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menggunakan buku pelajaran dengan efektif.pdf - Staff UNY

Buku pelajaran merupakan salah satu sumber belajar yang memberikan andil cukup besar dalam upaya memperluas kesempatan memperoleh pendidikan dan meningkatkan mutu proses dan hasil pembelajaran (B.P. Sitepu, 2005: 114). Kebutuhan akan buku pelajaran semakin terasa ketika jumlah dan mutu guru yang tersedia belum memadai. Di tempat-tempat tertentu, masih banyak guru yang mengandalkan buku pelajaran sebagai satu-satunya sumber belajar dan pembelajaran. Guru mempersiapkan, melaksanakan, dan mengevaluasi pembelajaran dengan mengacu sepenuhnya pada isi buku pelajaran. Siswa juga menggunakan buku pelajaran di sekolah dan di rumah sebagai sumber belajar utama. Kebijakan tiap sekolah dalam memberikan buku pelajaran secara gratis untuk setiap siswa didasarkan pada prinsip perlakuan yang sama dan kesetaraan kesempatan. Karena alasan inilah, buku pelajaran secara luas digunakan dan bisa dipastikan akan terus digunakan sampai tahun-tahun mendatang. Hal ini terlihat dari keberterimaan yang relatif luas terhadap buku pelajaran sebagai sumber belajar yang berharga, khususnya bagi mata pelajaran Ilmu Pengetahuan Sosial (IPS). Oleh karena itu, penting bagi guru untuk mulai belajar bagaimana menggunakan buku-buku ini dengan efektif. Tulisan ini mencoba menawarkan cara menggunakan buku pelajaran IPS dengan efektif kepada para guru di sekolah dasar sehingga sedapat mungkin mampu memenuhi tuntutan kurikulum serta dapat meningkatkan mutu proses dan hasil pembelajaran. Kompleksitas Materi dalam Buku Pelajaran IPS Buku pelajaran IPS SD merupakan buku pegangan guru dalam menyajikan materi kurikulum. Apabila dicermati, meskipun penulisan buku tersebut sudah disesuaikan dengan tingkat kemampuan pembacanya, masih ada saja permasalahan yang berkaitan dengan kesulitan membaca yang dihadapi siswa. Hal ini bisa terjadi karena buku-buku ini dirancang untuk menangani konten substantif. Artinya, istilah dan konsep yang berkaitan dengan subjek harus digunakan ketika menjelaskan ide-ide yang disajikan. Sebagai contoh, dalam buku dituliskan  ...

KAJIAN TEORI - Deskripsi Teoretik Buku Pelajaran

Buku merupakan salah satu media pembelajaran yang berupa tulisan yang dituangkan ke dalam kertas atau buku dapat digolongkan ke media pembelajaran berupa media cetak. Dalam salah satu hierarki media yang paling kompleks yaitu menurut Gagne (dalam Arief Sadiman, 2011: 23), Gagne mennggolongkan media yang dikaitkan dengan kemampuan memenuhi fungsi menurut hierarki belajar yang dikembangkan yaitu pelontar stimulus belajar, penarik minat belajar, memberi kondisi eksternal, contoh perilaku belajar, memberi kondisi eksternal, menuntun cara berpikir, memasukkan alihilmu, menilai prestasi, dan pemberi umpan balik. Dari beberapa fungsi tersebut, Media cetak memiliki keterbatasan pada aspek stimulus dan alih kemampuan. Sedangkan pada fungsi pengarah perhatian/kegiatan, contoh kemampuan terbatas yang diharapkan, isyarat eksternal, tuntutan cara berpikir penilaian hasil dan umpan balik sudah terdapat didalamnya. Proses belajar mengajar pada hakikatnya adalah proses mentransfer ilmu maupun nilai agar peserta didik bertambah nilai dirinya. Menurut Arief Sadiman (2011: 11-12), proses belajar mengajar adalah proses komunikasi, yaitu proses penyampaian pesan dari sumber pesan melalui saluran media tertentu ke penerima pesan. Dalam hal ini saluran media merupakan media pembelajaran. Menurut Umar Suwito (dalam Suharsimi Arikunto, 1987: 15) media pembelajaran adalah salah satu sarana yang digunakan untuk menampilkan pelajaran. Sedangkan pengretian lebih luasnya, media pendidikan adalah sarana pendidikan yang digunakan sebagai perantara dalam proses belajar mengajar untuk lebih mempertinggi efektivitas dan efisiensi dalam mencapai tujuan pembelajaran. Fungsi dari media pembelajaran adalah (1) memperjelas penyajian pesan agar tidak terlalu bersifat versibilatas, (2) mengatasi keterbatasan ruang, waktu dan daya indra, (3) penggunaan media pendidikan secara tepat dan bervariasi dapat mengatasi sikap pasif peserta didik, dan (4) dengan sifat yang unik pada setiap anaka ditambah lagi dengan lingkungan dan pengalaman yang berbeda, sedangkan kurikulum dan materi pendidikan ditentukan sama untuk setiap siswa, maka guru banyak mengalami kesulitan bilamana semuanya itu harus diatasi sendiri (Arief Sadiman, 2011: 17). Pengelompokan berbagai jenis media telah dikemukakan oleh berbagai ahli. Menurut Leshin, Pollock & Reigulth (dalam Azhar Arsyad, 2011: 36) mengklasifikasikan media menjadi 5 macam, yaitu: 1. Media berbasis manusia (guru, instruktur, tutor, main peran, field-trip, kegiatan kelompok), 2. Media berbasis cetak (buku, penuntun, buku latihan (worksheet), alat kerja bantu, lembar lepas), 3. Media berbasis visual (buku, alat bantu kerja, bagan grafik, peta, gambar transparansi, slide), 4. Media berbasis audio visual (video, film, ...

