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Soal dan Pembahasan Matematika IPA SNMPTN 2011

Soal-Soal dan Pembahasan SNMPTN Matematika IPA Tahun Pelajaran 2010/2011 Tanggal Ujian: 01 Juni 2011 1. Diketahui vektor u = (a, -2, -1) dan v = (a, a, -1). Jika vektor u tegak lurus pada v , maka nilai a adalah ... A. -1 B. 0 C. 1 D. 2 E. 3 Jawab: Vektor: vektor u tegak lurus pada v maka u . v = 0 u = −2 , v = −1 −2 . −1 −1 (a – 1) (a-1) = 0 maka a = 1 −1 = a2 – 2a + 1 = 0 (a - 1)2 = 0 Jawabannya adalah C 2. Pernyataan berikut yang benar adalah ... A. Jika sin x = sin y maka x = y B. Untuk setiap vektor u , v dan w berlaku u . ( v . w ) = ( u . v ). w C. Jika b  f ( x) dx = 0, maka a D. Ada fungsi f sehingga E. 1 – cos 2x = 2 cos2 x f ( x )= 0 Lim f(x) ≠ f(c) untuk suatu c xc www.belajar-matematika.com - 1 Jawab: Trigonometri, vektor, integral, limit A. Ambil nilai dimana sin x = sin y  sin α = sin (1800 – α ) ambil nilai α = 600  sin 600 = sin 1200 ; tetapi 600 ≠ 1200 Pernyataan SALAH B. Operasi u . ( v . w ) tak terdefinisi karena v . w = skalar, sedangkan u = vektor vektor . skalar = tak terdefinisi Pernyataan SALAH C. Ambil contoh cari cepat hasil dimana b  f ( x) dx = 0 ; a 1 Didapat b = 1 dan a = -1 maka f(x)= x   x dx = 0  1 terbukti : f(x) = x bukan f(x) = 0 x2 | Pernyataan SALAH D. Ambil contoh f(x) = Lim xc f(x) = Lim x 1 ( ( = ( ( ) ( )( ) = ) ( ) Lim f(x) ≠ f(c)  2 ≠ 1 xc ) ( )( ) = ) ( ) =2 Pernyataan BENAR E. 1 – cos 2x = 1 – ( 2cos2 x – 1) = 1 + 1 - 2cos2 x = 2 - 2cos2 x = 2 ( 1 – cos2 x) Pernyataan SALAH Jawabannya adalah D www.belajar-matematika.com - 2 = (1 – 1) = 0 3. Luas daerah di bawah y = -x2 +8x dan di atas y = 6x - 24 dan terletak di kuadran I adalah.... a. ∫ (− b. ∫ (− c. ∫ (− +8 ) +8 ) +8 ) d. ∫ (6 − 24) e. ∫ (6 − 24) Jawab: Integral: +∫ ( + ∫ (− + ∫ (− + ∫ (− + ∫ (− − 2 − 24) + 2 + 24) + 2 + 24) +8 ) +8 ) kuadran I titik potong kedua persamaan : y1 = y2 -x2 +8x = 6x-24 -x2 +8x - 6x+24 = 0 -x2 +2x + 24 = 0 x2 -2x - 24 = 0 (x - 6) (x+4)0 x = 6 atau x = -4  karena di kuadran I maka yang berlaku adalah x = 6  y = 6.6 – 24= 12 berada di titik (6,12) www.belajar-matematika.com - 3 L = ∫ (− = ∫ (− +8 ) +8 ) + ∫ ((− + ∫ (− Jawabannya adalah B + 8 ) − (6 − 24)) + 2 + 24) 4. sin 350 cos 400 - cos 35 sin 400 = A. cos 50 B. sin 50 C. cos 950 D. cos 750 E. sin 750 Jawab: Trigonometri: Pakai rumus: sin (A - B) = sin A cos B - cos A Sin B A= 350 ; B = 400 = sin (350 - 400) = sin -50 Cos (90 0 -  ) = sin   rumus Cos (90 0 - (-50) ) = sin -50   = -50 Cos 950 = sin -50 Jawabannya adalah C 5. Diketahui g(x) = ax2 – bx + a – b habis dibagi x – 1. Jika f(x) adalah suku banyak yang bersisa a ketika dibagi x – 1 dan bersisa 3ax + b2 + 1 ketika dibagi g(x), maka nilai a adalah...... A. -1 B. -2 C. 1 D. 2 Jawab: Suku Banyak: g(x) = ax2 – bx + a – b habis dibagi x – 1  g(1) = 0 g(1) = a . 1 – b .1 + a – b = 0 =a–b+a–b=0 2a – 2b = 0 2a = 2b  a = b karena a = b maka: g(x) = ax2 – ax + a – a = ax2 – ax www.belajar-matematika.com - 4 E. 3 f(x) dibagi dengan f(x-1) sisa a  f(1) = a f(x) dibagi dengan g(x) sisa 3ax + b2 + 1 f(x) dibagi dengan ax2 – ax sisa 3ax + b2 + 1 f(x) dibagi dengan ax(x – 1) sisa 3ax + b2 + 1 teorema suku banyak: Jika suatu banyak f(x) dibagi oleh (x- k) akan diperoleh hasil bagi H(x) dan sisa pembagian S  f(x) = (x- k) H(x) + S f(x) dibagi dengan ax(x – 1) sisa 3ax + b2 + 1 f(x) = ax (x - 1) H(x) + (3ax + b2 + 1) substitusikan nilai nol dari pembagi yaitu x = 0 dan x = 1  dari ax (x - 1) ambil x = 1  untuk x = 1 f(1) = a . 1 (1 – 1) H(0) + 3a.1 + b2 + 1 a = 0 + 3a + b2 + 1  diketahu a = b, masukkan nilai a = b a = 3a + a2 + 1 a2 + 2a + 1 = 0 (a+1)(a+1) = (a+1)2 = 0 a = -1 Jawabannya adalah A 6. Rotasi sebesar 450 terhadap titik asal diikuti dengan pencerminan terhadap y = -x memetakan titik (3,4) ke .... A. √ B. − Jawab: ,√ √ ,√ C. D. √ √ ,−√ ,−√ E. − Transformasi Geometri:  cos  Rotasi sebesar 450 terhadap titik asal =   sin    sin    cos     0  1 pencerminan terhadap y = -x    1 0     www.belajar-matematika.com - 5 √ ,√

