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Appendix A: The Financing of the 9/11 Plot

Staff Investigation of the 9/11 Plot The staff’s investigation of the 9/11 plot built on the extensive investigations conducted by the U.S. government, particularly the FBI. The government thoroughly examined the plot’s financial transactions, and the Commission staff had neither the need nor the resources to duplicate that work. Rather, the staff independently assessed the earlier investigation. We had access to the actual evidence of the plotters’ financial transactions, including U.S. and foreign bank account statements, fund transfer records, and other financial records. We also had access to the FBI’s extensive work product, including analyses, financial spreadsheets and timelines, and relevant summaries of interviews with witnesses, such as bank tellers, money exchange operators and others with knowledge of the conspirators’ financial dealings. We were briefed by and formally interviewed the FBI agents who led the plot-financing investigation, sometimes more than once. In addition to the FBI, we met with key people from other agencies, including the CIA and the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN), who had relevant knowledge about the plot financing. Commission staff also interviewed law enforcement officials from other countries who had investigated the 9/11 plot, reviewed investigative materials from other countries, and interviewed relevant private-sector witnesses. Finally, the staff regularly received relevant reports on the interrogations of the plot participants now in custody. Financing of the Plot To plan and conduct their attack, the 9/11 plotters spent somewhere between $400,000 and $500,000, the vast majority of which was provided by al Qaeda. Although the origin of the funds remains unknown, extensive investigation has revealed quite a bit about the financial transactions that supported the 9/11 plot. The hijackers and their financial facilitators used the anonymity provided by the huge international and domestic financial system to move and store their money through a series of unremarkable transactions. The existing mechanisms to prevent abuse of the financial system did not fail. They were never designed to detect or disrupt transactions of the type that financed 9/11. Financing of the hijackers before they arrived in the United States 131 National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States Al Qaeda absorbed costs related to the plot before the hijackers arrived in the United States, although our knowledge of the funding during this period remains somewhat murky. According to plot leader Khalid Sheikh Muhammad (KSM), the Hamburg cell members (Muhamad Atta, Marwan al Shehhi, Ziad Jarrah, and Ramzi Binalshibh) each received $5,000 to pay for their return from Afghanistan to Germany in late 1999 or early 2000, after they had been selected to join the plot, and the three Hamburg pilots also received additional funds for travel from Germany to the United States. Once the nonpilot muscle hijackers received their training, each received $2,000 to travel to Saudi Arabia to obtain new passports and visas, and ultimately $10,000 to facilitate travel to the United States, according to KSM.143 We have found no evidence that the Hamburg cell members received funds from al Qaeda earlier than late 1999. Before then, they appear to have supported themselves. For example, Shehhi was being paid by the UAE military, which was sponsoring his studies in Germany. He continued to receive a salary through December 23, 2000. The funds were deposited into his bank account in the United Arab Emirates and then wired by his...

Latihan Soal IPA - UN dan SNMPTN/PTS 2012/2013 - 04-09-2013

Latihan Soal IPA - UN dan SNMPTN/PTS 2012/2013 - 04-09-2013 Universitas Esa Unggul - http://www.esaunggul.ac.id Latihan Soal IPA - UN dan SNMPTN/PTS 2012/2013 Tuesday, April 09, 2013 http://www.esaunggul.ac.id/future-student/latihan-soal-ipa-un-dan-snmptnpts-20122013/ Latihan Soal IPA UN dan Ujian SNMPTN/PTS 2012/2013 Modul 1 Bahasa Indonesia Bahasa Inggris Matematika IPA Fisika Kimia Biologi Modul 2 Bahasa Indonesia Bahasa Inggris Matematika IPA Fisika Kimia Biologi _______________________________________________ PDF generated by Universitas Esa Unggul page 1 / 1 Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org) 4 Sep 2013 ... Latihan Soal IPA - UN dan SNMPTN/PTS 2012/2013 - 04-09-2013. Universitas Esa Unggul - http://www.esaunggul.ac.id. Latihan Soal IPA - UN ...

