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Sep 20, 2013 ... Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis Professional 2014 Author: Address: Symbol Values Unit File: Porticos_Robot_2D.rtd Project: Porticos_Robot_2D Symbol description MEMBER: 842 Section ; COORDINATE: x = 0.59 L = 4.72 m Cross-section properties: HEA340-M Vao_Int_11m Ax 12721.50 mm2 Cross-section area Ay 9900.00 mm2 Shear area - y-axis Az 2821.50 mm2 Shear area - z-axis Ix 950452.21 mm4 Torsional constant Iy 747723684.63 mm4 Moment of inertia of a section about the y-axis Iz 74271220.03 mm4 Moment of inertia of a section about the z-axis Wply 1761321.37 mm3 Plastic section modulus about the y (major) axis Wplz 749201.06 mm3 Plastic section modulus about the z (minor) axis h 330.00 mm Height of cross-section b 300.00 mm Top flange width b2 300.00 mm Bottom flange width tf 16.50 mm Top flange thickness tf2 16.50 mm Bottom flange thickness tw 9.50 mm Web thickness ry 242.44 mm Radius of gyration - y-axis rz 76.41 mm Radius of gyration - z-axis Anb 1.00 Net area to gross area ratio (126.96.36.199) Eta 1.00 Factor for Av calculation (6.2.6.(3)) Material: Name S 275 ( S 275 ) fy 275.00 MPa Design yield strength of material (3.2) fu 430.00 MPa limit tensile stress - characteristic value (3.2) gM0 1.00 Partial safety factor (6.1.(1)) gM1 1.00 Partial safety factor (6.1.(1)) gM2 1.25 Partial safety factor (6.1.(1)) Designations of additional codes: EN112 EN 1991-1-2:2003 - Fire loads on a structure EN312 EN 1993-1-2:2005 - Steel structures - fire design EN313 EN 1993-1-3:2005 - Steel structures from cold-formed sections EN315 EN 1993-1-5:2005 - Steel structures - plated elements ECCS No111:2001 - Guidebook with recommendations for fire calculations ENV 1993-1-1:1992 - Steel structures - general code EC111 ENV311 Class of section cf1 141.45 mm upper flange width (Table 5.2) tf1 16.50 mm upper flange thickness (Table 5.2) Flange slenderness (Table 5.2) Flange class (5.5.2) cf1/tf1 KLF 8.57 2 cf2 141.45 mm lower flange width (Table 5.2) tf2 16.50 mm lower flange thickness (Table 5.2) Flange slenderness (Table 5.2) cf2/tf2 Date : 20/09/13 8.57 Page : 1 Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis Professional 2014 Author: Address: Symbol Values Unit KLF2 2 cw File: Porticos_Robot_2D.rtd Project: Porticos_Robot_2D Symbol description Section Flange class (5.5.2) 289.40 mm Web height (Table 5.2) 9.50 mm Web thickness (Table 5.2) Web slenderness (Table 5.2) Relative extent of the compressed plastic zone (Table 5.2) Stress or strain ratio (Table 5.2) Web class (5.5.2) tw cw/tw 30.46 alfa 0.15 psi -1.30 KLW 1 (hw/tw)lim 66.56 limit slenderness of a web for shear EN315(5.1) hw/tw 31.26 web slenderness for shear EN315(5.1) KLSZ Plastic Web class (shear) EN315(5.1) Section type (5.5.2) KL 2 Parameters of lateral-torsional buckling analysis: General method [188.8.131.52] Lcr,upp 2.20 m Lateral buckling length of upper flange active Lcr,low 7.34 m Lateral buckling length of lower flange C1 1.00 Factor for Mcr calculations C2 0.00 Factor for Mcr calculations inactive ENV311(F.1.2.( 5)) ENV311(F.1.2.( C3 1.00 4885653729.08 .08 0.00 Factor for Mcr calculations mm6 5240.73 kN*m Iw zg Mcr Lam_LT Non-dimens. slend. ratio for lat.-tors. buckling mm 0.30 Curve,LT c Warping constant Distance from the point where the load is applied to the shear center Critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling 5)) ENV311(F.1.2.