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Available applications and services are subject to change at any time. Table of Contents Get Started 1 Your Phone at a Glance 1 Set Up Your Phone 1 Activate Your Phone 4 Complete the Setup Screens 4 Set Up Voicemail 6 Sprint Account Information and Help 7 Sprint Account Passwords 7 Manage Your Account 7 Sprint Support Services 8 Phone Basics 10 Your Phone’s Layout 10 S Pen Overview 11 Understanding the S Pen 12 Removing the S Pen from your Phone 12 Using the S Pen 13 Screen Capture 15 Air View 17 Turn Your Phone On and Off 17 Turn Your Screen On and Off 17 Multi Window Overview 18 Enable Multi Window 18 Display Multi Window 18 Work With Multi Window 18 Touchscreen Navigation 19 Your Home Screen 24 Home Screen Overview 24 Creating Shortcuts 25 Adding and Removing Primary Shortcuts 26 Adding and Removing Widgets 27 Extended Home Screens 27 Recently Used Applications 28 Status Bar 29 i Enter Text 31 Touchscreen Keyboards 32 Text Input Methods 32 Google Voice Typing 33 Samsung Keyboard Input Options 34 Samsung Keyboard Options 36 Swype Input Options 37 Swype Text Entry Options 38 Tips for Editing Text 40 Phone Calls Make Phone Calls 41 41 Call Using the Keypad 41 Call from Logs 41 Call from Contacts 42 Call a Number in a Text Message 43 Call a Number in an Email Message 43 Call Emergency Numbers 43 Receive Phone Calls 44 Answer an Incoming Call 44 Mute the Ringing Sound 44 Reject an Incoming Call 45 Reject a Call with a Text Message 45 Voicemail (Traditional) 45 Set Up Voicemail Through the Phone App 45 Retrieve Your Voicemail Messages 46 Voicemail Notification 46 Visual Voicemail 46 Set Up Visual Voicemail 47 Review Visual Voicemail 47 Listen to Multiple Voicemail Messages 47 Configure Visual Voicemail Options 48 Configure Visual Voicemail Settings 49 Automatically Enable the Speakerphone 50 Change Your Main Greeting via the Voicemail Menu 50 Edit the From Name via the Voicemail Menu 50 Record a Visual Voicemail Message 51 Phone Call Options 51 ii Dialing Options 51 Caller ID 52 Call Waiting 52 3-way Calling 52 Call Forwarding 53 In-call Options 53 Speed Dialing 54 Logs 56 View Logs. 56 Logs Options 56 Clear Logs 57 Call Settings 57 Call Rejection 57 Set Reject Messages 57 Ringtones and Keypad Tones 58 Call Alert 58 Call Answering/Ending 59 Auto Screen Off During Calls 59 Accessory Settings for Call 59 My Call Sound 59 Use Extra Volume for Calls 60 Increase Volume in Pocket 60 Additional Settings 60 US Dialing 61 International Dialing 61 TTY Mode 61 DTMF Tones 62 Voicemail Settings 62 Voice Privacy 63 Contacts 65 Get Started With Contacts 65 Access Contacts 65 The Contacts List 66 Add a Contact 67 Save a Phone Number 68 Edit a Contact 70 Add or Edit Information for a Contact 70 iii Assign a Stored Picture to a Contact 71 Assign a New Picture to a Contact 71 Assign a Ringtone to a Contact 72 Join a Contact 72 Delete a Contact 72 Synchronize Contacts 73 Add Entries to Your Favorites 74 Add Facebook Content to Your Contacts 74 Create Groups 75 Share a Contact 76 Accounts and Messaging 78 Gmail / Google 78 Create a Google Account 78 Sign In to Your Google Account 79 Access Gmail 79 Send a Gmail Message 79 Read Gmail Messages 80 Reply to Gmail Messages 81 Email 81 Add an Email Account 82 Add a Corporate Email Account 82 Compose and Send Email 84 View and Reply to Email 84 Manage Your Email Inbox 85 Corporate Email Features 86 Edit Email Account Settings 87 Edit Corporate Email Account Settings 88 Delete an Email Account 90 Add the Email Widget 90 Text Messaging and MMS 91 Compose Text Messages 91 Send a Multimedia Message (MMS) 91 Save and Resume a Draft Message 93 New Messages Notification 93 Managing Message Conversations 93 Text and MMS Options 95 Social Networking Accounts 98