Mata Pelajaran : BAHASA INGGRIS - Universitas Esa Unggul

BAHASA INGGRIS : XII IPA/IPS : 90 menit Mata Pelajaran Kelas/ Program Waktu Choose A, B, C, D, or E for the correct answer. Listening Section In this section of the test, you will have the chance to show how well you understand spoken English. There are three parts to this section with special directions for each part. Part I Questions 1 to 5 Directions: In this part of the test, you will hear some dialogues or questions spoken in English. The dialogues or questions will be spoken two times. They will not be printed in your test book so you must listen carefully to understand what the speakers say. After you hear a dialogue and the question about it, read the five possible answers and decide which one would be the best answer to the question you have heard. Now listen to a sample question. You will hear: Man : How about exercising tomorrow morning? Woman : Alright. Pick me up at 6. You will also hear: Narrator : What will the man do? You will read in your test book: a. Do exercise at 6. b. Go with six women. c. Take exercise alone. d. Leave the woman alone. e. come to the woman’s house. The best answer to the question is “Come to the woman’s house.” Therefore, you should choose answer (e). 1. a. She cut herself quite badly. b. She wasn’t given any help. c. She cried while slicing onions. d. She sliced the onions hurriedly. e. She was going to make fried rice. 2. a. Do his assignment b. See a book fair. c. Buy a history book. d. Offer the woman a book. e. Go to the woman’s house. 3. a. To buy a novel. b. To read a novel. c. To lend a novel. d. To go to a bookstore. e. To finish reading a novel. 4. a.1 b.2 c.3 d.4 e.5 Latihan Soal UN dan Ujian SNMPTN /PTS 2012/2013 1 5. a.1 b.2 c.3 d.4 e.5 PART II Questions 6 to 10 Directions: In this part of the test, you will hear a statement or a question spoken in English, foolowed by four responses, also spoken in English. The statement or question and the responses will be spoken two times. They will not be printed in your test book, so you must listen carefully to understand what the speakers say. You have to choose the best response to each statement or question. Now listen to a sample question: You will hear: Woman : Good morning, John. How are you? Man : …… You will also hear: a. I am fine, thank you. c. Let me introduce myself. b. I am in the living room. d. My name is John Travolta. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. The best answer to the question “How are you?” is choice (a), “I’m fine, thank you.” Therefore, you should choose answer (a). Mark your answer on your answer sheet. Mark your answer on your answer sheet. Mark your answer on your answer sheet. Mark your answer on your answer sheet. Mark your answer on your answer sheet. Part III Questions 11 to 15 Directions: In this part of the test, you will hear several monologues. Each monologue will be spoken two times. They will not be printed in your test book so you must listen carefully to understand what the speakers say. After you hear a monologue and the questions about it, read the five possible answers and decide which one would be the best answer to the questions you have heard. 11. a. b. c. Goose hunting An unfaithful dog An unusual accident d. A mathematics teacher e. Chambers Country Policeman 12. a. b. c. Arthur Houston Labrador d. Perry Price e. Joe LaRive Latihan Soal UN dan Ujian SNMPTN /PTS 2012/2013 2 13. a. b. c. It lies on high land. It is densely populated. It lies on a flat low plain area. d. The climate is hot and humid. e. It is at the mouth of the Ciliwung River. 14. a. b. c. James’ pet dog Muggs’ characteristics Muggs’ strange behavior d. The night when Muggs died e. Browny, the Cocker Spaniel 15. a. b. c. Andre Muggs James d. Browny e. George This is the end of the listening section Reading Section Text 1 is for number 16 Miss Ratu, I’m going to have a business trip to Surabaya and Jakarta. I’d like to go by train from here to Surabaya this afternoon and spend two days there. Then I’d like to fly to Jakarta and stay there for three nights. 1. Please book an executive class train ticket and seat reservation to Surabaya. 2. Please book single room with bath for three nights (Wed 1, Thurs 2, Fri 3) at Sulthan Hotel, Jakarta Selatan. Thanks, Raja 16. What is the message about? A. B. C. D. E. Mr. Raja’s request to his secretary. Ratu’s plan to Surabaya. A business trip to Surabaya. Mr. Raja’s schedule to Jakarta. A reservation for a train ticket. Text 2 is for number 17 Hi, Guys! 78 shs will hold a Fund Raising Activity next month. It is intended to help victims of earthquake in several areas in Aceh. Everyone who is interested in this activity, please join us. You are also invited to donor your used clothes. For further information, please contact Teuku as the chief program cocoordinator at his office or to the following numbers: 021- 7996070 081318777056 17. What is the activity for? A. Collecting used clothes B. Helping their raising activity C. Joining fund raising activity D. Helping victims of earthquakes E. Inviting neighbor to donor used clothes Text 3 is for number 18 The University of Australia The University of Australia has an international reputation for educational professionals and applied research. It is Australia’s largest university, with six campuses, including a specialized technology campus. The university places particular importance on the quality of its teaching and learning programs, and on its working links with industry, business and government. 18. Which information is NOT TRUE about the University of Australia? Latihan Soal UN dan Ujian SNMPTN /PTS 2012/2013 3 A. B. C. D. E. It has an international educational reputation It also has a specialized technology campus It has six technology campuses It is Australia’s largest university It has good relation with industry Text 4 is for number 19 and 20 Quake Rocks Southern Philippines Philippines: A 5,3-magnitude earthquake struck the southern Philippines on Thursday, the U.S. Geological Survey said, but there were no reports of casualties or damage. The undersea quake struck at 11:20 a.m. (03200 GMT) around 96 kilometers south east of the southern city of General Santos on the island of Mindanao, the U.S. agency said. The quake was felt in various cities in Mindanao but was not large enough to cause any major damage or panic, said the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs). The archipelago nation, made up of more than 7,000 islands, sits on the Pacific “Ring of fire” where continental plates collide, causing frequent seismic and volcanic activity. (Adapted from the Jakarta Post, December 2008) 19. How do we know that the quake was not considered as a big one? Because .... A. It was an undersea quake B. There was no victims or damage C. The quake was less than 5,3 magnitute D. The distance was deep down the sea E. The quake rocked the center of Mindanao, ...

