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contoh data primer dan sekunder

Lung Cancer - Rush University Medical Center

The End of Nihilism Until now, >50% present with Stage IV Everything is getting smaller Screening IS beneficial: smaller tumors Minimally Invasive Surgery: smaller incisions Stereotactic Radiotherapy: smaller radiation field Molecular Diagnostics ©2006 RUSH University Medical Center 2009 Estimated US Cancer Deaths* Men 290,890 Lung and bronchus Prostate Colon and rectum Pancreas Leukemia Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma 32% 10% 10% 5% 4% 4% Women 272,810 25% Lung and bronchus 15% 10% 6% 6% 4% Breast Colon and rectum Ovary Pancreas Leukemia • ~160,440 patients will die of NSCLC in 2010 American Cancer Society. At: http://www.cancer.org/docroot/STT/stt_0.asp. Accessed October 27, 2009. ©2006 RUSH University Medical Center Lung Cancer Linked to Smoking JAMA May 27, 1950 Tobacco Smoking as a possible etiologic factor in bronchiogenic carcinoma. A study of six hundred and eighty-four proved cases Ernest L. Wynder and Evarts A. Graham ©2006 RUSH University Medical Center Cum. Risk of Lung CA in UK Men Data from Sirs Doll & Peto unequivocally demonstrates that the risk of lung CA after smoking never returns to normal Vineis, P. et al. JNCI 2004;96:99-106 Copyright restrictions may apply. ©2006 RUSH University Medical Center

Cancer of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction

Previous American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer (AJCC/UICC) stage groupings for esophageal cancer have not been data driven or harmonized with stomach cancer. At the request of the AJCC, worldwide data from 3 continents were assembled to develop data-driven, harmonized esophageal staging for the seventh edition of the AJCC/UICC cancer staging manuals. METHODS: All-cause mortality among 4627 patients with esophageal and esophagogastric junction cancer who underwent surgery alone (no preoperative or postoperative adjuvant therapy) was analyzed by using novel random forest methodology to produce stage groups for which survival was monotonically decreasing, distinctive, and homogeneous. RESULTS: For lymph node-negative pN0M0 cancers, risk-adjusted 5-year survival was dominated by pathologic tumor classification (pT) but was modulated by histopathologic cell type, histologic grade, and location. For lymph node-positive, pNþM0 cancers, the number of cancer-positive lymph nodes (a new pN classification) dominated survival. Resulting stage groupings departed from a simple, logical arrangement of TNM. Stage groupings for stage I and II adenocarcinoma were based on pT, pN, and histologic grade; and groupings for squamous cell carcinoma were based on pT, pN, histologic grade, and location. Stage III was similar for histopathologic cell types and was based only on pT and pN. Stage 0 and stage IV, by definition, were categorized as tumor in situ (Tis) (high-grade dysplasia) and pM1, respectively.

Stage of Disease - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The progression steps of a cancer listed on this slide are mostly theoretical. No one has been able to microscopically examine the progression of breast cancer, but observations over time suggest this is the typical progression. Treatment decisions are based on it. However, ductal carcinoma has appeared in lymph nodes when the primary tumor is still microinvasive. Certainly tumors can metastasize before they become palpable—good reasons for getting regular mammograms. There is some doubt that every cancer starts as an in situ lesion. And there is a suspicion that some cancer cells move through sentinel lymph nodes without involving them, and go on to involve other regional nodes. But the sequence of progression on the slide may represent most cancers. Imagine a cancer developing and moving through these steps. At some point, the cancer gets diagnosed and staged. That’s why stage at diagnosis is so important. The stage indicates how far along the path of progression the cancer managed to get before it was identified. The earlier the diagnosis, the lower the stage. Entire public health initiatives have been launched because cancer registry data demonstrated that certain segments of the population were diagnosed at higher stages than average.

Colorectal cancer and the 7th revision of the TNM staging system

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a neoplastic disease with a continuously growing incidence in Romania and throughout the world. Although the surgery remains the first line treatment for most of the cases, newly discovered targeted molecular therapies – effective for some patients, but with various side effects and significant financial burden for the national health systems – requires not only stratification of patients in prognostic groups but also evaluation of some non-anatomic factors with major impact on the prognosis and therapeutic strategy. The AJCC/UICC TNM staging system, in his 7th revision, effective for cases diagnosed on or after January 1, 2010, responds to these needs. On the other hand, the role of the pathologist is increasing in terms of workload and amount of information to be included in the pathology report in order to deliver a personalized diagnosis. There are concerns worldwide regarding relevance, validity and completeness of pathologic reporting of CRC in the absence of a uniform reporting format. Therefore, suggestions for a standardized pathology report of CRC are made, based on TNM 7 and recent, up-to-date conclusive published data. Keywords: colorectal cancer, TNM 7, pathologic stage, prognostic, reporting.

