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English 10 Summer Assignment 2013 2014 (1)


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European Robotics Research Network Network of ... - EURON

FP6–507728 EURON European Robotics Research Network Network of Excellence Information Society Technologies Priority DR.12.6 Contribution to statistics/forecasts/foresights in annual publications, such as World Robotics 2006 Due date of deliverable: October 31 2007 Actual submission date: February 18 2008 Start date of the project: 1 May 2004 Organisation name of lead contractor for this deliverable: IPA Revision: First version Dissemination level: PU Duration: 48 months WORLD ROBOTICS 2007 379 VII SERVICE ROBOTS1 VII.1 Introduction In 2007, the IFR Statistical Department carried out a market survey of service robots for the 8th time. A questionnaire was sent to more than 180 companies worldwide, asking for data on accumulated sales up to the end of 2006, sales in 2006, and projections for 2007-2010. Data was reported according to the classification shown in table VII.1 below. It should be noted that this classification has been slightly revised compared to previous years’ surveys. In total, about 200 companies have now been identified as producers/developers of service robots (see table VII.2, placed at the end of the present chapter). The overall result of the survey is shown in section VII.2 below. Detailed information about the application areas of service robots is given in section VII.3. The analysis for each application area is organized under the following headings (where applicable): (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Types of operations carried out by the robots Level of distribution Cost/benefit analysis, particular attributes, and major restraints on further diffusion Major producers As the amount of information available differs considerably between application areas, some headings might contain only a few pieces of information or even be empty. IFR Service Robotics Group: On 9 October 2002, a Service Robotics Group was founded under the auspices of the International Federation of Robotics (IFR). The IFR has recognized, through its national affiliates, the growing commercial activities associated with service robots. At the same time, it has been found that there is little current support for the mostly small and young companies working or entering this area to assist them in market assessment and in raising their profile in the eyes of other industries, the media, and/or government bodies. In response to these facts, IFR operates the Group to further the interests of this emerging industry. The IFR Service Robotics Group is open to all interested service robot companies offering service robot products, components or related services. For further information please contact Martin Hägele at or visit the group’s website at Further readings: For a very detailed review of state-of-the-art of service robots, the reader could consult: R. D. Schraft, M. Hägele and K. Wegener: Service Roboter Visionen. München: Hanser, 2004. This book presents, besides a thorough analysis of service robots, a large number of high-quality pictures and photographs of service robots in different applications. An internet site dedicated to service robots can be found at VII.2 Distribution of service robots Table VII.1 below gives details about the results of the IFR Statistical Department survey of sales of service robots, broken down by application areas. The figures are based on sales data reported by companies, as well as on other sources such as annual reports and market surveys of individual application areas, carried out by professional organizations and/or consultant companies. In the 2006 survey, some more companies were surveyed as in the 2005 survey. Close to 60% of the 180 companies were surveyed. In many ways, the statistical information has been improved in comparison with the previous year, for example regarding plausibility checks of reported data, more precise assignment of service robots to application areas, etc. Despite this improvement in the response rate, the data reported here probably underestimates the true sales figures and installed base of robots significantly, especially the sales in 1 This chapter is authored by Martin Hägele, Head of Department “Robot Systems” Fraunhofer IPA, Stuttgart, Germany ( WORLD ROBOTICS 2007 380 2006. They should therefore be seen as a minimum level of the installed base of service robots. The amount of sales information available also differs significantly between various application areas, medical robots and underwater robots being the areas with the best coverage. Table VII.1 Estimated number and value of service