Soal dan Pembahasan Matematika IPA SNMPTN 2011

Soal-Soal dan Pembahasan SNMPTN Matematika IPA Tahun Pelajaran 2010/2011 Tanggal Ujian: 01 Juni 2011 1. Diketahui vektor u = (a, -2, -1) dan v = (a, a, -1). Jika vektor u tegak lurus pada v , maka nilai a adalah ... A. -1 B. 0 C. 1 D. 2 E. 3 Jawab: Vektor: vektor u tegak lurus pada v maka u . v = 0 u = −2 , v = −1 −2 . −1 −1 (a – 1) (a-1) = 0 maka a = 1 −1 = a2 – 2a + 1 = 0 (a - 1)2 = 0 Jawabannya adalah C 2. Pernyataan berikut yang benar adalah ... A. Jika sin x = sin y maka x = y B. Untuk setiap vektor u , v dan w berlaku u . ( v . w ) = ( u . v ). w C. Jika b  f ( x) dx = 0, maka a D. Ada fungsi f sehingga E. 1 – cos 2x = 2 cos2 x f ( x )= 0 Lim f(x) ≠ f(c) untuk suatu c xc www.belajar-matematika.com - 1 Jawab: Trigonometri, vektor, integral, limit A. Ambil nilai dimana sin x = sin y  sin α = sin (1800 – α ) ambil nilai α = 600  sin 600 = sin 1200 ; tetapi 600 ≠ 1200 Pernyataan SALAH B. Operasi u . ( v . w ) tak terdefinisi karena v . w = skalar, sedangkan u = vektor vektor . skalar = tak terdefinisi Pernyataan SALAH C. Ambil contoh cari cepat hasil dimana b  f ( x) dx = 0 ; a 1 Didapat b = 1 dan a = -1 maka f(x)= x   x dx = 0  1 terbukti : f(x) = x bukan f(x) = 0 x2 | Pernyataan SALAH D. Ambil contoh f(x) = Lim xc f(x) = Lim x 1 ( ( = ( ( ) ( )( ) = ) ( ) Lim f(x) ≠ f(c)  2 ≠ 1 xc ) ( )( ) = ) ( ) =2 Pernyataan BENAR E. 1 – cos 2x = 1 – ( 2cos2 x – 1) = 1 + 1 - 2cos2 x = 2 - 2cos2 x = 2 ( 1 – cos2 x) Pernyataan SALAH Jawabannya adalah D www.belajar-matematika.com - 2 = (1 – 1) = 0 3. Luas daerah di bawah y = -x2 +8x dan di atas y = 6x - 24 dan terletak di kuadran I adalah.... a. ∫ (− b. ∫ (− c. ∫ (− +8 ) +8 ) +8 ) d. ∫ (6 − 24) e. ∫ (6 − 24) Jawab: Integral: +∫ ( + ∫ (− + ∫ (− + ∫ (− + ∫ (− − 2 − 24) + 2 + 24) + 2 + 24) +8 ) +8 ) kuadran I titik potong kedua persamaan : y1 = y2 -x2 +8x = 6x-24 -x2 +8x - 6x+24 = 0 -x2 +2x + 24 = 0 x2 -2x - 24 = 0 (x - 6) (x+4)0 x = 6 atau x = -4  karena di kuadran I maka yang berlaku adalah x = 6  y = 6.6 – 24= 12 berada di titik (6,12) www.belajar-matematika.com - 3 L = ∫ (− = ∫ (− +8 ) +8 ) + ∫ ((− + ∫ (− Jawabannya adalah B + 8 ) − (6 − 24)) + 2 + 24) 4. sin 350 cos 400 - cos 35 sin 400 = A. cos 50 B. sin 50 C. cos 950 D. cos 750 E. sin 750 Jawab: Trigonometri: Pakai rumus: sin (A - B) = sin A cos B - cos A Sin B A= 350 ; B = 400 = sin (350 - 400) = sin -50 Cos (90 0 -  ) = sin   rumus Cos (90 0 - (-50) ) = sin -50   = -50 Cos 950 = sin -50 Jawabannya adalah C 5. Diketahui g(x) = ax2 – bx + a – b habis dibagi x – 1. Jika f(x) adalah suku banyak yang bersisa a ketika dibagi x – 1 dan bersisa 3ax + b2 + 1 ketika dibagi g(x), maka nilai a adalah...... A. -1 B. -2 C. 1 D. 2 Jawab: Suku Banyak: g(x) = ax2 – bx + a – b habis dibagi x – 1  g(1) = 0 g(1) = a . 1 – b .1 + a – b = 0 =a–b+a–b=0 2a – 2b = 0 2a = 2b  a = b karena a = b maka: g(x) = ax2 – ax + a – a = ax2 – ax www.belajar-matematika.com - 4 E. 3 f(x) dibagi dengan f(x-1) sisa a  f(1) = a f(x) dibagi dengan g(x) sisa 3ax + b2 + 1 f(x) dibagi dengan ax2 – ax sisa 3ax + b2 + 1 f(x) dibagi dengan ax(x – 1) sisa 3ax + b2 + 1 teorema suku banyak: Jika suatu banyak f(x) dibagi oleh (x- k) akan diperoleh hasil bagi H(x) dan sisa pembagian S  f(x) = (x- k) H(x) + S f(x) dibagi dengan ax(x – 1) sisa 3ax + b2 + 1 f(x) = ax (x - 1) H(x) + (3ax + b2 + 1) substitusikan nilai nol dari pembagi yaitu x = 0 dan x = 1  dari ax (x - 1) ambil x = 1  untuk x = 1 f(1) = a . 1 (1 – 1) H(0) + 3a.1 + b2 + 1 a = 0 + 3a + b2 + 1  diketahu a = b, masukkan nilai a = b a = 3a + a2 + 1 a2 + 2a + 1 = 0 (a+1)(a+1) = (a+1)2 = 0 a = -1 Jawabannya adalah A 6. Rotasi sebesar 450 terhadap titik asal diikuti dengan pencerminan terhadap y = -x memetakan titik (3,4) ke .... A. √ B. − Jawab: ,√ √ ,√ C. D. √ √ ,−√ ,−√ E. − Transformasi Geometri:  cos  Rotasi sebesar 450 terhadap titik asal =   sin    sin    cos     0  1 pencerminan terhadap y = -x    1 0     www.belajar-matematika.com - 5 √ ,√

