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contoh proposal thesis UKM

PRE-AWARD AUDIT UNTUK PENGADAAN BARANG JASA ...

PRE-AWARD AUDIT UNTUK PENGADAAN BARANG JASA SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF PENINGKATAN PERAN APIP Pengadaan barang/jasa masih menjadi primadona bagi pelaku korupsi di Indonesia. Kondisi ini diperburuk dengan APIP yang masih mengandalkan post audit yaitu melakukan audit setelah proses pengadaan barang jasa selesai. Dengan post audit peran APIP sebagai quality assurance proses pengadanaan barang/jasa kurang optimal dimana penghematan dan best value of money tidak tercapai optimal. Alternatif terbaik bagi APIP adalah lebih banyak melakukan current audit untuk menghasilkan penghematan. Korupsi di Indonesia paling banyak dilakukan lewat modus pengadaan barang/jasa pemerintah. Proyek Fasilitas Olah Raga di Hambalang, Bogor dengan nilai Rp 2,5 Trilyun menurut BPK terdapat indikasi kerugian negara Rp 243,66 milliar (Kompas.com, 31 Oktober 2012), Proyek simulator SIM senilai Rp 196 milliar diduga dikorupsi sehingga menimbulkan kerugian Negara sebesar Rp 144 milliar (Tempo.com, 24 April 2012), dan Proyek pengadaan Al-quran dan Laboratorium yang membagi-bagi fee Rp. 103,2 milliar (Kompas.com, 6 Mei 2013). Data di atas menunjukkan bahwa seandainya uang tersebut dapat dicegah sebelum terjadi transaksi pengadaan barang/jasa dapat dibayangkan penghematan yang dapat dilakukan. Pengalaman Negara Amerika Serikat dalam menerapkan pre-award audit berhasil menghemat anggaran Negara dengan cukup signifikan. Laporan US Government Accountability Office atas manajemen pengadaan barang/jasa di lingkungan Veterans Affairs Federal Supply Schedule dari tahun 1999 sampai dengan 2004 menunjukkan penghematan besar dari penerapan pre-award audit dibandingkan dengan post-award audit. Tabel 1 menunjukkan hasil penghematan yang bisa dilakukan melalui audit pre award dan audit post award dalam proses pengadaan barang/jasa bidang kesehatan dimana pre award menghasilkan penghematan yang lebih besar dibandingkan dengan post award. Dalam kurun waktu 5 (lima) tahun terakhir penghematan melalui pre award mencapai 62,68 % dari total penghematan yang mencapai $ 240,6 millon. Pengalaman Amerika Serikat menghemat anggaran Negara dari pengadaan barang/jasa melalui penerapan pre award bisa memberikan inspirasi bagi APIP melakukan audit pengadaan barang/jasa dengan pre award. Ketika para auditor hanya terlibat pada akhir proses pengadaan barang/jasa (post award) maka penghematan biaya/anggaran publik sering tidak tercapai. 2. Pembahasan 2.1 Apakah pre-award audit Sesuai dengan pembahasan dalam Forum Komunikasi JFA dan Kepegawaian tahun 2010, preaward audit didefinisikan sebagai audit yang dilaksanakan untuk memberikan keyakinan yang memadai bahwa calon penyedia barang/jasa yang diusulkan oleh panitia pengadaan memiliki kelayakan/kemampuan kerja dan keuangan untuk melaksanakan kontrak serta harga yang ditawarkan adalah wajar dan secara ekonomis menguntungkan negara. Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) mendefinisikan pre-award audit sebagai “an evaluation of a prospective contractor’s capability to perform a proposed contract” (FAR, 2005). USAID dalam Contract Information Bulletin 92-16 menyatakan bahwa “A pre-award audit is a tool that the contracting officer can use to acquire information in order to determine the reasonableness of the offeror's proposed cost or price. The pre-award audit is a detailed analysis of the proposal, and contains information on the basis and method used by the offeror in proposal preparation, and any discrepancies in the way in which the cost or pricing data were used in preparing the proposal. (USAID, 1992). Dari penjelasan di atas maka pre-award audit merupakan audit atas kemampuan calon kontraktor /penawar (offeror) menyelesaikan pekerjaan dan memastikan biaya atau harga yang diajukan dalam penawaran merupakan biaya dan harga yang rasional. Tujuan utama dari pre-award audit antara lain sebagai upaya pencegahan korupsi, kolusi, dan nepotisme dalam proses pengadaan barang/jasa. Disamping tujuan tersebut, pre-award audit juga bertujuan memberikan pendapat (quality assurance) bahwa proses pengadaan barang/jasa telah taat pada peraturan, kemampuan penyedia barang/jasa menyelesaikan pekerjaan , dan kewajaran harga penawaran...

