991 Brown 90,595 Actual Miles 66 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0108 59928 2003 Saab 9-5 I-4 4D Sedan Linear LU 4G AC YS3EB49E933003836 Black 147,893 Exempt 67 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0109 59924 2007 Chevrolet Cobalt 4D Sedan LS 4G AC 1G1AK55F477173989 Blue 104,852 Actual Miles 68 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0110 59794 2008 Saturn Outlook 4D Utility XR 3.6L LU 6G RA AL WA 5GZER237X8J109909 White 124,488 Actual Miles 69 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0111 30718 2004 Chevrolet Malibu I-4 4D Sedan Base 4G AC 1G1ZS52F24F128557 Gold 127,147 Actual Miles 70 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0112 30719 2007 Chevrolet Cobalt 4D Sedan LS 4G AC 1G1AK55FX77291674 Silver 116,105 Actual Miles 71 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0113 30716 2002 Chevrolet Trailblazer 2WD 4D Utility LS 4.2L LU 6G AC 1GNDS13S222143626 Tan 999,999 Exempt 72 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0114 30717 1999 Chevrolet Cavalier 2D Convertible Z24 4G AC 4G1JF32T5XB905626 White 100,184 Exempt 73 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0115 58497 2007 Dodge Caliber 4D Hatchback SXT 4G AC RW AL 1B3HB48B97D163809 Red 95,772 Actual Miles 74 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0116 60001 2005 Jeep Liberty 4WD V6 4D Utility Sport 3.7L 6G AC 1J4GL48K25W675186 Black 75,047 Actual Miles Announcements: FRAME DAMAGE 75 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0120 59999 1992 OLDSMO 88 ROYALE FWD 6G AC 1G3HN53L4N1806769 Silver 163,342 Actual Miles 76 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0121 60005 2007 GMC Yukon 2WD 4D Utility SLE 5.3L 8G AC 1GKFC13JX7R254837 Silver 120,125 Actual Miles 77 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0122 59720 2000 GMC Sierra 1500 4WD V8 Ext Cab 3D SLT 5.3L 8G 1GTEK19T7YZ157731 Blue 97,085 Exempt 78 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0123 59750 2004 Ford F150 2WD V8 Supercrew XLT 5.4L LU 8G AC 1FTPW125X4KC63733 Black 121,123 Actual Miles 79 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0124 30715 2004 Dodge Ram 1500 2WD V6 Reg Cab ST 3.7L 6G AC 1D7HA16K94J192782 Tan 999,999 Actual Miles Print Date: Jun 4, 2013 Page 3 of 16 # City Consignor Lane Date Run# Inv# Description Equipment VIN Color 80 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0125 59574 2004 MERCUR MOUNTAINEER RWD LU 8G AC 4M2ZU66W84ZJ20019 White 132,360 Actual Miles Announcements: Mileage DRV TRAIN GARANTY 81 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0126 59551 2003 PONTIA GRAND PRIX FWD 6G WA 1G2WK52J53F126660 Maroon 165,665 Exempt 82 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0128 30785 2002 Lexus RX 300 4WD 4D Utility 3.0L LU 6G AC JTJHF10U720240933 White 174,118 Exempt 83 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0130 30784 2005 Buick LaCrosse 4D Sedan CX 6G AC 2G4WC532951229019 Silver 176,086 Actual Miles 84 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0131 60007 2009 Dodge Grand Caravan Wagon SE 6F AC 2D8HN44E19R683140 White 124,361 Actual Miles 85 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0132 60008 2005 Cadillac CTS V6 4D Sedan 2.8 Base LU 6G AC 1G6DM56T450162518 Black 109,247 Actual Miles 86 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0133 60009 2006 Nissan Altima I-4 4D Sedan 2.5 SL LU 4G AC 1N4AL11D76N365571 Tan 116,078 Actual Miles 87 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 A 0134 30714 2005 Dodge Neon 4D Sedan SXT 4G AC 1B3ES56C85D267385 Red 115,604 Actual Miles 88 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 AA0006 29863 2008 Chevrolet G3500 Vans Diesel Ext Cargo Van 8D AC AL 1GCHG396581131048 White 236,064 Actual Miles 89 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 AA0007 29920 2003 Ford Expedition 2WD 4D Utility Eddie Bauer 5.4L LU 8G RA RW WA 1FMPU17L03LC53942 Black 146,549 Exempt Announcements: AS-IS 90 San Antonio, TX A Jun-4 AA0008 30516 2004 Chevrolet Tahoe 2WD 4D Utility LS 4.8L 