The Origins of al Qaeda's Ideology - Strategic Studies Institute

“The fight against the enemy nearest to you has precedence over the fight against the enemy farther away. . . . In all Muslim countries the enemy has the reins of power. The enemy is the present rulers.” — Muhammad Abd al-Salam Faraj, tried and hanged in connection with the 1 1981 assassination of Anwar al-Sadat “Victory for the Islamic movements . . . cannot be attained unless these movements possess an Islamic base in the heart of the Arab region.” — Ayman al-Zawahiri, 2 Bin Laden deputy, 2001 “We do not want stability in Iran, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, and even Saudi Arabia. . . . The real issue is not whether, but how to destabilize. We have to ensure the fulfillment of the democratic revolution.” — Michael Ledeen, 3 American Enterprise Institute, 2002 T he leader of Sadat’s assassins, Bin Laden’s chief ideologue, and a leading American neoconservative supporter of Israel all call for a revolutionary transformation of the Middle East. However, the United States, the existing Arab regimes, and the traditional Sunni clerical establishments all share an interest in avoiding instability and revolution. This shared interest makes the establishments in the Sunni world America’s natural partners in the struggle against al Qaeda and similar movements. If American strategists fail to understand and exploit the divide between the establishments and the revolutionaries within Sunni Islam, the United States will play into the radicals’ hands, and turn fence-sitting Sunnis into enemies. Spring 2005 69 Outsiders of the Sunni World Sunni Islam is a very big tent, and there always have been insiders and outsiders within Sunnism playing out their rivalries with clashing philosophies.4 Throughout the past century, the most important of these clashes have occurred between Sunni reformers and the traditional Sunni clerical establishment. The ideology espoused today by al Qaeda and similar groups can be traced directly from the 19th-century founders of modernist reform in Sunnism. Al Qaeda’s leading thinkers are steeped in these reformers’ long struggle against the establishment. The teaching of the reformers has been heterodox and revolutionary from the beginning; that is, the reformers and their intellectual descendants in al Qaeda are the outsiders of today’s Sunni world. For the most part this struggle has been waged in Egypt, Sunni Islam’s center of gravity. On one side of the debate, there is Cairo’s Al-Azhar, a seminary and university that has been the center of Sunni orthodoxy for a thousand years. On the other side, al Qaeda’s ideology has its origins in late-19thcentury efforts in Egypt to reform and modernize faith and society. As the 20th century progressed, the Sunni establishment centered on Al-Azhar came to view the modernist reform movement as more and more heterodox. It became known as Salafism, for the supposedly uncorrupted early Muslim predecessors (salaf, plural aslaf ) of today’s Islam. The more revolutionary tendencies in this Salafist reform movement constitute the core of today’s challenge to the Sunni establishment, and are the chief font of al Qaeda’s ideology. A Century of Reformation In contemporary Western discussions of the Muslim world, it is common to hear calls for a “reformation in Islam” as an antidote to al Qaeda.5 These calls often betray a misunderstanding of both Sunni Islam and of the early modern debate between Catholics and Protestants. In fact, a Sunni “reformation” has been under way for more than a century, and it works against Western security interests. The Catholic-Protestant struggle in Europe weakened traditional religious authorities’ control over the definition of doctrine, emphasized scripture over tradition, idealized an allegedly uncorrupted primitive religious community, and simplified theology and rites. The Salafist movement in the Sunni Muslim world has been pursuing these same ...