Introduction of the “ARION Plus”, Battery Powered, 4-Wheel Forklift ...

Introduction of the “ARION Plus”, Battery Powered, 4-Wheel Forklift Truck People in this country are growing increasingly conscious of global ecology, as disruption of nature continues and environmental problems become more and more pronounced. Turning our attention to the market of forklift trucks, meanwhile, customers are heightening their cost consciousness and are highly critical not only of the initial cost but also of the repair and maintenance costs of their forklift trucks. Against such a social backdrop, battery powered forklift trucks without gas emissions and noise are rapidly replacing the conventional combustion engine powered forklift trucks that in the past have accounted for more than half the total market. However, battery powered forklift trucks in general have been inferior to the engine powered type in terms of horsepower and continuous operating time, which has necessarily limited the range of potential users. In response to this assessment our ARION Plus Series has been developed to better address the shortcomings of previous battery powered forklift trucks. They compare favorably with the engine powered type in terms of horsepower and yet maintain the characteristics inherent in the battery powered type, i.e. “clean and noise-free” In this thesis, we will summarize the features of the ARION Plus Series. Key Words: Ecology, Environmental Problem, Battery Powered Forklift Truck, Maintenance-free, Repair and Maintenance Cost 1. Introduction 1.1 Market trend The demand in Japan’s domestic market for batter y powered forklift trucks is increasing year by year, accounting for more than 40% of the market share in 2001. (See Fig. 1) Forklift tr ucks are classified into three kinds, i.e. counterbalance type, reach type and walker type. In the domestic market, the first two types are the mainstream models and their numbers are rapidly increasing (See Table 1). Their growing popularity in the world is largely explained by customers’ concern for the environment, protection of their employees against the noise and vibration from engine powered trucks and a desire to elevate their practices to the levels of the developed countries of Europe and the US. Thus customers are moving away from the traditional engine powered (particularly gasoline engine powered) forklift trucks, which accounted for over 50% of the total market. (See Fig. 2) What are the situations outside of Japan in this regard? In Europe, where an assor tment of stringent policies are universally applied to alleviate environmental problems, the battery powered type has long exceeded 50% of the market, while in the US, the battery to engine ratio remains almost equal, similar to the case in Japan. From now on, however, there is no doubt but what the market share of battery powered forklift trucks will continue to increase in both countries. On the other hand, in the market for engine powered forklift trucks, compact size trucks and CNG (compressed natural gas) powered trucks are being aggressively introduced, encroaching the traditional market for battery powered forklift trucks. (A counterbalance type, battery powered forklift truck is composed of a chargeable lead storage battery (predominantly 48 VDC type), travel motor, work equipment motor that drives a hydraulic pump for material-handling devices and a steering motor plus a controller that serves to control each motor. (See Fig. 4) When contrasted with the engine type, the batter y powered type possesses such advantages as economy, compactness, low noise, low vibration and no emissions...

CmpSci 491IP, iOS Programming Spring 2013, TuTh 9:30 - 10:45 ...

CmpSci 491IP, iOS Programming Book: Beginning iPhone 6 Development, Dave Mark and Jeff LaMarche, Apress. Currently only available as an e-book, direct from publisher Optional Reference: Programming in Objective-C 2.0, 2nd Edition, Stephen Kochan, Addison Wesley In this seminar we will be exploring how to program Apple iDevices. While they are just plain cool and fun to work with, the “serious intellectual motivation” for our work is that mobile platforms are now a major part of the industry, and present special challenges such as limited power, memory, and screen space. They also offer some exciting hardware features such as touch-screen, accelerometer, location awareness, camera, sound, etc., and of course extreme portability, that make possible some innovative applications. Learning ObjectiveC and the Cocoa Touch API is, like learning any new language, a good exercise to develop mental flexibility and new perspectives on how languages and OO libraries can be designed. We are jumping to iOS 6, even though books and resources for learning it are still scarce because it presents new approaches and paradigms that are likely to last a while. However, many of the basics remain the same. So we’ll start with basics, and then later will transition to iOS 6 specific features as necessary and depending on people’s interests. Because this is a seminar, there is flexibility to explore different aspects of the APIs, and because the library is huge, we can’t hope to cover it all. The class will be run as a seminar in which students prepare and give presentations. Initially, I’ll do a few lectures to lay some groundwork and provide time for you to prepare. At least a week before your presentation, you should schedule a time with me to plan what you will do with your time. You have an hour or more, and I expect you to use it. Your presentations can begin with walking the class through examples from the book, but part of the grading of them will be in how much you take us beyond the book. If you have a laptop that can run XCode and the iPhone simulator, you should always bring it to class, because we’ll be actively going through examples, testing out ideas, sharing what we discover, and sometimes helping each other with solving problems. Later in the semester, we’ll switch into project mode. You’ll be developing a project proposal for an app, including a simple business plan, schedule, and so on. Projects can be done individually or in a team. During that phase, some class time will be devoted to project reviews and demos, working as a group to come up with solutions to problems, etc. Projects will be proposed and get under way while we are still in the first phase of the course. ..