Guides for Space, Rental and Packing from the Aurora Colorado Storage

If you need self storage in Aurora, think of STOR-N-LOCK. Our Aurora storage facility is clean and convenient with a focus on providing friendly customer service and giving you peace of mind that your important belongings are close by. Whether business storage, personal items, or anything in between, STOR-N-LOCK truly strives to give all of its customers a comfortable, convenient storage experience.

II - 63620 Dodge Mount, WESTERN
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INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS Model No. 3915 Mount Assembly Box No. 63620 Hydraulics Box No. 56365 Headlamp Kits Selection 2001 Model Year and Later Without DRL’s Harness Kit No. 61185, 63412 Headlamp Kit No. 61540-1 With DRL’s Harness Kit No. 61185, 63412, 61584 Headlamp Kit No. 61540-1 2000 Model Year Without DRL’s Harness Kit No. 63396, 61185 Headlamp Kit No. 61540-1 With DRL’s Harness Kit No. 61185, 63404, 61584 Headlamp Kit No. 61550-1 CAUTION Read this document before installing the snowplow. CAUTION See your WESTERN outlet for application recommendations. The Selection List has specific vehicle and snowplow requirements. ® SAFETY DEFINITIONS Warning and Caution Label WARNING WARNING Indicates a potentially hazardous situation that, if not avoided, could result in death or serious personal injury. LOWER BLADE WHEN VEHICLE IS PARKED. REMOVE BLADE ASSEMBLY BEFORE PLACING VEHICLE ON HOIST. DO NOT EXCEED GVWR OR GAWR INCLUDING BLADE AND BALLAST. CAUTION CAUTION Indicates a situation that, if not avoided, could result in damage to product or property. READ SERVICING SNOWPLOW. BEFORE OPERATING OR TRANSPORT SPEED SHOULD NOT EXCEED 45 MPH. REDUCE SPEED UNDER ADVERSE TRAVEL CONDITIONS. PLOWING SPEED SHOULD NOT EXCEED 10 MPH. NOTE: Identifies tips, helpful hints and maintenance information the owner/operator should know. SEE YOUR SALES OUTLET FOR APPLICATION RECOMMENDATIONS. 59900 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS SAFETY LABELS Improper installation and operation could cause personal injury, and/or equipment and property damage. Read and understand labels and the Owner’s Manual before installing, operating, or making adjustments. Become familiar with and inform users about the warning and instruction labels on the back of the blade. Warning and Caution Label WARNING Lower blade when vehicle is parked. Temperature changes could change hydraulic pressure, causing the blade to drop unexpectedly or damaging hydraulic components. Failure to do this can result in serious personal injury. Instruction Label WARNING Remove blade assembly before placing vehicle on hoist…