rapor hazırlama kuralları - Uludağ Üniversitesi

Makine Mühendisliği öğrencilerinin hazırlayacakları tüm rapor, bitirme ödevi ve dönem raporlarını bu belgede açıklandığı biçimde hazırlamaları amaçlanmaktadır. Rapor hazırlamada, bu belge ile birlikte bulunan “rapor örneği” sitili kullanılacaktır. Bu kalıp stil seçildiğinde, sayfa düzeni,paragraf yapıları kendiliğinden seçilmiş olacaktır. Bir rapor; Kapak, Ön kısım, Ana kısım ve Eklerden oluşur. Kapak, dış ve iç kapak olarak düzenlenir. Ön kısımda, içindekiler kısmı bulunur. Ana kısım, raporun içeriğidir. Ekler, raporun akıcılığını kesmemek için rapor sonuna atılmış bilgileri içerir. Kapak ve bölümlere ilişkin bilgiler ve örnekler bu belge içinde verilmiştir. 2. Sayfa Düzeni Sayfa düzeni, rapor örnek kalıbında belirtildiği gibi olacaktır. Buna göre. Kağıt boyutu A4, Üst ve alt boşluklar 2,5, sol boşluk 3,3 ve sağ boşluk 2,2 cm olacaktır. Sayfa numaraları, sayfanın sağ üst kısmında yer almalıdır. Ön kısım sayfaları roman numaraları ile numaralandırılacaktır. Örneğin çindekiler Ana kısımda yer alan tüm sayfalar numaralanacaktır. Numaralamada arab numaraları kullanılacaktır 3. Paragraf Düzeni Normal yazı paragrafları, “normal” paragraf tipinde olacaktır. Bu paragraf türünde, 12 punto, normal “Times New Roman” karakteri kullanılacaktır. Paragraf ilk satırı, diğer satırlar ile aynı hizada olacak ve paragraflar arasında bir satır atlanacaktır. Alt başlıklar için örnekler aşağıda verilmiştir 1. Birinci Başlık 1.1. kinci Başlık 1.1.1. Üçüncü Başlık 4. Resim ve Tablolar Resim ve şekil altyazıları “Şekil” paragraf tipinde aşağıdaki biçimde yazılacaktır. Şekil 1.1: Deney tesisatının genel görünümü Şekil numaraları, bölüme bağlı olarak verilecektir. Örneğin Şekil 1.3 gibi. Tablo isimleri tabloların üst kısımlarına aşağıda gösterildiği gibi yazılacaktır. Tablo paragraf türünün adı “Tablo” dur. Tablo 1.1: Genel Tablo 5. Referanslar Referanlar, referansa atıf yapılan yerde köşeli parantez içinde gösterilecektir. Örneğin [1] biçiminde. ULUDAĞ ÜN VERS TES MAK NE MÜHEND SL Ğ BÖLÜMÜ ISI TEKN Ğ LABORATUARI DENEY RAPORU GÜNEŞ ENERJ S DENEY Bölüm Anabilim Dalı Deney Grubu Deney Sorumlusu Deney tarihi Teslim tarihi Raporu hazırlayan : Makine Mühendisliği : Termodinamik : : Prof. Dr. Abadulvahap Y Ğ T