Engineering Mechanics
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University of Dayton Engineering Mechanics EXPERIMENTAL STRESS ANALYSIS A - study of the experimental analysis of stress as an aid to design for strength and economy with emphasis on electrical strain gages. Also, photoelasticity, brittle coatings, analogies, structural similitude. Two hours lecture and one three-hour laboratory period per week. Prerequisite(s): EGM 303. Six semester hours of research on an approved thesis. Thesis credit 6 may be replaced by nine semester hours of coursework only with the approval of both the advisor and the department chair. Total Hours See also Master’s Degree Requirements in School of Engineering section in the bulletin and consult with the advisor. Numerical analysis topics include the solution of systems of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations; matrix eigenvalue problems; ordinary differential equations; optimization techniques; numerical integration and interpolation. Engineering applications presented. Computer programming required. EGM 502. Adv Engr Analysis. 3 Hours ADVANCED ENGINEERING ANALYSIS - Advanced Engineering Analysis. EGM 503. Intr Continum Mechn. 3 Hours INTRODUCTION TO CONTINUUM MECHANICS - Tensors, calculus of variations, Lagrangian and Eulerian descriptions of motion. General equations of continuum mechanics, constitutive equations of mechanics, thermodynamics of continua. Specialization to cases of solid and fluid mechanics. Prerequisite(s): EGM 303. EGM 504. Fund of Fluid Mech. 3 Hours FUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID MECHANICS - Fundamentals of fluid mechanics. EGM 506. Mech Behavr of Matls. 3 Hours MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF MATERIALS - Fundamental relationships between the structure and mechanical behavior of materials. Includes fundamentals of stress and strain, the physical basis for elastic deformation, elementary dislocation theory and plastic deformation, strengthening mechanisms, yield criteria and their application to biaxial and multi-axial behavior and failure, fracture and toughening mechanisms, creep and creep rupture, behavior and failure of cellular solids, and fatigue. Prerequisite(s): EGM 303. EGM 533. Theory of Elasticity. 3 Hours THEORY OF ELASTICITY - Three-dimensional stress and strain at a point; equations of elasticity in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates; methods of formulation of equations for solution, plane stress and plane strain; energy formulations; numerical solution procedures. Prerequisite(s): EGM 303. Corequisite(s): EGM 503. EGM 534. Thry-Plates&Shells. 3 Hours THEORY: PLATES AND SHELLS - Theory of plates and shells. EGM 536. Random Vibrations. 3 Hours RANDOM VIBRATIONS - Random vibrations. EGM 538. Intro-Aeroelastcity. 3 Hours INTRODUCTION TO AEROELASTICITY - Introductory course to aeroelasticity. EGM 540. Composite Design. 3 Hours COMPOSITE DESIGN - Design with fiber reinforced composite materials...

Heart Attack Symptoms and Calling 9-1-1 Campaign for Spanish ...