Trailer Hitch Installation Kit-71 60 0 303 878

These Installation Instructions supersede all previous versions. SUBJECT TRAILER HITCH KIT (US Only) - P/N 71 60 0 303 878 MODEL X3 (E83): Select Vehicle Production SOP – 08/06* * Not with optional Sport Package (ZSP) for vehicle production 09/05 – On. SUGGESTED INSTALLATION TIME: 1.5 HOURS Total installation time may vary depending on vehicle options and equipment. The instructions below are developed for BMW vehicles and are not to be compared to any other existing instructions for vehicles other than BMW. No methods other than those specified in this document are to be used for installation in BMW vehicles. Left and right are determined from the driver’s seat. Carefully read all instructions and supplements before proceeding with the installation. Reference should be made to TIS for instructions dealing with a stock part of the vehicle but not stated in detail in these instructions. The instructions were complete and up to date at time of publication; however, changes to the vehicle or installation may have occurred. Please report any problems or changes noted with the installation to BMW Technical Hotline, along with VIN, date of manufacture and as much detail as possible. Warning: For trailers with LED lighting, in order to prevent the battery from draining over a long period of time, you should disconnect the wire harness that connects the trailer to the vehicle when the vehicle is not in use. Note: BMW NA does not supply or have an approved electrical brake controller for the Trailer Hitch (Tow Bar) Kit. DO IT RIGHT THE FIRST TIME, ON TIME, EVERY TIME Installation Instruction P/N01 29 0 307 139 2006 BMW of North America, LLC 2 PARTS INFORMATION Contents of Kit - P/N 71 60 0 303 878 Description Cross Member with Receiver Tube Cross Member Mounting Nuts White Capacities Label Receiver Tube Cover/Cap Electrical Kit Contents of Electrical Kit: Trailer Control Module Vehicle-Side Wiring Harness 7-pin Trailer Wiring Connector 7-pin to 4-pin Trailer Wiring Adapter Hardware Kit ...

INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS - AEM Air Intake Systems

The AEM intake system is a performance product that can be used safely during mild weather conditions. During harsh and inclement weather conditions, you must return your vehicle to stock OEM air box and intake tract configuration. Failure to follow these instructions will void your warranty. 1. Preparing Vehicle a. Make sure vehicle is parked on level surface. b. Set parking brake. c. If engine has run in the past two hours, let it cool down. d. Disconnect the negative battery terminals. e. Do not discard stock components after removal of the factory system. 2. Removal of stock system a. There are two Vacuum Switching Valves (VSV), and one air flow meter that have electrical and/or vacuum connections going to them. Be sure to label these connections before disconnecting them. Remove b. Remove the two nuts and two plastic rivets that hold the plastic engine cover on. The plastic rivets may be gently lifted with a small screwdriver. Remove the cover. c. Remove the bolt in the radiator support that holds the battery bracket. Unhook the rod at the rear of the battery bracket. Remove the battery from the vehicle. 3 d. Loosen the two 10mm hose clamps at the throttle body and air box. Remove the stock rubber intake hose from the engine bay. e. Remove the air flow meter connector, and then remove the air flow meter by loosening the two small screws. Be extremely careful with this component as it can be damaged easily. Set the air flow meter aside in a safe place. f. Remove the large vacuum line from the engine side of the air box cover. g. Remove the other side of the large vacuum line from the VSV mounted on the air box lid. Keep both vacuum line spring clamps for use ® with the AEM intake system.

INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS - AEM Air Intake Systems

Read and understand these instructions BEFORE attempting to install this product. Failure to follow installation instructions and not using the provided hardware may damage the intake tube, throttle body and engine. ® The AEM intake system is a performance product that can be used safely during mild weather conditions. During harsh and inclement weather conditions, you must return your vehicle to stock OEM air box and intake tract configuration. Failure to follow these instructions will void your warranty. 1. Preparing Vehicle a. Make sure vehicle is parked on level surface. b. Set parking brake. c. If engine has run in the past two hours, let it cool down. d. Disconnect negative battery terminal. e. Do not discard stock components after removal of the factory system. 2. Removal of stock system a. There are three Vacuum Switching Valves (VSV), and one air flow meter that have electrical and/or vacuum connections going to them. Be sure to label these connections before disconnecting them. Refer to the following diagrams for the identification of these components. b. Remove the air flow meter connector, then remove the air flow meter by loosening the two screws. Be extremely careful with this component as it can be damaged easily. Set the air flow meter aside in a safe place. c. Disconnect the wire harness and remove the Vacuum Switching Valve (VSV) for EVAP from the air cleaner cap. Do not disconnect the vacuum hoses from the VSV for EVAP. Remove the metal mounting tab from the VSV for EVAP, and save the mounting bolt for later use. 3 Vacuum Hoses e. Remove the two vacuum hoses on the backside of the air cleaner cap. Disconnect the air cleaner hose from the throttle body, and remove the air cleaner cap and air cleaner element. Remove the upper radiator support seal. Remove the two bolts securing the lower air box. Lift the lower air cleaner case to gain access to the under side. d. Remove the upper section of the ECU cooling duct. The upper piece should pull forward out of the ECU compartment; the other end will pull up off of the lower part of the duct.