SUZUKI GSX-1300R K8 Hayabusa Colored Wiring Diagram

SUZUKI GSX-1300R HAYABUSA K8 COLORED WIRING DIAGRAM ECM UNIT BOTTOM VIEW 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 7 8 6 5 4 3 2 1 VIEW FROM INSERTION FACE OF COUPLER 1 Gr B/W SDS GND W/R Bl/Y R O/W +B COV2 RxD1 TxD1 +5V 8 1 6 1 B/Br Bl/W Bl/B Bl/G P/W W/B SM1A SM2A TECH MPS PM VTA COS2 G B/Y W/G R B/Bl G/B P/B Bl/Y B/G P VCC THW OX N+ G+ BATT SM1B SM2B +B STP Dg G/Y B/W P B G/B Y/W B/Lg G O/W R/Bl GP DON LED EXS PA THA E2 SDS SG COV1 35 34 SDL NCOV3 VM Y/B Y/Bl O/Bl Bl G B/W Y/R Gr Bl Bl/G B/Br IS1A IS2A E1 DMS1 TACO IRLY OXH STA SOL2 FAR #31 #41 #21 IG2 IG3 #11 IG1 Bl/W Bl/B O/R Y Br W/Bl B Y Gr/W Gr/B Gr/Y Gr/R Gr O/R Y/G W/B DMS2 IS1B IS2B COV2 COV1 NT MS #42 CLT #32 G B/W B/W W/R Lg Lg/W Lg/G Lg/Bl B/Y Bl B/W TS #12 #22 E01 IG4 E03 JAE MX23A34SF1 (black) Gr G Gr Y 4 SUMITOMO 090-MT G B/W O/G W/B ON OFF R O G/B O O/G Br O/Bl O/R B/W O/B O/W O/G W/B Y/G O Y/W 5 1 BRAKE LIGHT SWITCH O/W B/Br W/G W/B G/Y R O O/Y Bl Gr Br 1 ON OFF LOCK P B Lg G/Y B/Lg OIL FUEL LEFT RIGHT LIGHT NT DATA +B P B/R Y/Bl B/G O/G Y Bl/B R/Bl B/W SPEED VCC TACO BATT E O/Bl O/R B/W O/B O/W B/R B/Bl Y/G O/R Y/W IGNITION SWITCH 16 B/R B/W B JAE MX34016SF1 B/R B/W P PUSH FREE PUSH Gr B COMBINATION METER SIDE-STAND SWITCH OFF ON Gr W/Bl STARTER BUTTON 68 W Gr B W OFF RUN UP DOWN JAE MX23A34SF2 (gray) 6 2 DIAGNOSIS ECM IGNITION IGNITION IGNITION IGNITION COIL #1 COIL #2 COIL #3 COIL #4 G B/W SPEED SENSOR DRIVING MODE SWITCH FRONT BRAKE SWITCH OFF ON O/W B/Br W/G W/B B 9 3 FLASH HANDLEBAR SWITCH (R) 1 5 FURUKAWA 090-RFW HO2 SENSOR OIL PRESSURE SWITCH 16 6 1 8 7 2 ENGINE STOP SWITCH 8 3 VIEW FROM INSERTION FACE OF COUPLER 4 MODE (For E-03, 28) 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 POSITION LIGHT (R) B B Br B/W FRONT TURN SIGNAL LIGHT (R) B B/W Lg B/W REAR TURN SIGNAL LIGHT (R) W B/W HEADLIGHT (LO) Lg W Y B/W Br B Y B/W HEADLIGHT (HI) FRONT TURN SIGNAL LIGHT (L) B B/W B B/W B B Lg B/W Lg W Y B/W Br B Lg W/B B/W Br B Br B/W Lg B/W REAR COMBINATION LIGHT Lg W/B B/W Br B W/B B/W Br B B/W W/B B/W Br B B/W REAR TURN SIGNAL LIGHT (L) POSITION LIGHT (L) Br B/W Gr B/W 3 PUSH OFF ON L PUSH R PUSH HI LO PAIR FAN MOTOR CONTROL SOLENOID RELAY VALVE ECT SENSOR STVA STP SENSOR GP SWITCH FREE PASSING DIMMER CLUTCH HAZARD HORN SWITCH SWITCH BUTTON SWITCH TURN SIGNAL LIGHT LIGHT SWITCH SWITCH #1 Gr/R Y/R #4 Gr/Y Y/R Lg/G Y/R #3 Gr/B Y/R #2 SECONDARY FUEL INJECTOR Gr/W Y/R #1 Lg/Bl Y/R TP IAP SENSOR SENSOR Lg Y/R HANDLEBAR SWITCH (L) #2 #3 #4 PRIMARY FUEL INJECTOR ISC VALVE Y Y Y REGULATOR/ RECTIFIER GENERATOR Bl Y G Br B/W B/W B/Y Y/G R R Y Y Y R R B/W B/W B B B B/R B/R B/W B/W Y Y Y G Bl Bl G 1 Bl P B/W TO SENSOR R B/Y B/Br Bl P B/W Bl/Y R B R B B/Br B/Lg P/W G W/B R Y/W B/Br B P G W/Bl Bl Y B