( 5)) (184.108.40.206) ENV311(F.1.2.( 1)) ENV311(F.1) (220.127.116.11.(1)) Lateral buckling curve (18.104.22.168.(2)) alfa,LT 0.49 Imperfection factor for lateral buckling curves (Table 6.3) fi,LT 0.57 Coefficient for calculation of XLT (22.214.171.124.(1)) XLT 0.95 Reduction factor for lateral-torsional buckling (126.96.36.199.(1)) Internal forces at characteristic points of cross section N,Ed -528.99 kN My,Ed 472.49 kN*m Vz,Ed -0.03 kN axial force N.Ed bending moment My.Ed shear force Vz.Ed Design forces: Nt,Rd 3498.41 kN Mb,Rd 458.74 kN*m Design tension resistance (6.2.3) Design buckling resistance moment (188.8.131.52) About the y axis of cross-section My,pl,Rd 484.36 kN*m Design plastic resistance moment (6.2.5.(2)) My,el,Rd 1246.21 kN*m Design elastic resistance moment (6.2.5.(2)) My,c,Rd 484.36 kN*m Design moment resistance (6.2.5.(2)) MN,y,Rd 473.29 kN*m Reduced design plastic resistance moment (184.108.40.206) Vz,c,Rd 447.97 kN Design plastic shear resistance (6.2.6.(2)) Verification formulas: Section strength check: UFS[Nt] 0.15 N,Ed/Nt,Rd (6.2.3.(1)) UFS[My] 0.98 My,Ed/My,c,Rd (6.2.5.(1)) Date : 20/09/13 Page : 2 Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis Professional 2014 Author: Address: Symbol Values Unit File: Porticos_Robot_2D.rtd Project: Porticos_Robot_2D Symbol description Section UFS[NtMy] 1.00 My,Ed/MN,y,Rd (220.127.116.11.(2)) UFS[Vz] 0.00 Vz,Ed/Vz,c,Rd (6.2.6.(1)) My,Ed/Mb,Rd (18.104.22.168.(1)) Global stability check of member: UFB[My] 1.03 Ratio: RAT Date : 20/09/13 1.03 Incorrect section Efficiency ratio Page : 3
Money Management: Dos and don’ts for paying your tax bill About three-quarters of individual taxpayers received refunds last year, according to Internal Revenue Service www.irs.gov/uac/Newsroom/Filing-Season-Statistics-May-10,-2013 statistics. However, many people find that they do owe taxes when April 15 comes around. If you fall into that group, the Connecticut
AUTO-SCAN FM RADIO KIT MODEL FM-88K ELENCO® 150 Carpenter Avenue Wheeling, IL 60090 (847) 541-3800 Website: www.elenco.com e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org To see our complete line of Educational Products go to WWW.ELENCO.COM Assembly and Instruction Manual ELENCO ® Copyright © 2011 by ELENCO® All rights reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced by any means; electronic, photocopying, or otherwise without written permission from the publisher. 753050 PARTS LIST GLOSSARY (Continued) If you are a student, and any parts are missing or damaged, please see instructor or bookstore. If you purchased this kit from a distributor, catalog, etc., please contact ELENCO® (address/phone/e-mail is at the back of this manual) for additional assistance, if needed. DO NOT contact your place of purchase as they will not be able to help you. RF Radio Frequency. Sensitivity The ability of a receiver to pick up low-amplitude signals. Speaker An electronic device that turn electric impulses into sound. Surface-mount Technology RESISTORS Symbol R5 R1 R3 R4 R2 R6/S3 Value Color Code 10Ω 5% 1/4W brown-black-black-gold 680Ω 5% 1/4W blue-gray-brown-gold 5.6kΩ 5% 1/4W green-blue-red-gold 10kΩ 5% 1/4W brown-black-orange-gold 18kΩ 5% 1/4W brown-gray-orange-gold Potentiometer 50kΩ & switch w/ nut & washer Part # 121000 136800 145600 151000 151800 192522 CAPACITORS Qty. r1 r1 r1 r1 r1 r1 r1 r1 r2 r1 r1 r6 r2 r1 r1 r2 Symbol C6 C7 C10 C5 C8 C4 C13 C23 C11, C12 C15 C19 C3, C9, C14, C16, C17, C* C21, C22 