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Potensi bencana alam yang tinggi pada dasarnya tidak lebih dari sekedar refleksi fenomena alam yang secara geografis sangat khas untuk wilayah tanah air kita. Indonesia merupakan Negara kepulauan tempat dimana tiga lempeng besar dunia bertemu, yaitu: lempeng Indo-Australia, Eurasia dan Pasifik. Interaksi antar lempeng-lempeng tersebut lebih lanjut menempatkan Indonesia sebagai wilayah yang memiliki aktivitas kegunungapian dan kegempaan yang cukup tinggi. Lebih dari itu, proses dinamika lempeng yang cukup intensif juga telah membentuk relief permukaan bumi yang khas dan cukup bervariasi, dari wilayah pegunungan dengan lereng-lerengnya yang curam dan seakan menyiratkan potensi longsor yang tinggi hingga wilayah yang landai sepanjang pantai dengan potensi ancaman banjir, penurunan tanah dan tsunaminya (Sadisun, 2005-2006). Berbagai potensi bencana alam yang mungkin timbul sudah sebaiknya harus kita kenal agar karakter bahaya alam tersebut dapat kita minimalkan dampaknya. Selain itu, potensi bencana alam ini telah diperparah oleh beberapa permasalahan lain yang muncul di tanah air kita yang memicu peningkatan kerentanannya. Laju pertumbuhan penduduk yang sangat tinggi merupakan salah satu contoh nyata, sehingga akan banyak membutuhkan kawasan-kawasan hunian baru yang pada akhirnya kawasan hunian tersebut akan terus berkembang dan menyebar hingga mencapai wilayah-wilayah marginal yang tidak selayaknya dihuni. Tidak tertib dan tepatnya perencanaan tata guna lahan, sebagai inti dari permasalahan ini merupakan faktor utama yang menyebabkan adanya peningkatan kerentanan. Peningkatan kerentanan ini akan lebih diperparah bila masyarakat sama sekali tidak menyadari dan tanggap terhadap adanya potensi bencana alam di daerahnya. Pengalaman memperlihatkan bahwa kejadian-kejadian bencana alam selama ini telah banyak menimbulkan kerugian dan penderitaan yang cukup berat sebagai akibat dari perpaduan bahaya alam dan kompleksitas permasalahan lainnya. Untuk itu diperlukan upaya-upaya yang komprehensif untuk mengurangi resiko bencana alam, antara lain yaitu dengan melakukan kegiatan migitasi. Bencana (disaster) merupakan fenomena sosial akibat kolektif atas komponen bahaya (hazard) yang berupa fenomena alam/buatan di satu pihak, dengan kerentanan (vulnerability) komunitas di pihak lain. Bencana terjadi apabila komunitas mempunyai tingkat kapasitas/kemampuan yang lebih rendah dibanding dengan tingkat bahaya yang mungkin terjadi padanya. Misalnya, letusan G. Merapi dan bahaya lainnya gempa bumi, banjir, gerakan tanah, dan lainnya tidak akan sertamerta menjadi bencana apabila komunitas memiliki kapasitas mengelola bahaya. Bencana cenderung terjadi pada komunitas yang rentan, dan akan membuat komunitas semakin rentan. Kerentanan komunitas diawali oleh kondisi lingkungan fisik, sosial, dan ekonomi yang tidak aman (unsave conditions) yang melekat padanya. Kondisi tidak aman tersebut terjadi oleh tekanan dinamis internal maupun eksternal (dynamic pressures), misalnya di komunitas institusi lokal tidak berkembang dan ketrampilan tepat guna tidak dimiliki. Tekanan dinamis terjadi karena terdapat akar permasalahan (root causes) yang menyertainya. Akar permasalahan internal umumnya karena komunitas tidak mempunyai akses sumberdaya, struktur dan kekuasaan, sedang