1 TON FOLDING ENGINE STAND - Harbor Freight Tools

3491 Mission Oaks Blvd., Camarillo, CA 93011 Visit our Web site at http://www.harborfreight.com Copyright © 2002 by Harbor Freight Tools®. All rights reserved. No portion of this manual or any artwork contained herein may be reproduced in any shape or form without the express written consent of Harbor Freight Tools . For technical questions and replacement parts, please call 1-800-444-3353 Specifications Engine Stand Capacity Assembled Dimensions Folded Dimensions Engine Turn Capacity Main Post Height 1 Ton (2000 Lbs.) 42” L x 36” W x 34” H 17” L x 22-1/2” W x 40” H 360 Degrees 32-1/2” Save This Manual You will need the manual for the safety warnings and precautions, assembly instructions, operating and maintenance procedures, parts list and diagram. Keep your invoice with this manual. Write the invoice number on the inside of the front cover. Keep the manual and invoice in a safe and dry place for future reference. Safety Warnings and Precautions WARNING: When using product, basic safety precautions should always be followed to reduce the risk of personal injury and damage to equipment. Read all instructions before using this product! 1. Avoid working alone. If an accident happens, an assistant can bring help. 2. Keep work area clean. Cluttered areas invite injuries. 3. Observe work area conditions. Don’t expose to rain. Keep work area well lighted. 4. Keep children away. Children must never be allowed in the work area. Do not let them near the Stand. 5. Store idle equipment. When not in use, the Stand must be stored in a dry location to inhibit rust. Always lock up tools and keep out of reach of children. 6. Dress properly. Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry as they can be caught in moving parts. Protective, electrically nonconductive clothes and nonskid footwear are recommended when working. Wear restrictive hair covering to contain long hair. 7. Use eye and ear protection. Always wear ANSI approved impact safety goggles. 8. Do not overreach. Keep proper footing and balance at all times. Do not reach over or across electrical cables or frames. 9. Maintain Stand with care. Inspect Stand, and if damaged, have it repaired by an authorized technician. 10. Use the right Stand for the job. Do not attempt to force a small Stand or attachment to do the work of a larger industrial Stand. There are certain applications for which this Stand was designed. Do not modify this Stand and do not use this Stand for a purpose for which it was not intended. 11. Stay alert. Watch what you are doing, use common sense. Do not operate any Stand when you are tired. 12. Check for damaged parts. Before using the Stand, any part that appears damaged should be carefully checked to determine that it will operate properly and perform its intended function. Check for alignment and binding of moving parts; any broken parts or mounting fixtures; and any other condition that may affect proper operation. Any part that is damaged should be properly repaired or replaced by a qualified technician. 13. Replacement parts and accessories. When servicing, use only identical replacement parts. Use of any other par ts will void the warranty. 14. Do not operate Stand if under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Read warning labels on prescriptions to determine if your judgment or reflexes are impaired while taking drugs. If there is any doubt, do not operate the Stand. 15. Maintenance. For your safety, maintenance should be performed regularly by a qualified technician. Additional Safety Warnings and Precautions 1. Stay Clear of Stand. Never go under an engine being held by the Stand. It is possible for the object to slip and fall, resulting in serious injury. 2. Warning! Always work on a flat, level surface. Clear the area of all spectators (to a safe distance). Do not go under an engine block while it is on the Engine Stand. 3. Warning: After the engine is securely held in place on the Engine Stand, slowly lower the hoist while visually inspecting that all four bolts stay securely inside each Holding Block (#1). 4. Warning: Do not release the entire weight of the engine from the hoist until you are sure the engine is securely attached to the Engine Stand. Warning: The warnings, cautions, and instructions discussed in this instruction manual cannot cover all possible conditions and situations that may occur. It must be understood by the operator that common sense and caution are factors which cannot be built into this product, but must be supplied by the operator. Unpacking When unpacking, check to make sure the parts listed on page 5 are included. See listing of parts packed in Box #1 and Box #2. If any par ts are missing or broken, please call Harbor Freight Tools at the number on the cover of this manual.