8G RA AL WA 1GNEC13V04R245738 Black 163,680 Actual Miles 91 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0001 30713 2008 Dodge Durango 2WD V8 4D Utility SLT 4.7L 8G AC 1D8HD48N38F154887 Silver 99,571 Actual Miles 92 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0002 30706 2005 Chrysler 300 V8 4D Sedan C LU 8G AC 2C3AA63H55H658345 Silver 102,268 Actual Miles 93 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0003 30712 2012 Subaru Impreza 4D Sedan WRX STi Limited LU 4G AC JF1GV8J65CL003745 Silver 12,172 Actual Miles 94 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0004 30709 2010 Ford F150 2WD Supercrew XLT 4.6L LU 8G AC 1FTEW1C87AFA36875 Gold 60,062 Actual Miles 95 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0005 30710 2005 Dodge Magnum V6 4D Wagon SXT 6G AC 2D4FV48V35H670943 Black 92,006 Actual Miles 96 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0006 30711 2006 Dodge Grand Caravan Cargo Van Base 6G AC 1D4GP24R26B538908 Blue 116,782 Actual Miles 41,953 Actual Miles Announcements: DRIVE TRAIN ONLY 97 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0007 30708 2011 Ford Fusion I-4 4D Sedan SE 4G AC 3FAHP0HA0BR273718 White 98 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0008 30707 2001 Jeep Grand Cherokee 2WD I-6 4D Utility Laredo 6G AC 1J4GX48S01C634281 Brown 117,930 Exempt Jun-4 B 0009 30671 2008 Dodge Grand Caravan Wagon SXT LU 6G AC 2D8HN54X18R124158 Red 68,841 Actual Miles Jun-4 B 0010 30505 2009 Hyundai Sonata I-4 4D Sedan GLS 4G 5NPET46C39H454409 0 Actual Miles Announcements: 99 Announcements: 100 DRIVE TRAIN ONLY San Antonio, TX B drive train San Antonio, TX Announcements: B FRAME DAMAGE 101 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0011 30508 2002 Chevrolet Impala 4D Sedan Base 6G AC 2G1WF55E729289745 Gold 77,644 Exempt 102 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0012 30669 2009 Dodge Ram 1500 4WD Quad Cab ST 5.7L 8G AC 1D3HV18T49S768310 White 79,870 Actual Miles 103 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0013 30504 2010 Dodge Ram 1500 2WD V8 Quad Cab ST 5.7L 8G AC 1D7RB1GT7AS118324 Brown 46,960 Actual Miles 104 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0014 30506 1993 BUICK REGAL FWD 6G AC 2G4WB54L9P1428682 Silver 88,378 Exempt 159,745 Actual Miles Announcements: REBUILT SALVAGE | FRAME 105 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0015 30507 2005 Jeep Liberty 4WD I-4 Diesel 4D Utility Sport 2.8L 4D AC 1J4GL48565W659423 Blue 106 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0016 30670 2003 Audi TT 2D Coupe Qtro 225hp LU 4G AC TRUWT28N031007287 Silver Print Date: Jun 4, 2013 Page 96,221 Exempt 4 of 16 # City Consignor Lane Date Run# Inv# Description Equipment VIN Color 107 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0017 30877 2007 Cadillac Escalade AWD 4D Utility ESV 6.2L LU 8G AC 1GYFK66817R198446 Tan 114,860 Actual Miles 108 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0018 30875 2010 Dodge Charger V8 4D Sedan R/T LU 8G AC 2B3CA5CT3AH150485 Black 60,239 Actual Miles 109 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0019 30879 2007 Chrysler 300 V6 4D Sedan Limited LU 6G AC 2C3KA53G67H659402 White 67,024 Actual Miles 110 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0020 30881 2007 Nissan Sentra 4D Sedan SE-R Spec V 4G AC 3N1CB61E17L713901 White 89,051 Actual Miles 111 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0021 30876 2006 BMW 3-Series 4D Sedan 325i LU 6G AC WBAVB17506NK35711 Brown 97,101 Actual Miles 112 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0022 30880 2009 Dodge Charger V8 4D Sedan R/T LU 8G AC 2B3KA53T59H503851 Silver 72,833 Actual Miles 113 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0023 30878 2009 Dodge Charger V6 4D Sedan Base 6G AC 2B3KA43D39H617365 Grey 62,739 Actual Miles 114 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0024 30882 2007 Mazda MX-5 Miata 2D Convertible 4G AC JM1NC25F070132871 Maroon 67,152 Actual Miles 115 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0025 