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Wireless Ad hoc network is a set of wireless devices which move randomly and communicate with other node via radio signal. Ad-hoc networks may be logically represented as a set of clusters by grouping together nodes on the basis of different criteria such as 1-hop and k-hop that are in close boundary with one another. Clusters are formed by diffusing node identities along the wireless links. Different heuristics employ different policies to elect cluster heads. Several of these policies are biased in favour of some nodes. As a result, these nodes should greater responsibility and may deplete their energy faster, causing them to drop out of the network. Therefore, there is a need for load-balancing among cluster-heads to allow all nodes the opportunity to serve as a cluster-head. In this paper, different cluster head election mechanism are discussed in the one hop clustering approach.
This paper clearly explains about the safety and control systems in the car . Most of the accidents are occurred because of violation of rules . Result of this major accidents happened .In our day-to-day life we are careless in our safety while driving in vehicles for this we have to introduce some techniques to do these precautions compulsory . Such a new technique is explained in this paper.While driving car wearing seat belt is important that can safe our life during accident periods .But most of us are careless to wear seatbelt .
The aim of this paper is to prove a fixed point theorem using semicontractive mapping a well-known result of Ky Fan in Hilbert space.
This paper aims to propose a methodology for face recognition using artificial neural networks in dynamic background. The dynamic background is chosen for comparing the important information sequences, characteristic. This paper analysis four different techniques using artificial neural networks for face recognition.
A Research Design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy procedure. Research Design is needed because it facilitates the smooth sailing of the various research operations. Tools for data collection method, to give the result and testing hypothesis, my paper deals with the steps involve in Research Design, Need of Research Design, and Characteristic of Research Design, Features of Research Design, and the tools and techniques of data collection method. Report writing is a presentation of facts and findings. After collecting and analyzing the data, the researcher has to accomplish the task drawing Interference followed by report writing. This has do very carefully, otherwise misleading conclusion may be drown and the whole purpose of doing research may be violated. In this paper I had clearly sketch the outline of report writing from title to end page and also
This paper present a system which can efficiently detect fire after the image of the area has been captured by a camera. Fire has destructive properties which cannot be tolerated in any work areas. Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat and light. The light parameter and color of flame helps in detecting fire. The system first detects smoke and then fire. When smoke is present in the area it displays a message on the Security terminal. When a fire breaks in the area under consideration, the corresponding fire region in the input video frame will be segmented which covers the fire. If the area of the flame increases in the subsequent frames then an alarm is sounded.
The paper presents the modeling, simulation and analysis of an AC-DC converter based PWM rectifier. It provides a suitable control algorithm for a pulse width modulation rectifier which reduces ripple from the DC output side as well as shapes the input current properly. The basic objective of a PWM rectifier is to regulate the DC output voltage and also ensure a sinusoidal input current and unity power factor operation. This is implemented by high speed IGBT switches connected in anti parallel mode across the rectifier diodes
As we all know that our country is second largest in terms of population just after China. And as the population is increasing the number of vehicles too are and so is the number of accidents. During high traffic on roads with no traffic police officials to manage and automation is the only way to control the traffic it is difficult to take decisions. For overcoming this problem we have sensors in all directions of a junction and based on the traffic level we allow the passage of vehicles and stop the rest of the vehicles in all the other directions. This paper also deals with the payment of entire taxes at one toll gate which allows it to pass through the other toll gates. We implement this solution using the CLOUD approach.
Most hydropower plants in Nepal are run-off type, which cannot supply the designed amount of energy during dry season and peak demand period resulting in energy crisis. Therefore, pumped storage plants can be an ideal solution to meet the current energy needs of the country. Most of these storage plants make use of a single unit acting both as turbine as well as pump; hence aptly called Reversible Pump Turbine (RPT). This paper explains the new application concept for use of such RPTs as auxiliary unit to supplement the main power unit in hydropower plants of Nepal.