C20 C1 C2, C18 Value 33pF 82pF 180pF 220pF 330pF 470pF 680pF 1500pF 3300pF 0.033μF 0.047μF 0.1μF 10μF 22μF 100μF 220μF Description Discap (33) Discap (82) Discap (181 or 180) Discap (221 or 220) Discap (331 or 330) Discap (471 or 470) Discap (681 or 680) Discap (152) Discap (332) Discap (333) Discap (473) Discap (104) Electrolytic radial Electrolytic radial Electrolytic radial Electrolytic radial Part # 213317 218210 221810 222210 223317 224717 226880 231516 233310 243318 244780 251010 271044 272244 281044 282244 COILS Qty. r1 r1 Symbol L2 L1 Value Qty. r1 r1 r1 r1 r1 Symbol D1 D2 D3 U2 U1 Description Coil 4-turn Coil 6-turn Value BB909/BB910 1N4001 Part # 430150 430160 SEMICONDUCTORS LM-386 or identical TDA7088T or identical Description Varactor Semiconductor silicon diode Red LED 3mm Low voltage audio power amplifier FM receiver SM installed on PC board Part # 310909 314001 350003 330386 MISCELLANEOUS Qty. r1 r1 r2 r1 r1 r1 r1 r1 Description Antenna FM PC board w/ installed U1 (TDA7088T) Push button switch 12mm Battery holder Speaker 8Ω Cap push button switch yellow Cap push button switch red Knob pot / switch Qty. r1 r2 r1 r1 r1 r 3” r1 Part # 484005 517038 540005 590096 590102 622001 622007 622050 -1- Description Screw M1.8 x 7.5mm Antenna screw M2 x 5mm Nut M1.8 Socket IC 8-pin Speaker pad Wire 22 ga. solid Solder Lead-free Part # 641100 643148 644210 664008 780128 834012 9LF99 Trimmer A semiconductor component that can be used to amplify signals, or as electronic switches. Varactor A method of using special components that are soldered to the PC board’s surface. A diode optimized to vary its internal capacitance with a change in its reverse bias voltage. Voltage Electrical potential difference measured in volts. An adjustable fine-tuning resistor, capacitor, or inductor of small values. Voltage Regulator A circuit that holds the DC voltage. QUIZ INSTRUCTIONS: Complete the following examination, check your answers carefully. 6. The capacitance of the varactor is determined by . . . r A) the voltage level. r B) the amount of current in the circuit. r C) the signal strength of the RF carrier. r D) the amount of resistance in the circuit. 1. The number of cycles produced per second by a source of sound is called the . . . r A) amplitude. r B) vibration. r C) sound wave. r D) frequency. 7. The ability to select a specific band of frequencies, while rejecting others, is called . . . r A) selectivity. r B) sensitivity. r C) demodulation. r D) none of the above. 2. The frequency of the modulating signal determines the ... r A) number of times the frequency of the carrier changes per second. r B) maximum deviation of the FM carrier. r C) maximum frequency swing of the FM carrier. r D) amount of amplitude change of the FM carrier. 8. The process of mixing two signals to produce a third signal is called . . . r A) filtering. r B) detecting. r C) rectification. r D) heterodyning. 3. The FM broadcast band is . . . r A) 550 – 1,600kHz. r B) 10.7MHz. r C) 88 – 108MHz. r D) 98.7 – 118.7MHz. 9. The circuit designed to supply substantial power output into low impedance load is called . . . r A) power supply. r B) pre-amplifier. r C) power amplifier. r D) detector. 4. The AFC circuit is used to . . . r A) automatically hold the local oscillator on frequency. r B) maintain constant gain in the receiver to prevent such things as fading. r C) prevent amplitude variations of the FM carrier. r D) automatically control the audio frequencies in the receiver. 5. The device most often used for changing the local oscillator frequency with the AFC voltage is a . . . r A) feedthrough capacitor. r B) variable inductor. r C) varactor. r D) trimmer capacitor. 10. The gain of the LM-386 amplifier can be set in range from . . . r A) 1 to 20. r B) 20 to 200. r C) 0 to 200. r D) 50 to 100. Answers: 1. D, 2. A, 3. C, 4. A, 5. C, 6. A, 7. C, 8. D, 9. C, 10. B