30874 2005 Pontiac GTO 2D Coupe LU 8G AC 6G2VX12U85L431478 Black 78,274 Actual Miles 116 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0026 30886 2004 Jeep Grand Cherokee 4WD V8 4D Utility Limited LU 8G AC 1J8GW58N04C255903 Green 131,001 Actual Miles 117 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0027 30885 2006 Chrysler Pacifica 4D Utility Touring 6G AC 2A4GM684X6R614351 Silver 138,059 Actual Miles 118 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0028 30888 2008 Toyota Tundra 2WD V8 Crew Max SR5 5.7L LU 8G AC 5TFEV54188X060988 White 79,061 Actual Miles 119 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0029 30889 2005 Ford F150 2WD V8 Supercab XLT 5.4L 8G AC 1FTPX12555FA42144 Grey 97,835 Actual Miles 120 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0030 30884 2005 Ford Ranger 2WD V6 Reg Cab XL 3.0L 6G 1FTYR10U35PB05146 White 66,258 Actual Miles 121 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0031 30890 2008 Dodge Ram 1500 2WD V8 Quad Cab ST 4.7L 8G AC 1D7HA18NX8J116310 Black 134,688 Actual Miles 122 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0032 30892 2008 Chevrolet Silverado 1500 2WD V8 Ext Cab LTZ LU 8F 1GCEC19018Z101366 White 98,687 Actual Miles 123 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0033 30891 2008 Chrysler Town & Country Wagon LWB Touring LU 6G AC 2A8HR54P68R829078 Silver 64,962 Actual Miles 124 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0034 30883 2007 Chrysler Crossfire 2D Coupe Limited LU 6G AC 1C3LN69L27X074153 Silver 65,061 Actual Miles 125 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0035 30887 2011 Dodge Nitro 2WD 4D Utility Heat 3.7L 6G AC 1D4PT4GK6BW582581 White 27,414 Actual Miles 126 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0036 30956 2006 Ford Escape 2WD I-4 Gas 4D Utility XLT 2.3L 4G AC 1FMYU03Z06KC44032 Grey 100,854 Actual Miles 127 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0043 30837 2009 Chevrolet Silverado 1500 2WD V8 Crew Cab LT 8G AC 3GCEC23C49G219261 Brown 56,985 Actual Miles 128 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0044 30836 2003 Dodge Durango 2WD 4D Utility SXT 4.7L 8G AC 1D4HR38N63F545182 Red 118,226 Exempt 129 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0045 30910 2008 Nissan Sentra 4D Sedan S 4G AC 3N1AB61E68L619778 White 95,517 Actual Miles 130 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0046 30913 1987 HONDA PRELUDE FWD 4G AC JHMBA314XHC006261 White 172,916 Exempt 131 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0049 30268 1998 CHRYSL SEBRING FWD LU 6G AC 3C3EL55H5WT312016 Gold 103,251 Exempt 132 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0050 30663 2006 Nissan Maxima 4D Sedan SE 6G AC 1N4BA41E56C811328 White 88,081 Actual Miles 133 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0051 30898 1987 CHEVRO CAMARO RWD 8G 1G1FP21HXHN168824 Blue 59,657 Exempt 134 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0052 30897 2006 Kia Sportage 2WD I-4 4D Utility 4 Cyl LX 2.0L 4G KNDJF724867199648 White 158,977 Actual Miles 135 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0053 30902 2004 Dodge Ram 1500 2WD V8 Quad Cab SLT 4.7L 8G AC 1D7HA18N94S740538 Black 84,675 Actual Miles 136 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0054 30901 2003 Mitsubishi Montero Sport 4WD 4D Utility XLS 3.5L 6G AC JA4MT31R83J007326 Black 142,445 Exempt 137 San Antonio, TX B Jun-4 B 0055 30896 2007 Mitsubishi Galant I-4 4D Sedan ES 4G AC 4A3AB36F07E083659 White 85,719 Actual Miles Print Date: Jun 4, 2013 Mileage Page 5 of 16...

火山活動と噴火災害
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火山活動と噴火災害 2013年6月12日 大学院自然地理学講義 火山活動と噴火災害 2013年6月12日 大学院自然地理学講義 マグマの形成場所の条件 1)拡がるプレート境界を作るマントル対流上昇 部の高温域と圧力減少 2)高温マントル下部物質の上昇域(Hot Spot) 3)狭まるプレート境界での水蒸気付加に伴う 融点の低下 岩石溶融物(Magma)生成の 温度=圧力条件 Model of Earth Section and Magma Formation Place after Davies(1990) 地球の模式断面とマグマ生成場所のモデル Iceland is located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge where the ocean ridge volcanism dominant. 大西洋中央海嶺とアイスランド...