robots installed up to the end of 2006, by application areas, and forecasts for the period 2007-2010 Professional service robots Field robotics - Agriculture - Milking robots - Forestry - Mining systems - Space robots - Others Professional cleaning - Floor cleaning - - Window and wall cleaning (including wall climbing robots) - Tank, tube and pipe cleaning - Pool cleaning - Other cleaning tasks Inspection and maintenance systems - Sewer robots - Tank, tubes and pipes* - Other inspection and maintenance systems Construction and demolition - Nuclear demolition & dismantling Other demoltion systems - Construction support and maintenance - Construction - Other types of construction Logistic systems - Courier/Mail systems - Factory logistics (incl. Automated Guided Vehicles for factories) Cargo handling, outdoor logistics - Other logistics Medical robotics - Diagnostic systems - Robot assisted surgery or therapy - Rehabilitation systems - Other medical robots Defense, rescue & security applications - Demining robots - Fire and bomb fighting robots - Surveillance/security robots - Unmanned aerial vehicles - Unmanned ground based vehicles - others Underwater systems Mobile Platforms in general use Robot arms in general use** Public relation robots - Hotel and restaurant robots - Guide robots - Robots in marketing - Others (i.e. library robots) Sources: IFR and UNECE (up to 2004). * included in other inspection systems ** included in other professional robots Stock at end 2006 Installations 2007-2010 Sales in 2006 Stock at end 2006 Installations 2007-2010 No. of units Types of robots No. of units No. of units $ million $ million 6,240 6,450 1,539 1,251 1,278 6,180 6,350 1,538 1,243 1,276 60 5,620 335 10 100 4,175 2,650 500 1 266 8 2 8 82 31 3 2 47 17 14 5,250 25 595 410 1,000 25 1,380 1,200 250 6 312 292 45 2 50 26 14 3 145 86 185 3,875 180 1,190 20 291 24 260 59 106 100 50 9 27 38 3,680 1,060 265 229 64 85 70 16 3 3 10 10 1 1 1 1,550 360 1,800 210 417 53 89 30 92 23 1,190 1,590 364 59 68 3,725 100 3,600 2,700 300 2,400 537 66 470 892 68 824 1,318 221 1,097 25 9,095 305 650 1,340 5,100 1,500 200 5,570 3,350 12,855 250 440 3,100 5,100 3,900 65 1,900 2,500 1 4,119 17 558 731 2,001 801 11 484 797 1 1,198 300 152 72 480 119 76 1,904 41 1,380 336 128 175 446 288 5 835 26 110 300 16 1 122 WORLD ROBOTICS 2007 381 Table VII.1 (concluded) Estimated number and value of service robots installed up to the end of 2006, by application areas, and forecasts for the period 2007-2010 SERVICE ROBOTS FOR PROFESSIONAL USE: Special Purpose - Refueling robots - Others Customized robots* Other professional service robots not specified above Total number of units / estimated value of professional service robots SERVICE ROBOTS FOR PERSONAL/DOMESTIC USE: Robots for domestic tasks - Vacuuming, floor cleaning - Lawn mowing - Pool cleaning - Others Entertainment robots - Toy/hobby robots - Robot rides** - Education and training - Others Handicap assistance - Robotized wheelchairs - Personal rehabilitation - Other assistance functions - Others Personal transportation (AGV for persons) Home security & surveillance Other Personal / domestic robots Total number of units / estimated value of personal/domestic service robots Humanoids*** Total number of units / estimated value of service robots Stock at end 2006 Installations 2007-2010 Sales in 2006 Stock at end 2006 Installations 2007-2010 No. of units Types of robots No. of units No. of units $ million $ million 55 55 30 30 1 1 11 11 19 19 100 150 15 4 31 39,885 35,430 8,794 5,785 5,398 2,441,330 2,350,000 91,330 1,342,000 1,100,000 240,000 2,000 552,128 530,023 22,105 936 831 105 1,881 1,645 234 2 1,096,740 979,600 2,225,200 2,200,000 206,463 201,001 448 371 884 837 26,900 90,240 250 25,000 200 560 5,404 58 30 48 1 27 20 14 160 5,500 30 20 44 3,573,260 758,621 1,406 2,823 3,608,690 767,415 7,190 8,221 3,538,480 60 3,578,425 Sources: IFR and UNECE (up to 2004). * included in other professional robots ** included in other entertainment robots ** data by value not available, also no forecast available (a) Service robots for professional use, stock of installations up to the end of 2006 With 9,095 units the service robots in defense, rescue and security applications, accounted for 23% of the total number of service robots for professional use installed up to the end of 2006 (see table VII.1 and figure VII.1a). Thereafter follow field robots (mainly milking robots) with 16%, cleaning robots and underwater systems with 14%, each. Construction and demolition robots (10%), medical robots (9%) and mobile robot platforms for general use (8.4%) come in the next ranges. Minor installation numbers were counted for logistic systems (1,550 units), inspection systems (nearly 600 