INTEGRATED CIRCUITS DATA SHEET TEA5710; TEA5710T AM/FM radio receiver circuit Product speciﬁcation File under Integrated Circuits, IC01 March 1994 Philips Semiconductors Product speciﬁcation AM/FM radio receiver circuit TEA5710; TEA5710T FEATURES APPLICATIONS • Wide supply voltage range: 2.0 to 12 V • Portable AM/FM radio • Low current consumption: 7.5 mA at AM, 9.0 mA at FM • Clock radio • High selectivity with distributed IF gain • Personal headphone radio • LED driver for tuning indication • High input sensitivity: 1.6 mV/m (AM), 2.0 µV (FM) for 26 dB S/N DESCRIPTION The TEA5710 is a high performance Bimos IC for use in AM/FM radios. All necessary functions are integrated: from AM and FM front-end to detector output stages. • Good strong signal behaviour: 10 V/m at AM, 500 mV at FM • Low output distortion: 0.8% at AM, 0.3% at FM • Designed for simple and reliable PC-board layout • High impedance MOSFET input on AM QUICK REFERENCE DATA Conditions AM: fi = 1 MHz; m = 0.3; fm = 1 kHz; VP = 3.0 V; measured in Fig.4 with S1 in position B and S2 in position A, unless otherwise speciﬁed. Conditions FM: fi = 100 MHz; ∆f = 22.5 kHz; fm = 1 kHz; VP = 3.0 V; measured in Fig.4 with S1 in position B and S2 in position A, unless otherwise speciﬁed. SYMBOL... FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION The TEA5710 incorporates internal stabilized power supplies. The maximum supply voltage is 12 V, the minimum voltage can go down temporarily to 1.8 V without any loss in performance. The AM circuit incorporates a double balanced mixer, a one pin low-voltage oscillator (up to 30 MHz), a field-strength dependent indicator output and is designed for distributed selectivity. The AM input is designed to be connected to the top of a tuned circuit. AGC controls the IF amplification and for large signals it lowers the input impedance. The first AM selectivity can be an IFT as well as an IFT combined with a ceramic filter; the second one is an IFT. The FM circuit incorporates a tuned RF stage, a double balanced mixer, a one-pin oscillator, a field-strength indicator output and is designed for distributed IF ceramic filters. The FM quadrature detector uses a ceramic resonator. March 1994
The Ear Force PX3 is an advanced wireless headset that is engineered for the PS3, and also works with XBOX 360 and PC/Mac gaming. To get the most from your gaming experience with your PX3, please take a few minutes to review this user guide. Digital RF Technology The PX3 provides wireless CD-quality game and chat sound on the PS3 via digital RF (radio frequency) that communicates with the PX3 transmitter. The PS3 chat and voice signals are transferred between the PS3 and transmitter via the USB connection. When used on the XBOX 360, chat and voice signals are sent to the controller via the included XBOX 360 Talkback Cable. Digital Signal Processing (DSP) The PX3 uses digital signal processing to customize the game and chat audio signals, improving performance in specific gaming situations. These settings are