Heart Attack Symptoms and Calling 9-1-1 Campaign for Spanish Speaking Women Proposals must be received no later than November 1, 2012, at 5:00 p.m. Mountain Time. Please submit proposals in Microsoft Word or PDF format to owhapplication@jsi.com or mail to JSI, ATTN: Jodie Albert, 1725 Blake Street, Suite 400, Denver, Colorado 80202. Please DO NOT submit proposals to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Office on Women’s Health (OWH) or the Regional Offices on Women’s Health. Please read and follow all instructions prior to preparing and submitting your proposal. B. Funding Available Funding is available for activities and events in support of the Spanish language awareness campaign, “Make The Call. Don’t Miss a Beat”. Building upon the national public awareness begun under this campaign in 2011, the outreach focus of the campaign in 2013 is to encourage Spanish speaking Latinas from across the country over age 50 to recognize the signs and symptoms of a heart attack and to call 9-1-1 promptly. Community-based partnerships and collaborations with Hispanic/Latino organizations/entities are strongly encouraged and funding priority will be given to applicants demonstrating these partnerships. One $10,000 award will be made per DHHS region. This is a competitive process. All proposals will be reviewed by an objective technical review panel. Applicants will be notified by e-mail or mail by December 10, 2012 regarding funding decisions. C. Who Can Apply Funding is available to eligible entities located in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the six U.S.Affiliated Pacific Island Jurisdictions, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Eligible entities include public and private organizations, community- and faith-based organizations, health professionals’ organizations, colleges and universities, community health centers, hospitals, health departments, and tribal and urban Indian organizations. Organizations may submit only one proposal for this funding opportunity. If more than one proposal is submitted by any one organization, none of the proposals from that organization will be reviewed or considered for funding. An exception will be made for national organizations with affiliates where individually incorporated affiliates of the same national organization may each submit a proposal for consideration. An exception will also be made for universities with the caveat that different schools within the same university may not submit more than one proposal. Finally, organizations working together on the same project may only submit one proposal for that project. Background OWH was established in 1991 in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, within the Office of the Secretary. Its mission is to improve the health of American women by advancing and coordinating a comprehensive women’s health agenda throughout the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The HHS Office on Women’s Health is the government’s champion and primary agent for women’s health issues, working to redress inequities in research, health care services, and education that have historically placed the health of women at risk. OWH is the Department’s focal point for ensuring that women’s health policy, practice, and research are mutually informed and effectively integrated within HHS. OWH accomplishes this by collaborating with other federal and non-federal partners on behalf of women and girls. OWH provides leadership to promote equity for women and girls through sex and gender specific approaches. OWH has staff located in Washington, D.C. and a network of Regional Women’s Health Coordinators (RWHCs) located in each of the ten federal regions. The RWHCs coordinate and implement national public health initiatives to promote a greater focus on women's health issues at the regional, state, and local levels. The RWHCs advance the mission of the OWH by administering programs that improve the health of women in communities across the country and by coordinating activities in health care service delivery, research, and public and health professional education. Sensitivity to local, state, and regional needs in women's health is reflected in their work to identify priority health areas, to establish networking relationships, and to implement initiatives addressing regional women's health concerns. For additional information about the RWHCs and the regional offices.As part of its strategic plan, OWH continues to fund evidence-based interventions to address gaps in women’s health that are not addressed at the national level by any other public or private entity. ..

EECE 418 – Pre-proposal: The Interface on the LG Chocolate ...

EECE 418 – Pre-proposal: The Interface on the LG Chocolate TG800 Cellular Phone Description I have chosen the interface of the LG Chocolate TG800, a popular last-generation GSM cellular phone. The LG Chocolate was originally marketed as a mid-level slide-up camera phone for the style-conscientious user. The TG800 is a slide phone; the phone is unlocked and ready to receive input when the top section of the cell phone is slid upwards, revealing a standard T9 keypad as indicated in the figure below. Figure 1: LG Chocolate TG800 Slide Phone The entire region surrounding and inside the silver box on the top of the phone acts as nine different buttons, all of which are touch-sensitive. On either side of the phone are two tactile buttons. The three interface problems I am addressing with the TG800 are: 1. User has no visual cues to suggest what the four short-cut arrows do. 2. The button which allows the user to access certain features during a call (such as to hold the call or mute) is immediately adjacent to the end-call button. 3. The buttons on one side of the phone allows for volume adjustments while the buttons on the other side of the phone allows the user to turn off the phone or hang up; it is easy to accidentally press the power button when we simply wish to adjust the volume. These problems will be explained in further detail in the next section. Analysis The LG Chocolate interface allows the user to access the various functions of the phone; the user can make a call, take photos with the built-in camera or listen to music stored on the internal memory, and perform many other tasks through the phone interface. As with most cellular phones, the user demographics of the LG Chocolate are extremely wide and varied. While the product may have been marketed towards young, style-savvy users, the LG Chocolate has been adopted by members of other demographics. The following is a very small sampling of possible functional and non-functional requirements of the LG Chocolate phone: Functional Requirements: 1. The interface must allow for the user to make calls from the default state by either inputting the number to be dialed on the keypad or the user may scroll through the contact list and select a contact to call. 2. The interface must allow for the user to access the phone’s additional features including the camera, media player, etc. 3. The interface must allow for the user to quickly answer incoming calls and disconnect when finished. 4. The interface must allow for the user to adjust the volume of the speaker during a call. 5. The interface must allow for the user to access advanced calling features mid-call. Non-Functional Requirements: 1. The interface must respond to user input in no more than 0.5 seconds at any given time. One major problem with the interface of the LG Chocolate is the use of the arrow shortcut keys. The arrow keys on the touch pad allow the user to navigate menus in a self-explanatory manner. However, when the phone is in the default state, immediately after sliding the cover up and unlocking the phone, the four arrows are mapped to different functions, allowing the user to bypass the traditional menu screen and access specific components of the phone’s features quickly. However, since there are no visual cues to represent what the arrows do, the user must rely solely on memory to determine which features map to these shortcut arrows. Unless the user remembers exactly what the arrows do, it is more efficient to simply navigate through the traditional menu system. Another problem with the LG Chocolate interface is that in order to access the phone’s...

