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A feasibility study was conducted to determine if solar power could be used to offset or eliminate the diesel fuel powered refrigeration systems currently used in transport applications. This study focused on the technical feasibility and economic viability of solar for this application. A target application was selected and a moderately detailed mathematical model was constructed to predict the performance of the system based on hourly solar insolation and temperature data in four U.S. cities. An economic analysis is presented comparing the use of solar photovoltaics vs. diesel for this application. Issued by Sandia National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government, nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, make any warranty, express or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represent that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government, any agency thereof, or any of their contractors or subcontractors. The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government, any agency thereof, or any of their contractors. Printed in the United States of America. This report has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from U.S. Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information P.O. Box 62 Oak Ridge, TN 37831 Telephone: (865)576-8401 Facsimile: (865)576-5728 E-Mail: email@example.com Online ordering: http://www.doe.gov/bridge Available to the public from U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Rd Springfield, VA 22161 Telephone: (800)553-6847 Facsimile: (703)605-6900 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Online order: http://www.ntis.gov/ordering.htm
We are submitting a final report for a proof of concept for a solar powered refrigeration compressor and thermodynamic system. The report contains material on two major portions of our efforts: thermodynamic modeling and compressor construction. For both of these areas, we have included a discussion of concepts considered and reasoning for major design decisions. Our recommendations for future work are also addressed in this document. Please contact us at UofISPR@gmail.com with questions, comments, or concerns. We have enjoyed the challenges the project has given us and hope to see the project continuing in future semesters. Thank you for your time and the opportunity to work on this project. Sincerely, Solar Powered Refrigeration Team The goal of this project was to provide a proof of concept for a solar powered refrigeration compressor designed to operate off of a pressure difference created by solar thermal energy. This included validating that the thermodynamic cycle is feasible and fabricating of a prototype, driven by compressed air, to acquire data on the design’s mechanical functionality. With this system, an adequate cooling effect is produced with minimal electrical energy input, allowing small standalone units to operate almost entirely off solar thermal energy. This type of vapor compression refrigeration (VCR) is vastly different than what is on the market today. Current solar refrigeration technology involves ammonia evaporation, which is highly inefficient and bulky in comparison. Typical evaporation refrigeration devices are in the range of thirty to forty percent efficient . Needless to say, it’s time for a change. This new VCR cycle could serve many markets, reducing the use of non-renewable energy sources and moving towards a sustainable future. Markets such as produce transportation, biomedical refrigeration, commercial and residential air conditioning, and even the familiar drink cooler could benefit from this technology. To turn this idea into a marketable, economically feasible, mechanical device would forever change the way we use our energy.
This application report explains how to use the TPS61200 in combination with a single solar cell to charge a battery or storage device. A characteristic of solar cells is the internal resistance that can vary from less than 10 Ω up to more than 100 Ω. Therefore, it is important to control the load placed on the solar cell to ensure a reliable start-up of the application. This report describes an application that avoids the solar cell output voltage breaking down and manages the load as the solar cell power changes. The solution provides a reliable start-up of the TPS61200 using solar cells that can deliver at least 3 mA at 0.5 V. Solar Cell Knowledge In general, solar cells can be classified into two types, crystalline silicon solar cells and amorphous silicon solar cells on float glass. Both types have certain benefits in specific applications as a power source. Usually, the crystalline silicon solar cell has better efficiency compared to the amorphous silicon solar cell. On the other hand, the amorphous silicon solar cell is more sensitive to stray light than the crystalline solar cell. This does not totally compensate the lower efficiency but brings both types close together. The amorphous silicon solar cells cost less than crystalline solar cells. The power that can be drawn from a solar cell depends on the physical size and type of the cell – the smaller the solar cell, the less power it can deliver. For some applications, it can be beneficial to use solar cells in series to increase the module output voltage instead of boosting from a single solar cell. For ultralow power applications, this yields better efficiency numbers compared to what is achievable with a single-cell configuration with a nominal output voltage of 0.5 V. When using solar cells, it is important to consider what kind of light source is available. Sunlight delivers much more energy than artificial light. A bulb lamp is better than a fluorescent lamp. Therefore, it is necessary to match the solar cell with the application and the light condition for which it is used . Crystalline silicon solar cells work best if used outside with sunlight. For indoor use, amorphous silicon solar cells are more suitable. This type of solar cells has a different light sensitivity which fits the spectrum of artificial light much better than crystalline solar cells. Prepared for both light conditions is the stacked type of solar cells. It is build of two thin layers of amorphous silicon with a different spectral light sensitivity and stacked on top of each other. This kind of solar cell is working with a much wider spectrum of light than any other type. Therefore it is ideal for hand-held devices which can be used indoor and outdoor.