stored as presets that can be easily called up to change the characteristics of the game and chat sound. For example, you can use the presets to accentuate sounds like footsteps or enemies reloading a gun that might otherwise be difficult to hear with normal game audio. Interchangeable Presets The USB connection on the transmitter lets you connect your PX3 to a PC and replace the factory presets with new presets downloaded from TurtleBeach.com. That means you can customize your PX3 and turn it into your own “secret weapon” that’s unlike anyone else’s headset! Rechargeable Battery The PX3 includes an internal rechargeable battery that lets you play for more than 10 hours before requiring a recharge. By connecting the included Headset Charging Cable to the transmitter, you can continue playing while the headset recharges. Listen to your favorite music while playing a game The PX3 transmitter includes a stereo input for your digital music player, so you can enjoy your favorite songs while playing the game. Engineered for High Quality Sound The PX3 is designed to deliver high-quality audio that makes it ideal for gaming, movies and digital music playback. The high-fidelity, 50mm speakers are encased in acoustically-tuned, circumaural ear cups with soft fabric cushions and deliver extended bass with extraordinary dynamic range for optimum audio performance.
Datasheet SHT1x (SHT10, SHT11, SHT15) Humidity and Temperature Sensor: Fully calibrated Digital output Low power consumption Excellent long term stability SMD type package – reflow solderable Product Summary Each SHT1x is individually calibrated in a precision humidity chamber. The calibration coefficients are programmed into an OTP memory on the chip. These coefficients are used to internally calibrate the signals from the sensors. The 2-wire serial interface and internal voltage regulation allows for easy and fast system integration. The tiny size and low power consumption makes SHT1x the ultimate choice for even the most demanding applications. Dimensions Sensor Chip 1.5 ±0.2 2.0 ±0.1 1.5 ±0.1 sensor opening 1 2.5 ±0.1 NC 4 A5Z 11 Material Contents NC NC 2.2 MAX 2 5.2 ±0.2 4.2 ±0.1 1.27 ±0.05 NC 3 1.83 ±0.05 7.47 ±0.05 NC SHT1x is supplied in a surface-mountable LCC (Leadless Chip Carrier) which is approved for standard reflow soldering processes. The same sensor is also available with pins (SHT7x) or on flex print (SHTA1). SHT1x V4 – for which this datasheet applies – features a version 4 Silicon sensor chip. Besides a humidity and a temperature sensor the chip contains an amplifier, A/D converter, OTP memory and a digital interface. V4 sensors can be identified by the alpha-numeric traceability code on the sensor cap – see example “A5Z” code on Figure 1. 0.6 ±0.1 0.95 ±0.1 SHT1x (including SHT10, SHT11 and SHT15) is Sensirion’s family of surface mountable relative humidity and temperature sensors. The sensors integrate sensor elements plus signal processing on a tiny foot print and provide a fully calibrated digital output. A unique capacitive sensor element is used for measuring relative humidity while temperature is measured by a band-gap sensor. The applied CMOSens® technology guarantees excellent reliability and long term stability. Both sensors are seamlessly coupled to a 14bit analog to digital converter and a serial interface circuit. This results in superior signal quality, a fast response time and insensitivity to external disturbances (EMC).