ENGINE STAND 750 LBS. CAPACITY - Harbor Freight Tools

ASSEMBLY AND OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS 3491 Mission Oaks Blvd., Camarillo, CA 93011 Visit our Web site at http://www.harborfreight.com Copyright © 2003 by Harbor Freight Tools®. All rights reserved. No portion of this manual or any artwork contained herein may be reproduced in any shape or form without the express written consent of Harbor Freight Tools. For technical questions and replacement parts, please call 1-800-444-3353 Specifications Engine Stand Capacity Assembled Dimensions Face Plate Size Weight Rotation 750 Lbs. Dead Weight 38” L x 37” W x 34” H 5/16” Th. x 10-1/8 “W x 6”H 54.55 Lbs. 360o Save This Manual You will need the manual for the safety warnings and precautions, assembly instructions, operating and maintenance procedures, parts list and diagram. Keep your invoice with this manual. Write the invoice number on the inside of the front cover. Keep the manual and invoice in a safe and dry place for future reference. Safety Warnings and Precautions WARNING: When using the Stand, basic safety precautions should always be followed to reduce the risk of personal injury and damage to equipment. Read all instructions before using this Stand! 1. Keep work area clean. Cluttered areas invite injuries. 2. Observe work area conditions. Don’t expose to rain. Keep work area well lighted. 3. Keep children away. Children must never be allowed in the work area. Do not let them handle, ride on, or be in close proximity of the Stand. 4. Store idle equipment. When not in use, the Stand must be stored in a dry location to inhibit rust. Always keep the Stand out of reach of children. 5. Use the right tool for the job. Do not attempt to force a small Stand to do the work of a larger industrial Stand. There are certain applications for which this Stand was designed. It will do the job better and more safely at the rate for which it was intended. Do not modify this Stand and do not use this Stand for a purpose for which it was not intended. 6. Dress properly. Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry as they can be caught in moving parts. Protective, electrically non-conductive clothes and non-skid footwear are recommended when working. Wear restrictive hair covering to contain long hair. 7. Use eye protection. Always wear ANSI approved impact safety goggles. 8. Do not overreach. Keep proper footing and balance at all times. Do not reach over or across running machines. 9. Maintain products with care. Keep the Stand clean for better and safer performance. Follow instructions for lubricating and changing accessories. The handle must be kept clean, dry, and free from oil and grease at all times. ...