Politics After Al-Qaeda - Conflicts Forum

POLICY PAPER CONFLICTS FORUM July 2011 Politics After Al-Qaeda Faisal Devji Released by the Pentagon following the American assassination of Osama bin Laden in Abbotabad, an already “iconic” image showing Al-Qaeda’s frail leader watching footage of himself on an antiquated television set inadvertently reveals some truths about the War on Terror. For one thing it is difficult to imagine this setting as part of a command centre for global terrorism. And for another the international reaction to Bin Laden’s assassination casts doubt on the US narrative of war and victory on a global scale. Crucial about this reaction, after all, has been the fact that people around the world seemed interested in the event primarily because of the extraordinarily pugnacious public response it generated in the US, and not for any reason of their own. Thus even in countries like Britain and Spain, which not so long ago had themselves been the victims of AlQaeda’s militancy, there was little if any public demonstration of satisfaction at Bin Laden’s death, though it continued to be the subject of massive media coverage precisely as an element in American politics. In the Muslim world, too, those who mourned the “Sheikh’s” death did so for a variety of reasons, many of which had more to do with local politics than anything so grand as a global war against the West. Indeed there was something curious about the endlessly replayed shots, in the American and European press, that attempted to demonstrate Osama bin Laden’s popularity among Muslims by showing his photograph being sold in Pakistani shops. For these images often had as their context pictures of other celebrities, like unveiled and heavily made up starlets from “Lollywood”, as the Punjabi film industry based in Lahore is known. Sold as a commodity Conflicts Forum: Beirut – London www.conflictsforum.org alongside posters of film stars and boxes of Barbie dolls, the popularity of Bin Laden’s photograph surely says nothing about that of the jihad he advocated. His celebrity status, I imagine, has more to do with the fact that Osama bin Laden was dignified by America as her greatest enemy and had thus gained a degree of infamy with little connection to Pakistani concerns. He had become just another iconic commodity to his fans. Of course Al-Qaeda’s spectacular attacks, notably those of 9/11, were impressive enough to win it a certain admiration, sometimes for aesthetic as much as religious or political reasons, but it is not clear how much of this translated into material support. And today even antiAmerican sentiment among Muslims appears to have abandoned global terrorism as its model and moved in other directions. It is only the US public that continues to be mesmerised by Osama and his gang, which is appropriate enough given that they had always been a factor of America’s domestic politics. So the political use to which President Obama put Bin Laden’s killing was nothing more than a fulfilment of his predecessor’s strategy, which consisted of using fears about security to consolidate his power at the national level. I am not, however, making the extravagant claim that the Bush administration simply used the 9/11 attacks in a cynical exercise to bolster its support, nor that the United States used them as an excuse to remake the world in its own image. On the contrary, I think that the US was and continues to be unable to engage in a global politics after the Cold War. If US administrations during the Cold War were naturally interested in securing America’s economic and political dominance, they were also fighting for a vision of the world that was greater than their self-interest. But the collapse of the Soviet Union meant that US geopolitics suddenly shrank to become merely an aspect of its domestic concerns. Her global victory, in other words, domesticated America’s politics, so the nation’s greatest enemies could now only be internal ones. Surely the escalating tension between liberals and conservatives in the US, whose mutual hatreds had their origin in the culture wars of the 1980s, demonstrates the truth of this situation. Neoconservative thinkers had recognized the novelty of this withdrawal from geopolitics very soon after the Soviet collapse, though they saw it as a sign of America’s victorious domination of the global arena. Thus Francis Fukuyama’s celebrated “end of history” thesis, as elucidated in his 1992 book The End of History and the Last Man, was the first 2 important statement about America’s inability to engage in a global politics, now seen merely as an extension of her domestic conflicts and interests. While ostensibly disagreeing with Fukuyama’s thesis, Samuel Huntington’s equally influential “clash of civilizations” argument, as elaborated in his 1996 book The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, also recognized the end of a traditional geopolitics based on states and sought to redefine worldwide conflict in cultural and non-statist terms. For in their own ways both thinkers saw that with the Soviet collapse, a global arena had come into view that was no longer circumscribed by states or even the international system, and thus did not possess a politics proper to itself. And it was in such an arena that a phenomenon like AlQaeda’s non-state militancy could arise and seek to give political substance to an entity like the global Muslim ummah or community, which itself had no historical precedent or institutional life. An admirer of Huntington’s book, Osama bin Laden put into action its idea of a geopolitics determined by non-state actors. In doing so he sought to occupy a global arena that had remained politically vacant since the Cold War’s division of the planet into rival hemispheres and its nuclear brinkmanship of “mutually assured destruction”. For the new global arena that came into view following the Soviet collapse possessed a sociological reality but no longer a political one. So entities like the human race, which before the Cold War had only been abstractions, suddenly assumed a sinister reality with the possibility of nuclear apocalypse, or indeed the actuality of planetary population control. Modelled on the human race as a new kind of actuality that was supposedly under threat of extinction, the