Device Overview The UM6 Ultra-Miniature Orientation Sensor combines sensor measurements from rate gyros, accelerometers, and magnetic sensors to measure orientation at 500 Hz. The UM6 also has the capability to interface with external GPS modules to provide position, velocity, course, and speed information. Communication with the UM6 is performed over either a TTL (3.3V) UART or a SPI bus. The UM6 is configured by default to automatically transmit data over the UART. The UM6 can be configured to automatically transmit raw sensor data, processed sensor data, angle estimates, and angle estimate covariances at user configurable rates ranging from 20 Hz to 300 Hz in roughly 1 Hz increments. The UM6 can also receive and parse GPS packets, automatically transmitting new GPS position, velocity, and satellite data whenever it is available. Alternatively, the UM6 can operate in "silent mode," where data is transmitted only when specific requests are received over the UART. Regardless of the transmission mode and rate, internal angle estimates are updated at 500 Hz to improve accuracy. The UM6 simplifies integration by providing a number of automatic calibration routines, including rate gyro bias calibration, magnetometer hard and soft iron calibration, and accelerometer "zeroing" to compensate for sensor-platform misalignment. All calibration routines are triggered by sending simple commands over the serial interface. The UM6 comes factory-calibrated to remove soft and hard iron distortions present in the enclosure. When integrated into the end-user system, additional calibration may be necessary to correct other magnetic field distortions. Magnetometer calibration can be performed using the UM6 interface software, available for free download from www.chrobotics.com/downloads. Temperature compensation of rate gyro biases is also supported by the UM6. An internal temperature sensor is used to measure temperature, and third-order compensation is applied to remove the effects of temperature-induced bias. By default, the terms used in compensation are all zero, which means that no temperature compensation is performed. The compensation terms must be determined experimentally by the end-user. On special request, compensation can be performed on each device at the factory. The UM6 can be configured to use either Euler Angles or quaternions for attitude estimation. In Euler Angle mode, magnetometer updates are restricted to yaw alone. This can be useful in cases where distortions are possible or even expected, and where it would be undesirable for those distortions to affect pitch and roll angles (i.e. on a flying rotorcraft). In quaternion mode, Euler Angles are still available, but there are no restrictions on what angles the magnetometer is allowed to influence. The UM6 is available in an OEM version (the UM6-LT) that has a slightly larger footprint and does not include an enclosure. The UM6-LT is functionally equivalent to the UM6, but magnetometer calibration is not performed at the factory.
Fuel injectors last a long time but, like everything else, are eventually subject to failure. The can fail in various ways, some of which can be fixed and others not. Just to give you and idea of the kind of tests and service injectors normally get by a professional, here is a list of things that were reported when I sent mine out for cleaning and testing in 1999, for $20 each (a unit of measure or the qualitative assessment indicators used is given in parentheses): • Flow for an equivalent of 15 seconds continuous operation (CC), before and after cleaning. Rate of flow is critical because the ECU depends upon the specified flow during an energizing pulse of particular duration. Since injectors are designed for pulsed rather than continuous operation they are tested by pulsing, but the results are expressed in terms of "equivalent continuous operation." Dirty injectors have lower flow rates. In my case flow rate went up by about 10% or more due to cleaning. • Leaks (OK or Leaks), before and after cleaning. Leakage can be either through the tip or internal. Tip leakage is caused by the valve not closing completely, perhaps due to dirt particles at the seat, which can't be seen without removing the injector from the car. Sometimes cleaning will resolve tip leaks. Internal leaks are when the casing breaks or something so that fuel goes where it shouldn't be. Sometimes this results in visible leakage from the plastic part of the injector body, so they can be seen without removing the injector. However, the testers rejected two of my injectors for internal leakage and I don't remember seeing any external signs, so I don't fully understand this failure mode. At any rate, cleaning won't fix this. • Spray pattern (OK, stringy, or plugged), before and after cleaning. Even if the flow rate is OK and there are no leaks an injector can develop a poor spray pattern, possible affecting combustion. I have heard of shops servicing the racers that give actual spray patterns recorded on a blotter for each injector. The service I used only say OK, Stringy, or Plugged. Four of my 12 went from Stringy to OK after cleaning. • Coil resistance (Ohms), cool and hot. The resistance of the solenoid coil is one measure of electrical soundness of an injector. I don't know everything that can happen in this category, but coil burn out is possible I suppose, in which case the resistance would be infinite. Perhaps internal leakage could result in corrosion, ...