On April 25, 1954, proud Bell executives held a press conference where they impressed the media with the Bell Solar Battery powering a radio transmitter that was broadcasting voice and music. One journalist thought it important for the public to know that “linked together electrically, the Bell solar cells deliver power from the sun at the rate of 50 watts per square yard, while the atomic cell announced recently by the RCA Corporation merely delivers a millionth of a watt” over the same area. An article in U.S. News & World Report speculated that one day such silicon strips “may provide more power than all the world’s coal, oil, and uranium.” The New York Times probably best summed up what Chapin, Fuller, and Pearson had accomplished. On page one of its April 26, 1954, issue, the Times stated that the construction of the first solar module to generate useful amounts of power marks “the beginning of a new era, leading eventually to the realization of one of mankind’s most cherished dreams—the harnessing of the almost limitless energy of the sun for the uses of civilization.” In 1954, the world had less than a watt of solar cells capable of running electrical equipment. Fast-forward through 50 years of continued discovery and development of silicon and other PV materials and this is what you’ll see. Today, a billion watts of electricity generated by solar cells help to power the satellites so necessary for modern life, ensure the safe passage of ships and trains, bring abundant water, lighting, and telephone service to many who had done without, and supply clean power to those already connected to the grid. The worldwide market for solar electric energy has grown by 20%–25% per year over the past 10 years. According to Solarbuzz, the international solar electric industry now generates around $3–$4 billion (U.S.) in revenues each year.
Increasing Number of Private Hospitals Driving the Assembly Lines for Medical Devices Market - New Report by MicroMarket Monitor
Alcoholic Beverages Market Report segment the market by types of alcoholic beverages, its packaging types, application, and geography.
Alamo Colleges and Strayer University Articulation Agreement Location Transfer Benefits San Antonio, Texas Alamo Colleges students who have completed or will complete an Associate’s degree are exempt from paying the application fee • Requirements • Maximum number of transfer credits accepted – 84 semester credit hours Cumulative GPA of 2.0 • • Length of Agreement Contact Info. Students are subject to all policies and procedures, including residency requirements Beginning July 2013 San Antonio Campus – (210) 202-3700 Admissions Officer – (888) 311-0355 Click here for transfer information Related Degree Programs Listed below are the related Alamo Colleges degree programs. Other Alamo Colleges Degrees may be considered on a case by case basis or as new programs are added by either institution. Associate of Applied Science Associate of Arts Accounting Technology Business Administration Business Management Criminal Justice Business Management & Technology Economics Computer Programming Criminal Justice-Correctional Science Criminal Justice-Forensics Criminal Justice-Law Enforcement Emergency Management Administration and Homeland Security Banking and Financial Services Hospitality Event Management Hotel Management Human Resources Management International Business Logistics & Supply Chain Management Marketing Management Network Administrator Paralegal Studies
Intellectual property – the process which includes the creation, manufacture and marketing of a product – can be a manufacturer’s most valuable asset. Intellectual property rights (IPR) violations can come in a variety of forms including counterfeiting, trademark infringement, gray market, diversion, country of origin or non-compliant parts. It is a serious issue and, in today’s global marketplace, a company may never know its rights are being violated. Counterfeit products are at the forefront of these IPR issues. Any recognizable brand is at risk of being counterfeited – from clothing and handbags, music and movies, pharmaceuticals and parts for automobiles and heavy duty trucks and equipment. The global counterfeit problem is estimated at $600 billion per year, according to the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and the World Customs Organization in Interpol. As a result, the FBI has labeled counterfeiting as the “Crime of the 21st Century”. Counterfeiting is not a victimless crime. Consider that: • Counterfeiting steals desirable manufacturing jobs. • Counterfeiting destroys brand reputation of legitimate companies and poses product liability claims. • The sale of counterfeit goods has been linked to organized crime and terrorist organizations. The motor vehicle parts industry – those manufacturers who produce the parts and components used to repair everything from passenger cars to over-the-road trucks – have been hit hard by counterfeiting. It is estimated that counterfeiting costs the global motor vehicle parts industry $12 billion a year and $3 billion in the United States alone, according to the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and the World Customs Organization in Interpol. The problem grows larger every year – in a report released in June 2006, Frost & Sullivan projected global losses as high as $45 billion by 2011.
Peritonsillar abscess Emily Macassey, Patrick J D Dawes In this issue of the NZMJ, Love et al1 report interesting observations about patterns of epidemiology and microbiology of peritonsillar abscess (PTA) in Canterbury and make comparisons with previous studies performed at Christchurch Hospital. The report contains some valuable observations when it comes to the treatment of the condition. Peritonsillar abscess (also known as quinsy) is a potentially life-threatening infection of the potential space adjacent to the tonsillar capsule in the oropharynx. It can be difficult for doctors unfamiliar with PTA to differentiate it from severe tonsillitis but unilaterality of symptoms and inability to swallow saliva are good indicators. The main differentiating signs seen are trismus, swelling or bulging of the soft palate, medialisation of the tonsil and deviation of the uvula.2 PTA is life-threatening because of both its potential for airway obstruction and spread to the parapharyngeal and retropharyngeal spaces. It is reported that George Washington probably died from quinsy in 1799.3 It is reassuring that 97.3% of isolates are reported as penicillin sensitive. Penicillin remains the first-line antibiotic for all tonsillar infections and this is the sole agent used in many New Zealand hospitals. In other countries resistance rates vary from 10– 50%.4 In a survey of UK consultants, 28% had a preference for penicillin monotherapy, whilst penicillin combined with metronidazole was the choice of 44%.3 Research has shown that even when patients have penicillin resistant organisms, treatment with aspiration and parenteral penicillin still achieves clinical resolution.5 This is in accordance with principles of abscess management where drainage is paramount.