Findability of Commodities by Consumers - Design Research Society

Findability of Commodities by Consumers: Distinguishing Different Packaging Designs Regina W.Y. Wang, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, wyw@mail.ntust.edu.tw Mu-Chien Chou, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology / Chungyu Institute of Technology, f1234860@ms36.hinet.net Abstract What package design features can help consumers find commodities faster? This study assumes that the factors in distinguishing different packaging designs of commodities differ due to consumers’ different personal experiences. Thus, this paper studies the findability of commodities by consumers through distinct packaging designs. It consists mainly of two stages: (a) the first stage reviews the existing literature to determine the application of different package designs; (b) the second stage is a focus group interview designed to investigate the factors influencing consumers in distinguishing different package designs. In the investigation process, (i) samples of package bottles for testing were collected through natural observation and convenience sampling; (ii) a focus group interview was conduced to determine how a consumer recognizes the differences among packages; (iii) a grounded analysis model was employed to transfer and encode the data collected from the focus group interviews to construct a conceptual frame for trade dress and the classifications of trade dress, which can interpret variations in the recognition of packaging design differences. The results of the focus group interview showed that consumers focused more on three kinds of “trade dress”: property of commodity, label design, and bottle shape design when looking for differences in packaging designs. The “bottle shape design” was the most important factor that the focus group used in distinguishing different packaging designs. The distinction in the different package designs by consumers is not limited to design elements (image, language, color, shape, etc.) only; more importantly, the distinction lies in the relationship between “trade dress” and “classifications of trade dress,” which can better reflect the differences in packaging designs. Keywords commodity packaging; differences in packaging design; findability; trade dress. The findability of commodities influences consumer decisions (Brown, 2008). Two-thirds of consumers’ buying decisions are influenced by the packages on the shelf (Lundberg, 2004; Nilsson & Öström, 2005; Rettie & Brewer, 2000). Hence, the kind of packaging that is easy to find is a thesis worth investigating. Packaging gives appeal and provides distinction from other commodities. Furthermore, it stimulates the buyers’ desire for consumption. An effective package design catches consumers’ attention and experience, prolongs lingering time before the shelf, and consequently causes sales opportunity to take place directly (Cheverton, 2004; Doyle, 1996; Mikunda, 2002). Experience in various commodities is connected with brand identity, packaging design on the shelf, and attempt to link with consumers’ personal experiences (Schmitt, 1999). Therefore, design elements such as character, figure, color, brand, shape, size, material, and texture employed effectively by the package designer can create a different package and communication experience (Schmitt & Simonson, 1997; Sonsino, 1990). There are different types of cognition towards the communication design of package comprehension between consumers and designers (Author, 2007). Hence, designers have different preferences in their own design communication owing to their different senses and cognitions of the commodity itself (Antioco, Moenaert, Feinberg, & Wetzels, 2008). This survey investigates the findability of packages. A literature review on packaging design differences is first presented, and the results of the group interview aimed at exploring the factors affecting consumer recognition and distinction of packaging design differences are then discussed...