Improvements in the fuel injection systems of internal combustion engines can substantially reduce the emission of harmful pollutants. The fuel injection system produces the spray, which directly affects the combustion of the fuel, which in turn determines the production of pollutants. However, the details of this causal relationship remain unclear. The goal of this project is to understand the flow inside fuel injector nozzles and the implications for the downstream spray. The project began with a literature review which was helpful in identifying the relative importance of phenomena such as turbulence and cavitation. Preliminary simulations of steady, incompressible nozzle flow were run with a commercial computational fluid dynamics code. The results suggested that cavitation was likely occurring inside many fuel injector nozzles. Next, an experiment was performed to identify cavitation in working Diesel fuel injectors. The results of this investigation were consistent with the presence of cavitation in the injector nozzles. The project then turned towards understanding and more detailed modeling of cavitation in nozzles. An existing analytical cavitation model was validated and extended to provide analytical estimates of the nozzle exit flow profile. For additional insight into cavitating nozzle flow, a fully compressible, two-dimensional, computational model was developed. The model, known as Cavalry, assumed that the fluid is homogeneously mixed on the sub-grid scale and that the two phases are in homogenous equilibrium. The model was used to study cavitation in a variety of nozzle shapes. Cavalry was validated with experimental data for nozzle flow and exit velocity. The model was also used to study cavitation between the injector needle and seat. In order to study the effects of asymmetry, the computer model was used to simulate an asymmetric cavitating slot. The asymmetric calculations demonstrated strong, ...
Alternative Fuel Injectors Advanced components for Hydrogen and CNG applications H2 and CNG Injectors At Quantum we design, manufacture, and market state-of-the-art Type IV fuel storage tanks and gaseous fuel components. Connector: Injector mates with AMP™ connector Supply Voltage: 8-16 Volts typical Resistance: 2.05 +/- 0.25 Ω at 20°C Inductance: 3.98 +/- 0.3 mH at 1000 Hz typical Drive Circuit: Peak and Hold Quantum Part # Description 110764 100078 Hydrogen injector CNG injector The Quantum alternative fuel injector is designed for multi-port internal combustion engine applications and for metering hydrogen in fuel cells. Existing liquid fuel injector designs suffer from premature failure in dry gas applications and are subject to both orifice contamination and flow capacity limitations for today’s applications. The Quantum injector provides freedom from frictional wear and sticking to enhance durability. Quantum’s alternative fuel injectors have been designed and tested to achieve over 500 million cycles with CNG and over 150 million cycles with hydrogen. Quantum Fuel Systems Technologies Worldwide Inc. 25242 Arctic Ocean Drive, Lake Forest, CA 92630 An ISO / TS 16949 Certified Company Voice. 949 930 3497 Fax. 949 930 3401 Email. email@example.com Web. www.qtww.com Fuel Systems Division Alternative Fuel Injector Specifications Description Length Diameter (max) Flow capacity (Static) Dynamic Flow Rate Working Pressure Durability Hydrogen Durability CNG Pulse period (Frequency) Peak/Hold current levels Internal (Tip) Leakage External Leakage Specifications 80 mm 24.5mm (excl. connector) 3.2g/s @ 345kPa (50psi) tested with air 8.5 mg/pulse @ 3.5 ms pulse width (air) 345kPa (50psi) 150 million cycles 500 million cycles 10 ms (100Hz) 4/1 amps Max 0.50 SCCM Nitrogen @ 345 kPa Max 0.05 SCCM Nitrogen @ 345 kPa The Quantum injector is a low impedance device requiring a peak and hold drive circuit. The system voltage is supplied during the peak current time followed by a hold current for the remainder of the pulse. Quantum Fuel Systems Technologies Worldwide Inc. 25242 Arctic Ocean Drive, Lake Forest, CA 92630 An ISO / TS 16949 Certified Company Voice. 949 930 3497 Fax. 949 930 3401 Email. firstname.lastname@example.org Web. www.qtww.com