W5MG1 W6MG1 AWD Trans Service - Searchable.pdf - retroactive

This book was translated from the original Japanese language service manual published by Mitsubishi Motors Corporation of Japan. Translation was performed by volunteers from 3000GT/Stealth International, an owners and enthusiast group focused on the Mitsubishi 3000GT, Dodge Stealth and Mitsubishi GTO. Great care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of the information contained in this manual, but errors may still be possible due to the nature of the translation. Therefore, this manual is presented as a guide only, and repair procedures should not be undertaken by unskilled individuals who do not posess a thorough understanding of the subject material. The authors of this manual will not be held responsible for any personal injury or damage to property incurred while performing the procedures described within. All tasks in this manual are undertaken at your own risk. This book covers the Getrag W5MG1 and W6MG1 all-wheel drive manual transaxles found in the following models: 1991 - 1996 Dodge Stealth RlT Turbo 1991 - 1999 Mitsubishi 3000GT VR4 1990 - 1999 Mitsubishi GTO Twin Turbo This book would not be possible without the contributions of the following people: Translation, and layout Jeff VanOrsdal Additional Translation Frank Chen, Kotaru Yamaguchi, Corumisri Technical Assistance Bret Brinkmann Jeff Lucius Financial assistance Many generous members of 3000GT I Stealth International Visit 3000GT I Stealth International on the web at www.3si.org This book explains the main service points regarding the transmission itself. However, please utilize the relevant service manual for the car model and year in question when concerns arise regarding onboard inspection and service. Symbols for lubricants, sealants and adhesives Information concerning the locations of lubricarion and for application of sealants and adhesives is provided, by using symbols, in the diagram of component parts or on the page following the component parts page. 4IiN ................. Grease (multipurpose unless there Important points (1) Component diagrams are published at the beginning of each section so that you may more easily visualize the assembled state of the component or su b-assembly. (2) Numbered service procedures are displayed in the component diagrams along with indications of non-reusable parts and torque specifications. (3) Main service points and maintenance points are explained in detail, along with usage and descriptions of special tools.

Xbox 360 disassembly instructions - [::][:: Talismoon.com ::]

Please note that these instructions describe how to disassemble your Xbox. For most upgrades, modifications, and repairs you will not need to completely disassemble your Xbox, therefore, parts 6 and 7 are optional. It is also recommended that you read the instructions completely before starting, so that you can understand better the purpose of each step. Part 3: Removing the grey end grills Tools needed for Xbox 360 disassembly: 7) The grey grills are held on by 6 grey tabs. These must be removed before you can separate the case halves. A view from the inside of the case is shown in the picture. You must push the clips shown from the outside so that they will slide over the pegs that hold them in place. T6: To remove hard drive screws T8: To remove internal Xbox 360 screws T10: To remove Xbox 360 internal chassis from case Metal Bar: To remove grey grills on ends of case Micro Flat Screwdriver: To undo the clips which will separate the case halves Basic Disassembly: Part 1: Preparation Part 2: Removing the faceplate Part 3: Removing the grey end grills Part 4: Separating the case halves Part 5: Removing the top half of the case Advanced Disassembly: Part 6: Removing the power switch Part 7: Disassembling the hard drive 8) Start with the grill that would be on the bottom of the case (when the case is horizontal), the one that has the rubber feet on it. 9) Using the metal rod supplied, poke through the vent holes as shown in the picture and push the grey tabs inward while pulling upward on the grill. It may be useful to use one of the other L keys to "hook" the grey grill and pull up. Part 1: Preparing your Xbox 360 1) Remove any game discs from your Xbox 360. 2) Unplug the console from the wall. 3) Remove the hard drive and put it in a safe place. See Part 7 for disassembly instructions for the hard drive. 4) Place your Xbox 360 in the horizontal position. 5) Make sure you have a good work area, with a place to put the screws so that you do not lose them, and a place to put the various case parts where they will not get scratched. You may want to put a soft cloth underneath the case. Part 2: Removing the faceplate 6) With your right hand, put your thumb in the USB door, and push to the right (outside edge) of the case. Using your left hand, squeeze the top and bottom of the faceplate. The faceplate will pop off. See the arrows in the picture for exact locations. 10) Remove all 6 grey tabs. Pull the grill out and place it to the side. 11) Next remove the tabs from the top grill. With this grill, you may need to remove the foot on the top rear of the case (when Xbox is standing upright), there will be a hole underneath that you can stick the rod through. If you do not want to remove the foot (because of fear of losing it, because it will not stick as well once removed and reapplied), you can leave the grill attached by that one tab and move on to Part 4. You can remove the final tab with your fingers after you separate the case halves, but you will have to be careful not to bend it or break it as it will be in the way. Page 1 of 2 www.talismoon.com Part 4: Separating the halves of the case Part 5: Removing the top half of the case 12) Turn the Xbox case around so you are looking at the rear panel (where the serial number is). 18) There are 6 screws holding the Xbox 360 to the top half of the case. There is one screw in approximately each corner and two in the middle (see diagram). There are two more in the center of the case. Using the T10 key, remove all 6 of these screws. Place the case top to the side. 13) You will see 7 small rectangular holes along the seam. There will have 5 on the right, over the A/V and I/O connectors, and two over the power plug connector. ...