Muslim ummah, too, emerged during this period as a reality lacking political form. And in doing so it came to represent the only political aspiration for a species which had suddenly become depoliticized after the Cold War, one that could now only take a sociological form as the selfsame agent and victim of environmental threats like climate change, themselves conceived of in economic rather than political terms. Like a human race under threat from the environmental catastrophe that had replaced the Cold War’s nuclear apocalypse, in other words, the Muslim community both existed and yet could not be said to exist. So it is no accident that Bin Laden referred very frequently to the Muslim ummah at risk of Western violence in the same breath as he bemoaned the threat that global warming posed for the human race. And the equivocal existence of both ummah and 3 species serves to foreground the fact that the globe possesses neither political actors nor any institutions of its own. The extraordinary politics of speculation and spectacle that Osama bin Laden deployed to lend a kind of reality to such entities as the Muslim community and even the human race, however, posed no existential threat to the United States or any other country, including Afghanistan, despite the great violence associated with it. Indeed Al-Qaeda’s most important and long-term consequence may well be shaking up the Muslim world’s hierarchies and inculcating highly individualistic forms of sacrifice as the basic element of a new politics there. Isn’t this the lesson that so many of the current “revolutions” in the Middle East have learnt from Al-Qaeda, lacking as they do any coherent leadership, ideology or political form? Indeed it is perhaps because this lesson has been learnt so well that Al-Qaeda has slipped from view in much of the Muslim world, its historical task accomplished as the result of an internal dynamic rather than because of any victory won in the War on Terror. Unlike Al-Qaeda’s militants, of course, today’s revolutionaries have forsaken the species or Muslim ummah to lend global ideas of pan-Arabism a certain reality by their media-driven imitations of one another, though without trying to formalize it in any ideological, let alone institutional sense, as if to suggest that this reality can only be an unspoken and non-statist one. By launching the Global War on Terror, the US was, among other things, trying to reclaim a planetary politics for itself. But given that Al-Qaeda was unable to present it any kind of military challenge, becoming instead a factor of America’s domestic politics in the aftermath of 9/11, this was an effort doomed to failure. Despite the exotic appearance and terminology of its militants, moreover, Al-Qaeda operated not as an external enemy but rather internally, by turning the logic and instruments of the West against itself. This viral form of attack was in full evidence with the 9/11 attacks, whose perpetrators trained at American flight schools and used American aircraft to strike their targets. And this lack of externality was only augmented by the militants’ exaltation of martyrdom, which did nothing more than rob Al-Qaeda of its very ontology as a foe whom death might defeat. So the great transformation that the War on Terror wrought the world over had as much to do with electoral machinations and security concerns in the US as it did with a global politics that was suddenly inaccessible to the planet’s remaining superpower. For even this war’s economic and other spoils were reserved primarily for the US, 4 whose allies had to fall in line for crumbs that might enrich individuals but had little bearing for an international system that had merely been subordinated to American designs. In waging what it considered a global war, in other words, the United States did nothing more than hollow out if not quite demolish an international system that had already been weakened by the Soviet collapse and was in the process of becoming politically irrelevant in the new global arena within which Al-Qaeda operated. This arena was therefore recognized and even supported by an America that dismissed the legal and other formulae of the international order to occupy it. America’s great power, in other words, has robbed it of geopolitics as a distinct field of action, confining its practices to the kind of self-interest that is incapable of distinguishing domestic from international arenas. As a consequence the United States can only operate internationally by seeing and reproducing itself everywhere in an impossible gesture of narcissism. And this means that the more it acts in the world the more America actually withdraws from the latter’s reality. Osama bin Laden’s assassination and disposal at sea is a good example of this, representing as it does a squandered opportunity for the procedures of international ethics as much as justice, sacrificed as both of these were in favour of a purely domestic politics. But the risk of such behaviour is very high indeed, since more than a loss of reality, what it entails is the turning inward of all conflict. So quite apart from the mutual recriminations of Republicans and Democrats, there is the increasing use of War on Terror procedures within the US itself for purposes like crime prevention that restrict the civil liberties of American citizens while having nothing to do with terrorism. It is also indicative of this turn inwards that Muslims today are seen by many Americans more as an internal threat than an external one, with their coreligionists abroad still free to become clients and allies of the US. The early years of the War on Terror had seen nothing like this rise in what is often called “Islamophobia”, which has gained ground in the US only after years of uninterrupted security and the absence of terrorist attacks. Like these domestic concerns, Bin Laden’s killing, together with the reaction it has elicited, offers us the clearest possible example of America’s loss of geopolitics and its withdrawal from the world. For with the decline of Al-Qaeda’s smoke and mirror politics, what has come into view is only the inability of states to address the planetary concerns of our time. These include climate change and food security, which the international system seems incapable...