Available applications and services are subject to change at any time. Table of Contents Get Started 1 Your Phone at a Glance 1 Set Up Your Phone 1 Activate Your Phone 2 Complete the Setup 3 Set Up Voicemail 4 Sprint Account Information and Help 5 Sprint Account Passwords 5 Manage Your Account 5 Sprint Support Services 6 Phone Basics Your Phone’s Layout Key Functions 7 7 7 Turn Your Phone On and Off 8 Turn Your Screen On and Off 9 Features 9 Motions and Gestures 9 Smart Screen 10 Air View 11 Voice Control 12 Multi Window 12 Touchscreen Navigation 13 Tap 13 Touch and Hold 14 Swipe or Slide 14 Drag 15 Flick 15 Rotate 16 Pinch and Spread 17 Your Home Screen 17 Create Shortcuts 18 Add and Remove Primary Shortcuts 19 Add and Remove Widgets 19 i Extended Home Screens 20 Recent Applications 20 Status Bar 20 Enter Text 21 Text Input Methods 21 Google Voice Typing 22 Samsung Keyboard 23 Swype 23 Tips for Editing Text 24 Phone Calls Make Phone Calls 25 25 Call Using the Keypad 25 Call from Logs 25 Call from Contacts 25 Call a Number in a Text Message 26 Call a Number in an Email Message 26 Call Emergency Numbers 26 Receive Phone Calls 27 Answer an Incoming Call 27 Mute the Ringing Sound 27 Reject an Incoming Call 28 Reject a Call with a Text Message 28 Phone Call Options 28 Dialing Options 28 Caller ID 29 Call Waiting 29 3-way Calling 29 Call Forwarding 30 In-call Options 30 Speed Dials 31 Voicemail 32 Set Up Voicemail 32 Retrieve Your Voicemail Messages 33 Voicemail Notification 33 Visual Voicemail 33 Logs 34 View Logs 34 ii Logs Options 34 Clear Logs 34 Contacts 36 Get Started With Contacts 36 Access Contacts 36 Contacts Options 36 Add a Contact 37 Save a Phone Number 38 Edit a Contact 38 Add or Edit Information for a Contact 38 Assign a Picture to a Contact 39 Assign a Ringtone to a Contact 39 Link a Contact 40 Delete a Contact 40 Add Entries to Your Favorites 40 Create Groups 40 Share a Contact 41 Accounts and Messaging 43 Google Account 43 Create a Google Account 43 Sign In to Your Google Account 43 Access Gmail 44 Send a Gmail Message 44 Read and Reply to Gmail Messages 45 Samsung Account 45 Email 45 Add an Email Account 46 Add a Microsoft Exchange ActiveSync Account 46 Compose and Send Email 47 Reply or Forward Email 48 Manage Your Email Inbox 48 Edit Email Settings 49 Delete an Email Account 51 Text and Multimedia Messaging 52 Send a Text Message (SMS) 52 Send a Multimedia Message (MMS) 52 Save and Resume a Draft Message 53 iii New Messages Notification 54 Managing Messages 54 Text and MMS Settings 56 Social Networking Accounts 58 YouTube 58 Google+ 58 Hangouts 59 Apps and Entertainment DivX 60 60 DivX Legal Information 60 Locate Your VOD Registration Number 60 Register Your DivX Device for VOD Playback of Purchased Movies 60 Google Play Store 61 Find and Install an App 61 Create a Google Wallet Account 62 Open an Installed App 62 Uninstall an App 63 Navigation 63 Google Maps 63 Scout™ 63 Samsung Apps 64 Music Apps 64 Google Play Music 64 Music 64 Sprint Music Plus 67 Google Play Movies & TV 68 Google Play Books 68 Google Play Games 68 Google Play Magazines 68 Group Play 69 Sprint Zone 70 Sprint TV & Movies 70 Samsung Link 71 Configure Samsung Link Settings 71 Use Samsung Link to Share Media with Another Device 72 CBS Sports 72 BaconReader 73