Fault Diagnosis On Motronic M1.5 Engine Management System

Fault Diagnosis On Motronic M1.5 Engine Management System Introduction From Model Year 1990, when catalytic converters were first fitted to the range, all Senator and Carlton GSi models incorporated the Bosch Motronic M1.5 engine management system. The engines in these models were coded as either C30NE; (The 3.0 Litre 12V engine.) C30SE; (The 3.0 Litre 24Valve engine.) or C26NE (The 2.6 Litre engine.), the ‘C’ indicating the fitment of ‘Cats.’. From experience, the system is very reliable and problems encountered are usually caused by poor contact at the associated plug/socket combinations that link the various system sensors to the Electronic Control Unit (ECU). The electrical diagrams for these vehicles, issued by the manufacturers and others, are poorly presented and can easily cause confusion when attempting to trace a particular element of the engine management system. In consequence, fault finding on the engine electrics can be somewhat frustrating. To improve this situation, Figure 1 on the following page, shows the complete engine management system in detail and includes all connectors and associated wiring, including all direct connections to the ECU. Since the primary purpose of this article is to assist in the location of faults in the Engine Management System, the diagram as been kept as clear as possible, therefore, connections to other peripheral systems e.g. Cruise Control, Ride Height etc. are not shown. This particularly applies to outputs from the Distance Sensor (P14) which, from Pin 2, supplies an output to many of these associated circuits. However, if the Tacho meter is operating correctly, it can be safely assumed that P14 is also giving the correct output signal. When a possible fault has been deduced by reference to Figure 1, then it can be confirmed by checking for satisfactory signal levels at the relevant pins of the ECU Table 1, lists each pin of the ECU, in numerical order, and the expected ‘Satisfactory Readings’ under specified ‘Engine/Ignition’ conditions, when measured with respect to an associated ‘Ground Reference Pin’. Details on how to access the ‘Related Blink Codes’, that are given in the last column of Table 1, is the concluding part of this article. Measurement of Signal Level On ECU Pins . To gain access to the ECU, remove the plastic cover panel, located in the drivers foot well, at the outer side of the vehicle. Access to the relevant pins of the ECU for measurement is the n achieved by releasing the screws securing the rear cover of the connecting plug then carefully removing it to expose the rear of the pins. The following illustration shows the pin layout of this connector. All measurements must be made using a digital multimeter or portable oscilloscope, as appropriate, pressing the instrument probes between the pin to be measured and the ‘Associated Reference Pin’, given along side it, in Table 1. CAUTION: Do not use a simple analogue multimeter as, in some circumstances, it would ‘load’ the ECU circuit under test, giving a false reading...

Roger S. Ulrich, “Health Benefits of Gardens in Hospitals.”