units) and public relation robots (about 100 units). Of the total value (about $5.8 billion) of service robots for professional use installed up to the end of 2006, underwater systems accounted for around 33%, followed by field robots with 22%, thereafter robots for defense, rescue and security applications with 21%, and medical robots with 16.2%. (see table VII.1 and figure VII.1c) The values for these groups are more or less estimates, because the companies often are not ready to provide prices. The unit prices for professional service robots differ significantly – from less than $10,000 to more than $300,000, depending upon the type of application. The most expensive robots are underwater systems and medical robots (from $50,000 382 WORLD ROBOTICS 2007 to more than $1,000,000), the unit prices for the milking robots stayed at about $200,000, but the robots for defense, rescue and security applications have an arithmetical average price of $100,000. (b) Service robots for personal and domestic use; stock of installations up to the end of 2006 Service robots for personal and domestic use are recorded separately, as their unit value is only a fraction of that of many types of service robots for professional use. They are also produced for a mass market with completely different pricing and marketing channels. So far, service robots for personal and domestic use are mainly in the areas of domestic (household) robots, which include vacuum cleaning and lawn-mowing robots, and entertainment and leisure robots, including toy robots, hobby systems and education and training robots (see table VII.1 as well as figures VII.2a and VII.2b). The market for robots for handicap assistance is still small, but is expected to double in the next four years. Robots for personal transportation and home security and surveillance robots will also increase in importance in the future. Vacuum cleaning robots were introduced to the Swedish market at the end of 2001 with the Trilobite® of Electrolux (Sweden). The market expanded during 2002 and 2003 and several other companies, e.g. Kärcher (Germany) and iRobot (USA) have since entered the market. More robot vacuum cleaner products (from companies such as Hitachi (Japan), Hanool International (Thailand), Samsung (Korea), LG electronic (Korea), and many others) have been launched. iRobot has launched a floor scrubbing robot in 2005, the Scooba® resulting in accumulated stock up to end 2006 of 2.3 million units. At the end of 2006, the value of vacuum cleaning robots amounted to $830 million. At the end of 2006, the stock of lawn mowing robots amounted to 91,000 units. The market is dominated by the Robomow® of Friendly Robotics (Israel), the AmbrogioTM product line of Zucchetti Centro Sistemi (Italy) and the AutoMowerTM of Electrolux (Sweden). At the end of 2006, it is estimated that 2.4 million domestic robots, all types included, were in use, of which 552,128 units were sold in 2006. The actual number might, however, be significantly higher, as the IFR survey is far from having full coverage. As for entertainment and leisure robots, it is estimated that about 1.1 million units have been sold up to the end of 2006. It is expected that the cross-fertilization of PC, home entertainment and robot technologies will become a very substantial business area in the near future. But the production of the well-known example of these kinds of robots, the AIBO™ by Sony (Japan), was ceased in 2005. The sales were not satisfying. The LEGO® Mindstorms® programme is running successfully. Other products, which have been launched or announced, are mostly of Japanese and Korean origin, comprise the PaPeRo of NEC (Japan), ApriAlphaTM and ApriAttendaTM by Toshiba (Japan), and many others. Accumulated sales of toy robots are estimated at about 980,000 units. A rather high-end example of entertainment robots, which is still a rather limited market segment, is the ROBOCOASTER® by KUKA (Germany). Its basis is a modified industrial articulated robot, but developed as an attraction system for robot exhibitions and leisure parks such as Legoland®. In total, about 26,900 education and training robots were sold up to 2006. The total value of the stock of entertainment and leisure robots amounted to $450 million. These low-priced robots (unit prices between $100 and $1,000) became cheaper in average. Accumulated sales of robots for handicap assistance amounted to 250 units up to the end of 2006. These robots have not yet taken off as could be expected given their potential in regard to both the supposable need and the existing technological level of the equipment. Some of the most apparent reasons for this are explained in section VII.3. In a longer perspective, say in the next 10...