secara eksternal karena sistem politik dan ekonomi yang tidak tepat. Oleh karenanya penanganan bencana perlu dilakukan secara menyeluruh dengan meningkatkan kapasitas dan menangani akar permasalahan untuk mereduksi resiko secara total. Siklus penanggulangan bencana yang perlu dilakukan secara utuh. Upaya pencegahan (prevention) terhadap munculnya dampak adalah perlakuan utama. Tsunami tidak dapat dicegah. Pencegahan dapat dilakukan pada bahaya yang manusia terlibat langsung maupun tidak langsung. Pada tsunami misalnya. Pencegahan dapat dilakukan rakyat dengan membuat bendung penahan ombak, bangunan panggung tahan ombak, penataan ruang dan sebagainya. Agar tidak terjadi jebolnya tanggul, maka perlu disusun save procedure dan kontrol terhadap kepatuhan perlakuan. Walaupun pencegahan sudah dilakukan, sementara peluang adanya kejadian masih ada, maka perlu dilakukan upaya-upaya mitigasi...

Section One - Buku Sekolah Elektronik
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Salah satu upaya untuk melengkapi sumber belajar yang relevan dan bermakna guna meningkatkan mutu pendidikan di Sekolah Menengah Pertama (SMP), Direktorat Pembinaan SMP mengembangkan buku pelajaran Bahasa Inggris untuk siswa kelas VII, kelas VIII, dan kelas IX. Buku pelajaran ini disusun berdasarkan Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional No. 22 Tahun 2006 Tentang Standar Isi, No. 23 Tahun 2006 tentang Standar Kompetensi Lulusan, dan berdasarkan kriteria buku pelajaran yang dikembangkan oleh Badan Standar Nasional Pendidikan. Buku pelajaran ini merupakan penyempurnaan dari bahan ajar kontekstual yang telah dikembangkan Direktorat Pembinaan SMP dalam kaitannya dengan kegiatan proyek peningkatan mutu SMP. Bahan ajar tersebut telah diujicobakan ke sejumlah SMP di provinsi Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Timur, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, dan Gorontalo sejak tahun 2001. Penyempurnaan bahan ajar menjadi buku pelajaran yang bernuansa pendekatan kontekstual dilakukan oleh para pakar dari beberapa perguruan tinggi, guru, dan instruktur yang berpengalaman di bidangnya. Validasi oleh para pakar dan praktisi serta uji coba empiris ke siswa SMP telah dilakukan guna meningkatkan kesesuaian dan keterbacaan buku pelajaran ini. Buku pelajaran Bahasa Inggris ini telah dinilai oleh Badan Standar Nasional Pendidikan, dan dinyatakan memenuhi syarat untuk digunakan sebagai buku pelajaran di SMP. Sekolah diharapkan dapat menggunakan buku pelajaran ini dengan sebaik-baiknya sehingga dapat meningkatkan efektivitas dan kebermaknaan pembelajaran. Pada akhirnya, para siswa diharapkan dapat menguasai semua Standar Kompetensi dan Kompetensi Dasar secara lebih mendalam, luas serta bermakna, kemudian dapat mengaplikasikannya dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Saran perbaikan untuk penyempurnaan buku pelajaran ini sangat diharapkan. Terimakasih setulus-tulusnya disampaikan kepada para penulis yang telah berkontribusi dalam penyusunan buku pelajaran ini, baik pada saat awal pengembangan bahan ajar, ujicoba terbatas, maupun penyempurnaan sehingga dapat tersusunnya buku pelajaran ini. Terimakasih dan penghargaan juga disampaikan kepada semua pihak yang telah membantu terwujudnya penerbitan buku pelajaran ini. Jakarta, Juli 2008 Direktur Pembinaan SMP