Sample Student PDC 124, Online Career Research Paper The ...

The career that I had in mind when I first began college was one in counseling psychology. Luckily, this career was one matched closely to my interests and personality type. Although I’ve begun considering other career avenues, I still chose to research this specific career in depth. A person in counseling psychology will typically use personality tests/assessments, interviews, case histories, and observation methods to evaluate a patients problems, needs, and goals. Counseling psychologists will evaluate data and, from there, create an action plan or treatment plan to counsel the patient with. The goal in this career is to help each patient work toward developing and adjusting social, educational, personal, and vocational skills. I’m most definitely interested in this career. I’ve always had an interest in listening to people and their “problems”. Even in my early teenage years, and now into my adult years, people of all ages have come to me for emotional support, advice, and confidentiality. I’ve wondered what people see in me, but have always been humbled by the trust people place in me. The idea of helping people achieve a happier lifestyle is thrilling to me. The idea of being the person that one person can talk to about anything is very exciting and fulfilling to me; I love the idea of being a problem solver. I see this career as having many advantages and few disadvantages. From a personal standpoint, the biggest disadvantage or problem I foresee is becoming too wrapped up in a patient’s problems. I tend to worry, so this roadblock may be one to consider and learn to overcome.

Sample Research Papers - UCSB
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o This paper is in the University of Chicago Style—the standard for history. SO YOU CAN USE IT AS A MODEL FOR CITATION. Linguistics: http://www.dianahacker.com/pdfs/Hacker-Shaw-APA.pdf o This piece is written in APA format, so it may be somewhat useful to you. Many linguistics faculty use MLA format instead. Chemistry: http://www.mel.nist.gov/msidlibrary/doc/framework.pdf#search=%22chemistry%20an d%20%22sample%20paper%22%22 o This piece is not written in MLA or APA format. Therefore, you SHOULD NOT use it as a model for citation. Education: http://depts.gallaudet.edu/englishworks/writing/apa_sample.html o This paper is written in APA format. SO YOU CAN USE IT AS A MODEL FOR CITATION. Sociology: http://www.teced.com/PDFs/upa2003_lk_tk_paper.pdf#search=%22sociology%20and %20%22sample%20paper%22%22 o This piece is not written in MLA or APA format. Therefore, you SHOULD NOT use it as a model for citation. Political Science: http://www.usca.edu/polisci/apls301/sample%20research%20paper.doc o This piece is not written in MLA or APA format. Therefore, you SHOULD NOT use it as a model for citation. Film Studies: http://www.filmstudies.ucsb.edu/courses/101ApaperSCAN.pdf o This piece is not written in MLA or APA format. Therefore, you SHOULD NOT use it as a model for citation. Economics: http://www.mptceconomics.org/data/Australia_Economy_Article_Critique.pdf o This piece is not written in MLA or APA format. Therefore, you SHOULD NOT use it as a model for citation. English: http://www.dianahacker.com/pdfs/Hacker-Lars-MLA.pdf. o This paper is written in MLA format. SO YOU CAN USE IT AS A MODEL FOR CITATION. Engineering: http://wwwlisc.clermont.cemagref.fr/Labo/MembresEtPagesIntermediaires/pagesperso/ anciens_membres/amblard_frederic/ressources/2002/AmblardAIS%202002.pdf o This piece is not written in MLA or APA format. Therefore, you SHOULD NOT use it as a model for citation. Computer Science: http://www.uninova.pt/~cam/ev/AIS2002cam.pdf#search=%22sociology%20and%20% 22sample%20paper%22%22 o This piece is not written in MLA or APA format. Therefore, you SHOULD

Your Simple Guide to the Sample Research Paper: - Luther Rice ...