Baghdad accuses . of run to verdict which Iraq has firearms of mass

However it did encompass sensitized info that might "embarrass nations and firms" implicated in Iraq's drive for doomsday firearms in the Eighties, al-Saadi mentioned.

"It's for the IAEA (Multinational Atomic Energy Agency) to evaluate how close we were" to a nuclear bomb, al-Saadi mentioned. . Shrub, even before reading the Iraqi firearms dossiers filed Saturday, was condemning Iraq.. President George W. solutions _ setting the stage for exploiting compel against Iraq.

Safety Council mission assignment inquiring Iraq to relinquish any remaining firearms of mass annihilation and close down correlated programs or face "intense aftermath." The resolution had demanded Iraq's make a whole announcement of its firearms programs. . "The earlier they do it the better," he told journalists at a Baghdad squeeze conference, 1 day afterwards Iraq gave beyond its announcement _ comprising more than 12,000 pages of data files _ on nuclear, chemical and biological programs. . Al-Saadi mentioned the firearms announcement includes nil new Iraqi substantiation . Dateline: BAGHDAD, Iraq A high advisor to President Saddam Hussein criticized Washington's run to evaluate which Iraq has illegitimate firearms,

A brand new category of 25 firearms inspectors,

palms control

But he mentioned Iraq no more has such kinh thoi trang high hopes. . inspectors were getting ready to use helicopters during their search for banished firearms, allowing them to range farther afield on wonder travels. officials have to first read the palms document Baghdad submitted about the U

Countries. . Pesticide-making gear and components should be used to generate chemical firearms. . "We do not fully grasp this run to verdict," al-Saadi mentioned. annihilation

officials in Baghdad, the White Abode was saying the announcement can consist

The investigation groups are operating under a November.. Surveillance, Confirmation and Investigation Commission, came along Sunday

Amer al-Saadi mentioned Sunday which the report data files the firearms programs which Baghdad has identified following up on up unti 1991 _ adding up its drive to produce a nuclear bomb. spokesman, Hiro Ueki, mentioned amidst 20 to 30 auxiliary inspectors are going to arrive Tuesday. . home office in Ny and the Multinational Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna Sunday. . He also challenged the us to present substantiation that might refute Iraq's contention which it has nil weapon of mass annihilation. . Lt. s . Gen

The initial of eight helicopters came along Saturday and was being grouped at Saddam Multinational Airport Sunday. . "A superpower have to learn and take its time in judging, particularly because anybody is looking on as it prepares for a giant armed forces crusade for an aggression against Iraq."

On Sunday, a nuclear group paid an unannounced vacation in the State Firm for Geological Survey and Mining in Baghdad, expending about two days within the two-building complicated, that was once engaged in uranium proceedings that'll support prepare gasoline for nuclear bombs. . suspicions which Baghdad might sustain chemical or biological firearms.

. officials reject Iraqi rejections which it has nil disallowed firearms and are menacing to salary warfare against Iraq if, during their view, Baghdad . An additional investigation group visited a pesticide plant outdoors Falluja, 30 miles (50 kilometers) west of Baghdad

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Project Title: ASSIGNMENT 0: CREATING MY OWN ... - Njit

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