Littleton Self-Storage Facilities

If you need self storage in Ken Caryl, think of STOR-N-LOCK. Our Ken Caryl storage facility is clean and convenient with a focus on providing friendly customer service and giving you peace of mind that your important belongings are close by. Whether business storage, personal items, or anything in between, STOR-N-LOCK truly strives to give all of its customers a comfortable, convenient storage experience.

INSTALLATION MANUAL GPS NAVIGATOR GP-80 - Furuno USA

Do not work inside the equipment unless totally familiar with electrical circuits. Hazardous voltage which can cause electrical shock, burn or serious injury exists inside the equipment. Turn off the power at the mains switchboard before beginning the installation. Post a sign near the switch to indicate it should not be turned on while the equipment is being installed. Fire, electrical shock or serious injury can result if the power is left on or is applied while the equipment is being installed. CAUTION Ground the equipment to prevent electrical shock and mutual interference. Confirm that the power supply voltage is compatible with the voltage rating of the equipment. Connection to the wrong power supply can cause fire or equipment damage. The voltage rating appears on the label at the rear of the display unit. Use the correct fuse. Use of a wrong fuse can cause fire or equipment damage. Keep the following compass safe distances:… DISPLAY UNIT The display unit can be installed with either of four methods as shown below. Refer to the outline drawing page D-2, D-3, and D-4. Locate the unit away from exhaust pipes and vents. The mounting location should be well ventilated. Mount the unit where shock and vibration are minimal. Keep the display unit away electromagnetic field generating equipment such as motor, generator. • Allow sufficient maintenance space and a sufficient slack in cables for maintenance and repair. • If vibration is a problem, tilt the display unit so it contacts the vibration absorbers attached to the inside of the hanger (tilted within 5 °).

Symptoms as a Source of Medical Knowledge: Understanding Medically Unexplained Disorders in Women - Kirsti Malterud, MD, PhD

In cases where a traditional medical frame of reference does not fully offer an adequate tool for understanding, the resident may find it perplexing to apply knowledge from medical school, where disease implies symptoms, findings, diagnosis, and cure. Medically unexplained disorders, mostly occurring in women, are chronic and disabling conditions, presenting with extensive subjective symptoms, although objective findings or causal explanations are lacking. Acquiring the knowledge and skills needed for adequate care of patients with chronic fatigue or pain syndromes is not an easy task. This paper presents a strategy for teaching, intended to facilitate understanding through appreciation of symptoms as a source of knowledge. The clinical approach is based on empowering practices supported by theoretical perspectives about signs, narratives, knowing, and gender. Also examined is the impact of commonly occurring teaching traps related to gender, psychosocial labeling, universalistic understanding, omnipotence, and power. (Fam Med 2000;32(9):603-11.) An underlying assumption in medicine is that health problems present as subjective symptoms accompanied by objective findings. Objective findings are supposed to provide the keys to diagnosis, which explains the cause of symptoms and assigns treatment. It is not an easy task to provide residents with the knowledge and skills needed for evaluating patients’ symptoms when objective findings are absent. The traditional diseaseoriented medical frame of reference may be inadequate to understand the meaning of such symptoms. Unexplained disorders, especially chronic ones, impose strain on the physician-patient relationship and may contribute to mutual feelings of anger and hopelessness.1-5 However, in a substantial proportion of patients in the primary care setting, a clear-cut diagnostic label cannot be obtained, and treatment is not selfevident. In clinical practice, symptom diagnoses are most prevalent; only one out of eight patients is given a disease diagnosis as a cause of symptoms.6 Symptom diagnoses are more easily accepted as adequate ...

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