The Luther Rice University & Seminary Manual of Style has been designed as a supplement to Kate L. Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th ed., rev. Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, Joseph M. Williams, and University of Chicago Press Editorial Staff (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007), for use at LRU. Turabian should be consulted for matters not addressed in this manual. There are some LRU faculty members that have contributed in one way or another to the production of this manual. In particular, Dr. James M. Kinnebrew, Dean of the Faculty and Professor of Theology, and his wife, Mrs. Sandra Kinnebrew, deserve special mention for producing the university’s first research and writing guide, Your Simple Guide to the Sample Research Paper: An LRS Primer to Writing Turabian Style (2003), of which forms the majority of the first edition of the LRU Style Manual. At one time or another, Smith Library staff have contributed to sections 2 – 4. Originally separate published documents, these guides have helped students over the last decade avoid the pitfalls of plagiarism and citation mistakes. We thought it appropriate to incorporate this valuable information in this first edition. The contributor to the sample research paper contained herein, often referred to as “that hell paper” (further description of this contribution is contained in Dr. Kinnebrew’s introduction) is former LRU student Marvin M.P. Mullins, who graciously gave permission for its use.

Cisco Unified Computing System
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Today, IT organizations assemble their data center environments from individual components. Their administrators spend significant amounts of time manually accomplishing basic integration tasks rather than focusing on more strategic, proactive initiatives. The industry is in a transition away from the rigid, inflexible platforms that result and moving toward more flexible, integrated, and virtualized environments. The Cisco Unified Computing System™ is a next-generation data center platform that unites compute, network, storage access, and virtualization into a cohesive system designed to reduce total cost of ownership (TCO) and increase business agility. The system integrates a low-latency, lossless 10 Gigabit Ethernet unified network fabric with enterprise-class, x86-architecture servers. The system is an integrated, scalable, multichassis platform in which all resources participate in a unified management domain (Figure 1). Figure 1:  he Cisco Unified Computing System Integrates Network, Compute, Storage Access, and T Virtualization into a Single Cohesive System The Cisco Unified Computing System is designed to deliver: Innovations Supporting Business Benefits Each of the Cisco Unified Computing System business benefits is supported by a rich set of technical innovations that contribute to this first implementation of the Cisco® unified computing vision. Managed as a single system whether it has one server or hundreds of servers with thousands of virtual machines, the Cisco Unified Computing System decouples scale from complexity. The Cisco Unified Computing System accelerates the delivery of new services simply, reliably, and securely through end-to-end provisioning and migration support for both virtualized and nonvirtualized systems.

Cisco Systems, Inc. 2010 Annual Report

“Fiscal 2010 was a defining year for Cisco following the unprecedented global economic challenges of the year before. This was our opportunity to show the world what a truly great company we are, and to position ourselves to extend our leadership in the years ahead.” In fiscal 2010, we saw a solid return to balanced growth across geographies, product and customer markets exemplified by Cisco reaching over $40 billion in fiscal year revenue. We focused our efforts on defining true innovation and operational excellence within our company. And we improved our position as a strategic partner to customers worldwide by showing how the network has become, in our view, the most strategic asset in communications and information technology (IT) today. Vision: The Network is the Platform to Change the Way the World Works, Lives, Plays, and Learns Today’s market is clearly in transition. Our customers include world-class enterprises, global service providers, small businesses and consumers. While each customer has unique needs and aspirations, they are united by a network that helps enable data center virtualization, collaboration and video to drive productivity and efficiency. The network enhances every aspect of our lives. Our customers recognize this.

Cisco Systems: - insead
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This case was written by Nir Brueller, Adjunct Professor of Strategy and Affiliated Senior Research Fellow at INSEAD, and Laurence Capron, Professor of Strategy at INSEAD and Research Director of the INSEAD-Wharton Alliance. It is intended to be used as a basis for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of an administrative situation. Copyright © 2010 INSEAD TO ORDER COPIES OF INSEAD CASES, SEE DETAILS ON THE BACK COVER. COPIES MAY NOT BE MADE WITHOUT PERMISSION. Returning to his office in San Jose from the Christmas break on 2 January 2007, Richard Palmer, Senior Vice President of Cisco Security Technology Group, was still reflecting on his intense discussions over the past few months with Cisco Corporate Development Group about the ongoing negotiations with Scott Weiss, CEO of privately-held IronPort Systems of San Bruno (California). IronPort was the leading provider of email security solutions, focusing on spam and spyware protection for the enterprise market. By 2007, Cisco was the world leader in networking technology for the internet, having grown from two employees with one product in 1984 to more than 63,000 people, 200 offices worldwide, and 50 product lines. Its product portfolio consisted of several categories: network systems (routers, switches, optical networking), data centre (application networking services, storage networking, data centre switches), collaboration, voice and video (voice and unified communications, video, IPTV, cable and content delivery solutions), mobility/wireless (access points, outdoor wireless, wireless LAN controllers) and security (firewall, virtual private networks, security management). Cisco was also considered to be a best-in-class acquirer of high-tech companies by industry experts as well as corporate strategy practitioners.

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