Consumer Products Packaging Design - Wright Design

Consumer Products Packaging Design The Design Process and Some Basic Tips Package design for a new consumer product is as important as the product inside. This article will present a brief roadmap for designing the package for optimum effectiveness. Ideally the package designer will be a professional with strong consumer products experience. Except for the product itself, there is nothing more important to a product’s success than having a hardworking, truly sales generating package. If the package is not designed right, the trade will never buy the product and the consumer will never try it. The first section of this article reviews a typical Design Process. The second section offers some basic Packaging Design Tips. The Design Process Packaging Design - Preparation Here’s a typical Design Process. It is important to use a step by step organized approach to develop packaging design. Among other things, it helps to define which steps are client responsibilities and which are responsibilities of the design firm. 1. The first step in the process is for the client to describe the assignment to the design firm, assemble all relevant information and materials, list product benefits and key points in their priority of importance and clarify any mandatories. A “mandatory” is something that is required for the category or company. A “category” example would be the legal way a product should be described. A “company” example could be that the company president doesn’t like the color red. That means that the designer won’t use red! 2. The second step is for the design firm to prepare a proposal for the client. The proposal should include the designer’s understanding of the assignment and responsibilities, and how the designer plans to execute the assignment, spelling out deliverables, timetables and costs for each module or phase in the process. 3. The third is the most important step in the design process and it has nothing to do with graphics. The client and/or the design firm must develop a Communications Strategy that includes a strong USP - Unique Selling Proposition - (sometimes referred to as a Brand Positioning or the Brand Essence) as well as specific design direction for the specific project. The USP gives the trade and consumer a clear understanding of what makes your product different and better than your competition. There is nothing more important to the designer than to have a clear, powerful Brand Positioning to execute. The Design Process Packaging Design - Preparation A Brand Positioning Formula Unique or Preemptive* What is different about your product or service? In what ways is your offering different from your competition? Relevant Among those things that are different about your product or service, what differences are relevant? What is the most important unique attribute to your prospect target market? Believable Is your claim (your product/service difference) believable to your target prospect? Is it reasonable to think that your company can produce/offer this product or service? Performable Can you prove your claim? Does your product or service perform as claimed? * For lack of uniqueness, consider preemptive. Among the most important category benefits of your product or service, which one is not now being claimed by the competition and is, therefore, possible for you to preempt? The Design Process Packaging Design - Brand Identity For a new product, the next step in the Packaging Design Process is to create a graphic identity or logo...