Outline laporan antara - Direktorat Jenderal Penataan Ruang

Tujuan utama dari pekerjaan ini adalah melakukan penyusunan alternatif kebijakan dan penerapan langkah-langkah kegiatan yang tepat secara operasional pada wilayah yang berada pada daerah yang rawan dan sering terlanda bencana alam. Sasaran dari Penyusunan Operasionalisasi Program Penanganan Bencana Alam Bidang Penataan Ruang ini ialah memberikan arah yang jelas bentuk-bentuk penanganan yang baku untuk semua wilayah yang berada pada daerah yang rawan dan sering terlanda bencana alam, mulai dari identifikasi RTRW, indikasi evakuasi yang sesuai dengan Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah (RTRW), serta pemulihan dan pembinaan lingkungan dalam rencana tata ruang yang akan datang. Kegiatan ini juga diharapkan sebagai bahan dan petunjuk dengan kondisi geografis, tingkat kerawanan dan tingkat bahaya yang ditimbulkan bila terjadi bencana alam, ditunjang dari aspek keruangan. Salah satu langkah awal yang perlu dikaji dalam melaksanakan pekerjaan “Penyusunan Program Penangan Bencana Alam Bidang Penataan Ruang” adalah : 1. Penetapan Kriteria atau batasan Peristiwa Bencana Alam 2. Gambaran Umum Mekanisma Peristiwa Bencana Alam yang terjadi Di Indonesia Kedua hal tersebut selanjutnya menjadi masukan dalam penyusunan Identifikas Zonasi Daerah Bencana Di Indonesia. Identifikasi Zonasi Daerah Bencana Di Indonesia tersebut selanjutnya menjadi salah satu masukan penting dalam menyusun Standar Operasional Prosedur dan Program Penanganan Bencana alam Bidang Penataan Ruang, yang dapat mewakili berbagai peristiwa bencana alam yang terjadi di Indonesia. Operasionalisasi Program Penanganan Bencana Alam Bidang Penataan Ruang Berdasarkan penyebabnya bencana dapat dibedakan menjadi tiga jenis, yaitu bencana alam, bencana akibat ulah manusia, dan bencana kombinasi (Lihat Gambar 2.1). a) Bencana Alam (natural disaster) Bencana Alam merupakan fenomena atau gejala alam yang disebabkan oleh keadaan geologi, biologis, seismis, hidrologis atau disebabkan oleh suatu proses dalam lingkungan alam mengancam kehidupan, struktur dan perekonomian masyarakat serta menimbulkan malapetaka. Bencana yang termasuk bencana alam antara lain: wabah penyakit, hama dan penyakit tanaman, gempa bumi, letusan gunung berapi, tanah longsor, gelombang laut pasang, banjir, erosi, angin taufan, badai tropis, kekeringan dan kebakaran hutan.