penulisan naskah buku pelajaran - File UPI - Universitas Pendidikan ...

Buku pelajaran adalah buku yang digunakan dalam proses pembelajaran, memuat bahan ajar yang tersusun secara sistematis dari suatu mata pelajaran atau bahan kajian yang minimal harus dikuasai peserta didik pada tingkat dan jenis pendidikan tertentu Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia Fakultas Ilmu Pendidikan Jurusan Kurikulum dan Teknologi Pendidikan Persyaratan berkaitan dengan: – Keamanan nasional – Isi buku pelajaran – Cara penyajian – Bahasa yang digunakan – Ilustrasi Isi, cara penyajian, bahasa, dan ilustrasi dalam buku pelajaran selaras dan tidak bertentangan dengan peraturan perundang-undangan yang berlaku Menghormati kerukunan hidup umat beragama (inter dan antar) Persyaratan yang Berkaitan dengan Isi Buku Pelajaran Memuat sekurang-kurangnya bahan pelajaran minimal yang harus dikuasai siswa Sesuai dengan kurikulum yang berlaku Relevan dengan tujuan mata pelajaran Memiliki nilai kebenaran ditinjau dari struktur keilmuan Sesuai dengan perkembangan IPTEKS Kedalaman dan keluasan isi buku sesuai dengan jenjang pendidikan

Hal.113-126 Memilih Buku Pelajaran.pdf

S ejak pembangunan jangka panjang pertama (1970–1995) dan sampai sekarang ini, Pemerintah menyediakan buku pelajaran untuk semua sekolah. Berbagai kebijakan dan sistem penyediaan buku pelajaran telah ditempuh serta banyak dana sudah dihabiskan baik bersumber dari dalam negeri maupun dari berbagai bentuk pinjaman dari luar negeri. Akan tetapi buku pelajaran sampai sekarang ini tidak sepi dari masalah dan kritikan apalagi menjelang dan mengawali tahun pelajaran baru. Dalam kenyataannya masyarakat masih dibebani penyediaan buku pelajaran baik di sekolah negeri maupun di sekolah swasta. Sekolah juga sering memilih dan membeli buku pelajaran dari penerbit yang menawarkan buku pelajaran ke sekolah. Tulisan ini membahas kebijakan penyediaan buku pelajaran itu dan menawarkan kepada sekolah cara mencermati dan memilih buku pelajaran sehingga sedapat mungkin memenuhi tuntutan kurikulum serta dapat meningkatkan mutu proses dan hasil pembelajaran. Sekolah dianggap perlu mengetahui cara memilih buku pelajaran yang bermutu karena selaras dengan perkembangan penerbitan buku di Indonesia dewasa ini alternatif pilihan buku pelajaran semakin banyak. Kata kunci : buku pelajaran, bahan ajar, metode pembelajaran, bahasa, ilustrasi, grafika Abstract In the first long term development (1970 – 1995), the Indonesian Government tried to provide all schools with free textbooks. A number of regulations in textbook provision have been implemented and the Government has spent a big amount of budget from local and foreign sources. However, the facts show that there are still many problems and critiques in the textbook provision. The issues become more serious particularly at the beginning of new academic *) Dosen Universitas Negeri Jakarta Jurnal Pendidikan Penabur - No.04/ Th.IV/ Juli 2005 ...

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