Paper for conference, Plants for People International Exhibition Floriade 2002 Health Benefits of Gardens in Hospitals Roger S. Ulrich, Ph.D. Center for Health Systems and Design Colleges of Architecture and Medicine Texas A & M University College State, TX 77843 INTRODUCTION This paper selectively reviews scientific research on the influences of gardens and plants in hospitals and other healthcare settings. The discussion concentrates mainly on health-related benefits that patients realize by simply looking at gardens and plants, or in other ways passively experiencing healthcare surroundings where plants are prominent. The review also briefly addresses other advantages of gardens and plants in hospitals, such as lowering the costs of delivering healthcare and improving staff satisfaction. It might be asked at the outset: why is worthwhile to focus exclusively on gardens located in hospitals and other healthcare facilities? One important reason is linked to the fact that extraordinary amounts of money are spent internationally for construction of healthcare environments. This funding for hospitals potentially represents a major source of resources for gardens, plants, and related features such as atriums. Consider the example of only one large medical complex in the United States, the Texas Medical Center in Houston, which plans to spend about $1.8 billion on new construction during the next two years. In the State of California alone, new spending for hospital buildings will be upwards of $14 billion by 2010. Even individual buildings can be extremely costly -- Northwestern University’s recently opened main hospital in Chicago cost $687 million. Spending in the United States for new hospitals has averaged about $15 billion annually during the last decade. The United Kingdom plans to spend at least $4 billion on new hospital construction within the next three years or so. When substantial additional spending is considered for the many other types of healthcare environments -- for example, nursing homes, primary care clinics, rehabilitation facilities -- it becomes even clearer that healthcare design and construction directly accounts for vast amounts of money. This reality implies great opportunities for funding and creating new gardens to enrich and improve the lives of patients and the environments of hundreds, if not thousands, of existing medical facilities. 2 Background: Gardens and Hospital Design The belief that plants and gardens are beneficial for patients in healthcare environments is more than one thousand years old, and appears prominently in Asian and Western cultures (Ulrich and Parsons, 1992). During the Middle Ages in Europe, for example, monasteries created elaborate gardens to bring pleasant, soothing distraction to the ill (Gierlach-Spriggs et al., 1998). European and American hospitals in the 1800s commonly contained gardens and plants as prominent features (Nightingale, 1860). Gardens became less prevalent in hospitals during the early decades of the 1900s, however, as major advances in medical science caused hospital administrators and architects to concentrate on creating healthcare buildings that would reduce infection risk and serve as functionally efficient settings for new medical technology. The strong emphasis on infection reduction, together with the priority given to functional efficiency, shaped the design of hundreds of major hospitals internationally -- that are now considered starkly institutional, unacceptably stressful, and unsuited to the emotional needs of patients, their families, and even healthcare staff (Ulrich, 1991; Horsburgh, 1995). Despite the intense stress often caused by illness, pain, and traumatic hospital experiences, little attention was given to creating environments that would calm patients or otherwise address emotional needs (Ulrich, 2001). A growing awareness has developed in recent years in the healthcare community of the need to create functionally efficient and hygienic environments that also have pleasant, stress reducing characteristics. An important impetus for this awareness has been the major progress achieved in mind-body medical science. A substantial body of research has now demonstrated that stress and psychosocial factors can significantly affect patient health outcomes. This knowledge strongly implies that the psychological or emotional needs of patients be given high priority along with traditional concerns, including infection risk exposure and functional efficiency, in governing the design of hospitals (Ulrich, 2001). It also follows that conditions or experiences shown by medical researchers to be stress reducing and healthful, such as pleasant soothing distractions and social support, must become important considerations in creating new healthcare facilities. The fact that there is limited but growing scientific evidence that viewing gardens can measurably reduce patient stress and improve health outcomes has been a key factor in the major resurgence in interest internationally in providing gardens in hospitals and other healthcare facilities. Importance of Health Outcomes Evidence Healthcare administrators everywhere are under strong pressures to control or reduce costs yet increase care quality. Faced with imperative demands such as paying for costly new medical technology, administrators may often consider gardens as desirable but nonessential. Convincing the medical community to assign priority and resources usually requires providing credible evidence that gardens or plants produce benefits yet are cost-effective compared to alternatives, including not providing gardens/plants. 