Laporan lengkap
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Potensi bencana alam yang tinggi pada dasarnya tidak lebih dari sekedar refleksi fenomena alam yang secara geografis sangat khas untuk wilayah tanah air kita. Indonesia merupakan Negara kepulauan tempat dimana tiga lempeng besar dunia bertemu, yaitu: lempeng Indo-Australia, Eurasia dan Pasifik. Interaksi antar lempeng-lempeng tersebut lebih lanjut menempatkan Indonesia sebagai wilayah yang memiliki aktivitas kegunungapian dan kegempaan yang cukup tinggi. Lebih dari itu, proses dinamika lempeng yang cukup intensif juga telah membentuk relief permukaan bumi yang khas dan cukup bervariasi, dari wilayah pegunungan dengan lereng-lerengnya yang curam dan seakan menyiratkan potensi longsor yang tinggi hingga wilayah yang landai sepanjang pantai dengan potensi ancaman banjir, penurunan tanah dan tsunaminya (Sadisun, 2005-2006). Berbagai potensi bencana alam yang mungkin timbul sudah sebaiknya harus kita kenal agar karakter bahaya alam tersebut dapat kita minimalkan dampaknya. Selain itu, potensi bencana alam ini telah diperparah oleh beberapa permasalahan lain yang muncul di tanah air kita yang memicu peningkatan kerentanannya. Laju pertumbuhan penduduk yang sangat tinggi merupakan salah satu contoh nyata, sehingga akan banyak membutuhkan kawasan-kawasan hunian baru yang pada akhirnya kawasan hunian tersebut akan terus berkembang dan menyebar hingga mencapai wilayah-wilayah marginal yang tidak selayaknya dihuni. Tidak tertib dan tepatnya perencanaan tata guna lahan, sebagai inti dari permasalahan ini merupakan faktor utama yang menyebabkan adanya peningkatan kerentanan. Peningkatan kerentanan ini akan lebih diperparah bila masyarakat sama sekali tidak menyadari dan tanggap terhadap adanya potensi bencana alam di daerahnya. Pengalaman memperlihatkan bahwa kejadian-kejadian bencana alam selama ini telah banyak menimbulkan kerugian dan penderitaan yang cukup berat sebagai akibat dari perpaduan bahaya alam dan kompleksitas permasalahan lainnya. Untuk itu diperlukan upaya-upaya yang komprehensif untuk mengurangi resiko bencana alam, antara lain yaitu dengan melakukan kegiatan migitasi. Bencana (disaster) merupakan fenomena sosial akibat kolektif atas komponen bahaya (hazard) yang berupa fenomena alam/buatan di satu pihak, dengan kerentanan (vulnerability) komunitas di pihak lain. Bencana terjadi apabila komunitas mempunyai tingkat kapasitas/kemampuan yang lebih rendah dibanding dengan tingkat bahaya yang mungkin terjadi padanya. Misalnya, letusan G. Merapi dan bahaya lainnya gempa bumi, banjir, gerakan tanah, dan lainnya tidak akan sertamerta menjadi bencana apabila komunitas memiliki kapasitas mengelola bahaya. Bencana cenderung terjadi pada komunitas yang rentan, dan akan membuat komunitas semakin rentan. Kerentanan komunitas diawali oleh kondisi lingkungan fisik, sosial, dan ekonomi yang tidak aman (unsave conditions) yang melekat padanya. Kondisi tidak aman tersebut terjadi oleh tekanan dinamis internal maupun eksternal (dynamic pressures), misalnya di komunitas institusi lokal tidak berkembang dan ketrampilan tepat guna tidak dimiliki. Tekanan dinamis terjadi karena terdapat akar permasalahan (root causes) yang menyertainya. Akar permasalahan internal umumnya karena komunitas tidak mempunyai akses sumberdaya, struktur dan kekuasaan, sedang secara eksternal karena sistem politik dan ekonomi yang tidak tepat. Oleh karenanya penanganan bencana perlu dilakukan secara menyeluruh dengan meningkatkan kapasitas dan menangani akar permasalahan untuk mereduksi resiko secara total. Siklus penanggulangan bencana yang perlu dilakukan secara utuh. Upaya pencegahan (prevention) terhadap munculnya dampak adalah perlakuan utama. Tsunami tidak dapat dicegah. Pencegahan dapat dilakukan pada bahaya yang manusia terlibat langsung maupun tidak langsung. Pada tsunami misalnya. Pencegahan dapat dilakukan rakyat dengan membuat bendung penahan ombak, bangunan panggung tahan ombak, penataan ruang dan sebagainya. Agar tidak terjadi jebolnya tanggul, maka perlu disusun save procedure dan kontrol terhadap kepatuhan perlakuan. Walaupun pencegahan sudah dilakukan, sementara peluang adanya kejadian masih ada, maka perlu dilakukan upaya-upaya mitigasi...