Findability of Commodities by Consumers - Design Research Society

Findability of Commodities by Consumers: Distinguishing Different Packaging Designs Regina W.Y. Wang, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, wyw@mail.ntust.edu.tw Mu-Chien Chou, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology / Chungyu Institute of Technology, f1234860@ms36.hinet.net Abstract What package design features can help consumers find commodities faster? This study assumes that the factors in distinguishing different packaging designs of commodities differ due to consumers’ different personal experiences. Thus, this paper studies the findability of commodities by consumers through distinct packaging designs. It consists mainly of two stages: (a) the first stage reviews the existing literature to determine the application of different package designs; (b) the second stage is a focus group interview designed to investigate the factors influencing consumers in distinguishing different package designs. In the investigation process, (i) samples of package bottles for testing were collected through natural observation and convenience sampling; (ii) a focus group interview was conduced to determine how a consumer recognizes the differences among packages; (iii) a grounded analysis model was employed to transfer and encode the data collected from the focus group interviews to construct a conceptual frame for trade dress and the classifications of trade dress, which can interpret variations in the recognition of packaging design differences. The results of the focus group interview showed that consumers focused more on three kinds of “trade dress”: property of commodity, label design, and bottle shape design when looking for differences in packaging designs. The “bottle shape design” was the most important factor that the focus group used in distinguishing different packaging designs. The distinction in the different package designs by consumers is not limited to design elements (image, language, color, shape, etc.) only; more importantly, the distinction lies in the relationship between “trade dress” and “classifications of trade dress,” which can better reflect the differences in packaging designs. Keywords commodity packaging; differences in packaging design; findability; trade dress. The findability of commodities influences consumer decisions (Brown, 2008). Two-thirds of consumers’ buying decisions are influenced by the packages on the shelf (Lundberg, 2004; Nilsson & Öström, 2005; Rettie & Brewer, 2000). Hence, the kind of packaging that is easy to find is a thesis worth investigating. Packaging gives appeal and provides distinction from other commodities. Furthermore, it stimulates the buyers’ desire for consumption. An effective package design catches consumers’ attention and experience, prolongs lingering time before the shelf, and consequently causes sales opportunity to take place directly (Cheverton, 2004; Doyle, 1996; Mikunda, 2002). Experience in various commodities is connected with brand identity, packaging design on the shelf, and attempt to link with consumers’ personal experiences (Schmitt, 1999). Therefore, design elements such as character, figure, color, brand, shape, size, material, and texture employed effectively by the package designer can create a different package and communication experience (Schmitt & Simonson, 1997; Sonsino, 1990). There are different types of cognition towards the communication design of package comprehension between consumers and designers (Author, 2007). Hence, designers have different preferences in their own design communication owing to their different senses and cognitions of the commodity itself (Antioco, Moenaert, Feinberg, & Wetzels, 2008). This survey investigates the findability of packages. A literature review on packaging design differences is first presented, and the results of the group interview aimed at exploring the factors affecting consumer recognition and distinction of packaging design differences are then discussed...

TRADING CURRENCY – B&G TRADING
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TRADING CURRENCY – B&G TRADING Finance Catalogue - Looking for Trading Currency? …It [the United States] is likely also to remain the world's richest and most productive national economy for a long time (though the European Union as a whole is both larger and more productive). These blocs are neither "free trade" nor "protectionist", but both at the same time. Even more novel is that what is emerging is not one but four world economies: a world economy of information; of money; of multinationals (one no longer dominated by American enterprises); and a mercantilist world economy of goods, services and trade. These subsidies are in fact a major--perhaps the major--cement of the FrancoGerman alliance, and with it, of the European Union. The international organization designed to set world economic policy is the World Trade Organization (WTO). Typical perhaps is a German manufacturer of specialized surgical instruments who, with $20 million in sales and with plants in eleven countries, has around 60 percent of the world market in the field. In the meantime, however, the world economy of multinationals has become a truly global one, rather than one dominated by America and by U.S. The euro has managed to make itself the second most-used reserve currency in its three years, displacing the Deutsche mark and well ahead of the yen and the pound. …[Note] the recent merger of steel makers from Spain, Luxembourg and France to create a powerhouse called Arcelor. By breaking down currency and trade barriers between their states and trying to achieve economies of scale, Europe is playing America's game… … It has frequently been said that free trade is a mechanism to redistribute income from poor people in rich countries to rich people in poor countries; the history of blue-collar wage levels in the United States since 1973 tends to validate this thesis (although heavy immigration, a separate question, has exacerbated the problem by still further augmenting the supply of modestly skilled U.S. But a supermajority--maybe 75 percent--of votes would be required to pass tariff agreements. Designing an orthodox currency board for Iraq will require discarding the model used by the International Monetary Fund in Argentina, Estonia, Lithuania, and Bulgaria. They are already suffering from heavy competition from China in many of their traditional exports, and China's dollar peg means that it is sucking up investment from Japan and outside the region that might otherwise have gone to Southeast Asia. People in developed countries tend to think that China is now a global economic power and strong enough to choose its economic policies freely. The assembled panelists (except me) embraced the idea that China was exporting deflation. A country with vibrant growth does not run a large current account surplus ($17.4 billion in 2001) despite a large inflow of foreign direct investment ($37.3 billion net in 2001) and hence large reserve accumulation ($47.3 billion in 2001) unless its currency is undervalued. When a country signs the IMF Articles of Agreement, it explicitly commits itself "to avoid competitive exchange depreciation" and "to avoid manipulating exchange rates in order to prevent effective balance of payments adjustment or to gain unfair competitive advantage over other members." The Articles also explicitly assign the IMF responsibility for surveillance over member exchange rates and related policies. Unfortunately, China does not allow publication of the IMF's annual surveillance report on the Chinese economy and policies...

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