3 It should be emphasized here that most healthcare administrators and especially physicians consider evidence from health outcomes research to provide the most sound and persuasive basis for assessing whether a particular medical treatment or service (here providing a garden or plants) is medically beneficial and financially sensible. (Ulrich, 1999, 2002). Health outcomes are numerous and varied, but most refer to measures of a patient’s medical condition or to indicators of healthcare quality. These measures include (1) observable clinical signs or medical measures, (2) subjective measures such as reported satisfaction, and (2) economic measures (Ulrich, 2002). • Clinical indicators that are observable signs and symptoms relating to patients’ conditions. (Examples: length of stay, blood pressure, intake of pain drugs) • Patient/staff reported outcomes. (Examples: patient reports of satisfaction with healthcare services, staff reported satisfaction with working conditions) • Economic outcomes. (Examples: cost of patient care, recruitment or hiring costs due to staff turnover) Clinical and economic outcomes data traditionally have carried the greatest weight in decisions, but in recent years evidence regarding effects of treatments or services on patient satisfaction has gained much importance as healthcare providers in the United States and Europe have faced mounting pressures to become more patient or consumer oriented. STRESS REDUCING EFFECTS OF VIEWING PLANTS AND NATURE Several studies of nonpatient groups (such as university students) as well as patients have consistently shown that simply looking at environments dominated by greenery, flowers, or water -- as compared to built scenes lacking nature (rooms, buildings, towns) -- is significantly more effective in promoting recovery or restoration from stress. (See Ulrich, 1999, for a survey of studies.) A limited amount of research suggests that viewing settings with plants or other nature for a few minutes can promote measurable restoration even in hospital patients who are acutely stressed. There is considerable evidence that restorative effects of nature scenes are manifested within only three to five minutes as a combination of psychological/emotional and physiological changes. Concerning the first, psychological/emotional, many views of vegetation or garden-like features elevate levels of positive feelings (pleasantness, calm), and reduce negatively toned emotions such as fear, anger, and sadness. Certain nature scenes effectively sustain interest and attention, and accordingly can serve as pleasant distractions that may diminish stressful thoughts. Regarding physiological manifestations of stress recovery, laboratory and clinical investigations have found that viewing nature settings can produce significant restoration within less than five minutes as indicated by positive changes, for instance, in blood pressure, heart activity, muscle tension, and brain electrical activity (Ulrich, 1981; Ulrich et al., 1991). 4 One controlled experiment, for example, measured a battery of physiological responses in 120 stressed persons (non-patients) who were randomly assigned to a recovery period consisting of one of six different videotapes of either nature settings (vegetation or vegetation with water) or built settings lacking nature (Ulrich et al., 1991). Findings from four continuously recorded physiological measures (blood pressure, heart rate, skin conductance, muscle tension) were consistent in indicating that recuperation from stress was faster and much more complete when individuals were exposed to the nature settings rather than any of the built environments. The quickness of nature-induced restoration was manifested as significant changes in all physiological measures within about three minutes. The pattern of physiological data further supported the interpretation that nature, compared to the built settings, more effectively lowered activity in the sympathetic nervous system. (Heightened sympathetic nervous system activity involves energy consuming mobilization or arousal and is central in stress responding.) Moreover, data from self-reports of feelings indicated that the nature environments likewise produced substantially more recuperation in the psychological component of stress. Persons exposed to the settings with plants and other nature, in contrast to the built environments, had lower levels of fear and anger, and reported far higher levels of positive feelings (Ulrich et al., 1991). Hartig (1991) also used both physiological and psychological measures to study restoration in non-patient subjects who were stressed