QUICK GUIDE Data dan Informasi Bencana ... - WordPress.com

Bencana merupakan bagian dari kehidupan manusia yang datang tanpa diduga kapan, dimana dan bagaimana terjadinya. Hal ini menyebabkan ketidaksiapan masyarakata dalam menghadapi dan akhirnya menimbulkan korban dan kerusakan. Fenomena bencana sebagian besar merupakan kejadian berulang pada tempat yang sama, sehingga dapat dilakukan analisa untuk ke depan dengan menggunakan data historis bencana-bencana sebelumnya. Melalui Data dan Informasi Bencana Indonesi (DIBI) dapat dilihat historis kejadian bencana yang terjadi di Indonesia mulai tahun 18152012. Dalam DIBI dapat disajikan data bencana mulai tanggal kejadian, lokasi, korban dan kerusakan yang ditimbulkan. Analisa yang dapat disajikan melalui DIBI ini adalah grafik, statistik, peta tematik dan crosstab. . PERMINTAAN Berfungsi untuk membuat permintaan data kejadian bencana yang akan ditampilkan. Isikan rentang tanggal (YYYY MM DD), dari kapan sampai kapan. Rentang tanggal juga bisa diisikan hanya pada tahun saja. Apabila ingin melihat semua data maka rentang tanggal tidak usah diisi, langsung klik pada “OK”. . LIHAT DATA Berfungsi untuk melihat data kejadian bencana yang diminta. Fungsi ini sama dengan “LIHAT DATA” pada permintaan. Semua data bencana yang diminta akan ditampilakn secara rinci dan berdasarkan database yang tersimpan. GRAFIK Berfungsi untuk menampilkan grafik data kejadian bencana. Grafik dapat berupa grafik batang dan diagram pie (kue). Klik pada “BUAT GRAFIK” maka akan ditanpilkan grafik variabel bencana berdasarkan tahun kejadian. STATISTIK Berfungsi untuk menampilkan data statistikkejadian bencana seperti jumlah, rata-rata, maksimum, varian,dan deviasi standar. Mulai dari lokasi, dampak bencana, korban dan kerusakan. Klik “LANJUT” maka akan ditampilkan data kejadian bencana sesuai dengan permintaan. Data hasil tampilan dapat disimpan dalam bentuk EXCEL maupun CSV. Cara menyimpanya klik pada pojok kanan tulisan “BUAT EXCEL CSV”. Data secara otomatis akan tersimpan dan dapat digunakan sewaktu-waktu. LAPORAN Berfungsi untuk menyajikan laporan bencana sesuai dengan pernintaan. Data yang tersedia hampir sama dengan di menu statistic. Klik “LANJUT” untuk mendapatkan laporan yang diminta. Hasil dari laporan ini dapat disimpan dalam bentuk EXCEl, CSV dan XML. PETA TEMATIK Berfungsi untuk menampilkan peta tematik berdasarkan variable yang diinginkan. Klik pada “BUAT PETA” maka akan menampilkan sebaran kejadian bencana di Indonesia secara langsung. Peta ini dapat didownlaod dengan cara klik kanan pada peta dan simpan sebagai gambar. CROSSTAB Berfungsi untuk mengetahui hubungan antara 2 variabel. Pilih variable pada kolom tersedia kemudian klik “TAMBAH’. Selanjutnya klik “LANJUT” untuk mendapatkan hasil crosstab sesuai yang diinginkan. Tabel ini dapat dianalisa lebih lanjut dengan menggunakan analisa statistikkhusus untuk tabulasi silang (crosstab). Hasil ini dapat disimpan dalam EXCEl dengan menekan tombol “BUAT EXCEL” di pojok kanan atas.

D-Link DGL-4500 Manual
by monarcy 0 Comments favorite 35 Viewed Download 0 Times

Preface.......................................................................... ii Manual Revisions..................................................... ii Trademarks............................................................... ii Product Overview......................................................... 1 Package Contents.................................................... 1 System Requirements.............................................. 2 Introduction............................................................... 3 Features................................................................... Hardware Overview.................................................. 5 Connections........................................................ 5 LEDs................................................................... 6 OLED Screen. .................................................... 7 Installation.................................................................... 8 Before you Begin...................................................... 8 Wireless Installation Considerations. ....................... 9 Network Diagram.................................................... 10 Manual Setup. .................................................. 11 Connect to Cable/DSL/Satellite Modem. ...... 11 Connect to Another Router........................... 12 Getting Started....................................................... 14 Quick Router Setup Wizard.............................. 14 Configuration.............................................................. 15 Web-based Configuration Utility............................. 15 Setup Wizard.................................................... 16 Manual Configuration. ...................................... 20 Dynamic (Cable)........................................... 20 PPPoE (DSL)................................................ 22 PPTP............................................................. 23 L2TP. ............................................................ 25 Static (assigned by ISP)................................ 27 Wireless Settings.............................................. 28 SSID (Wireless Network Name).................... 28 Wireless Band............................................... 28 Change Channel........................................... 29 Transmission Rate. ....................................... 29 Network Settings. ............................................. 30 DHCP Server Settings.................................. 31 DHCP Reservation........................................ 32 Virtual Server.................................................... 33 Application Rules.............................................. 35 Gaming............................................................. 36 GameFuel......................................................... 37 Classification................................................. 37 Change Uplink Speed................................... 37 Routing............................................................. 39 Access Control. ................................................ 40 Access Control Wizard.................................. 40 Website Filters.................................................. 43 MAC Address Filters......................................... 44 Firewall Settings............................................... 45 Enable SPI.................................................... 45 DMZ.............................................................. 45 Inbound Filters.................................................. 46 Advanced Wireless Settings............................. 47 Transmit Power. ............................................ 47 DTIM Interval................................................ 47 802.11d......................................................... 47 WMM............................................................. 47 Enable .......................................................... 47 WISH Settings.................................................. 48 Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS)........................... 50 Advanced Network Settings. ............................ 52

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