because they either had driven an automobile through urban traffic or completed a series of difficult tests. His findings were broadly similar to those described above -- more specifically, blood pressure data and emotional self-reports converged to indicate that recovery was appreciably greater if persons looked at a nature setting dominated by vegetation rather than a built environment without nature (Hartig, 1991). Nakamura and Fujii have carried out two studies in Japan (1990, 1992) that measured brain wave activity as unstressed persons (non-patients) looked either at plants or human-made objects. In an intriguing first experiment, the researchers analyzed alpha rhythm activity as subjects viewed: two types of potted plants, each with and without flowers (Pelargonium and Begonia); the same pots without plants; or a cylinder similar to the pots (Nakamura and Fujii, 1990). Results suggested that persons were most wakefully relaxed when they observed plants with flowers, and least relaxed when they looked at pots without plants. In the second study they recorded the electroencephalogram (EEG) while persons were seated in a real outdoor setting and viewed a hedge of greenery, a concrete fence with dimensions similar to the hedge, or a mixed condition consisting of part greenery and part concrete (Nakamura and Fujii, 1992). The EEG data supported the conclusion that the greenery elicited relaxation whereas the concrete had stressful influences. Benefits of Nature and Gardens in Healthcare Settings The research examples described above, all based on non-patient groups, indicate that visual exposure to plants and other nature lasting only a few minutes can foster considerable restoration or recovery from stress. 5 It is important to emphasize that broadly parallel findings have been obtained when stressed patients in healthcare settings have been visually exposed to nature. A study by Heerwagen and Orians, for instance, found that anxious patients in a dental fears clinic were less stressed on days when a large nature mural was hung on a wall of the waiting room in contrast to days when the wall was blank (Heerwagen, 1990). The restorative benefits of the nature scene were evident both in heart rate data and selfreports of emotional states. In the case of hospitals and other healthcare facilities, there is mounting evidence that gardens function are especially effective and beneficial settings with respect to fostering restoration for stressed patients, family members, and staff (Ulrich, 1999). Cooper-Marcus and Barnes (1995) used a combination of behavioral observation and interview methods to evaluate four hospital gardens in California. They found that restoration from stress, including improved mood, was by far the most important category of benefits derived by nearly all users of the gardens -- patients, family, and employees. Likewise, a recent study of a garden in a children’s hospital identified mood improvement and restoration from stress as primary benefits for users (Whitehouse et al., 2001). This conclusion was supported by convergent results from behavioral observations, interviews, and surveys. The fact that stress is a pervasive, welldocumented, and very important health-related problem in hospitals implies major significance for the finding that restoration is the key benefit motivating persons to use gardens in healthcare facilities (Ulrich, 1999). Well-designed hospital gardens not only provide calming and pleasant nature views, but can also reduce stress and improve clinical outcomes through other mechanisms, for instance, fostering access to social support and privacy, and providing opportunities for escape from stressful clinical settings (Ulrich, 1999; Cooper-Marcus and Barnes, 1995). Concerning the last of these, escape, Cooper-Marcus and Barnes (1995) concluded that many healthcare employees used gardens as an effective means for achieving a restorative pleasant escape from work stress and aversive conditions in the hospital. They also included in their report statements by several patients which suggested that the gardens fostered restoration in part by providing positive escape (and sense of control) with respect to stress. For example, a patient interviewed in a hospital garden commented: “It’s a good escape from what they put me through. I come out here between appointments. . I feel much calmer, less stressed” (Cooper-Marcus and Barnes, 1995, p. 27). In addition to ameliorating stress and improving mood, gardens and nature in hospitals can significantly heighten satisfaction with the healthcare provider and the overall quality of care. Evidence from studies of a number of different hospitals and diverse categories of patients (adults, children, and elderly patients; ambulatory or outpatient settings, inpatient acute care wards) strongly suggests that the presence of nature -- indoor and outdoor gardens, plants, window views of nature -- increases both patient and family satisfaction (Cooper-Marcus and Barnes, 1995; Whitehouse et al., 2001; Picker Institute and Center for Health Design, 1999)...

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