Available applications and services are subject to change at any time. TABLE OF CONTENTS GET STARTED 1 Your Phone at a Glance 1 Set Up Your Phone 1 Install the battery 1 Charge the Battery 2 Turn your Phone On 2 Activation and Service 3 Create Your Account and Pick Your Plan 3 Activate Your Phone 4 Manage Your Account 4 Top-Up Your Account 4 Additional Information 5 Complete the Setup 5 Set Up Voicemail 6 Memory Card 6 Install a microSD Card 7 Remove a microSD Card 7 View microSD Card Memory 7 Format a microSD Card 7 Unmount a microSD Card 8 PHONE BASICS Your Phone’s Layout Key Functions 9 9 9 Turn Your Phone On and Off 10 Turn Your Screen On and Off 10 Touchscreen Navigation 11 Multi Window 16 Your Home Screen 17 Creating Shortcuts 18 Adding and Removing Primary Shortcuts 18 Adding and Removing Widgets 19 Extended Home Screens 19 Recent Apps 20 i Status Bar 20 Enter Text 21 Touchscreen Keyboards 21 Text Input Methods 22 Google Voice Typing 22 Samsung Keyboard 23 Swype 23 Tips for Editing Text 24 PHONE CALLS Make Phone Calls 26 26 Call Using the Keypad 26 Call from Logs 26 Call from Contacts 26 Call a Number in a Text Message 27 Call a Number in an Email Message 27 Call Emergency Numbers 27 Enhanced 911 (E911) Information 28 Receive Phone Calls 28 Answer an Incoming Call 28 Mute the Ringing Sound 28 Reject an Incoming Call 29 Voicemail 29 Retrieve Voicemail Messages 29 Voicemail Notification 29 Visual Voicemail 30 Phone Call Options 30 Dialing Options 30 Caller ID 30 Call Waiting 31 3-Way Calling 31 Call Forwarding 31 In-call Options 32 Speed Dialing 33 Logs 33 View Logs 34 Logs Options 34 Clear Logs 34 ii CONTACTS 35 Get Started with Contacts 35 Access Contacts 35 Add a Contact 35 Save a Phone Number 36 Edit a Contact 36 Add or Edit Information for a Contact 37 Assign an Image to a Contact 37 Assign a Ringtone to a Contact 37 Link a Contact 38 Delete a Contact 38 Add Contacts to Your Favorites 38 Create Groups 39 Create a New Group 39 Add a Contact to a Group 39 Send a Message to Group Members 39 Share a Contact ACCOUNTS AND MESSAGING Google 40 41 41 Create a Google Account 41 Access Gmail 41 Send a Gmail Message 42 Read and Reply to Gmail Messages 42 Email 43 Add an Email Account 43 Add a Microsoft Exchange ActiveSync Account 43 Compose and Send Email 44 View and Reply to Email 45 Manage Your Email Inbox 45 Edit Email Settings 46 Delete an Email Account 49 Text and Multimedia Messaging 49 Send a Message 49 New Messages Notification 50 Managing Message Conversations 50 Messaging Settings 52 Social Networking Accounts 54 iii Flipboard 54 Google+ 54 Hangouts 54 YouTube 55 APPS AND ENTERTAINMENT Samsung Link 56 56 Configure Samsung Link Settings 56 Use Samsung Link to Share Media with Another Device 57 Group Play 57 DivX 58 DivX Legal Information 59 Locating Your VOD Registration Number 59 Register Your DivX Device for VOD Playback of Purchased Movies 59 Google Play Store 60 Find and Install an App 60 Create a Google Wallet Account 61 Open an Installed App 61 Uninstall an App 61 Google Play Books 61 Google Play Magazines 62 Google Play Movies & TV 62 Google Play Music 62 Music App 62 Google Maps 63 WEB AND DATA 64 Internet 64 Chrome 64 Data Services (3G and 4G) 64 Your Data Services User Name 64 4G Services 65 Wi-Fi 65 Turn Wi-Fi On and Connect to a Wireless Network Bluetooth 65 66 Turn Bluetooth On or Off 66 Connect a Bluetooth Headset or Car Kit 67 Reconnect a Headset or Car Kit 67 Disconnect or Unpair from a Bluetooth Device 68
Entering a new phone contact 1. From the Home screen, touch Contacts, then touch the + to the left of the search bar to start a New Contact. A pop up will let you select the location to store the contact. Select your option. 3. Scroll down for more fields. • Touch Postal address to assign the contact to a postal address. • Touch Organization to enter an organization. • To add IM address, tap add more fields to choose Nickname, Website, Notes, Birthday, and Anniversary. • When you finish entering information, touch Done. 2. Touch contact fields to enter information: • Touch the Photo ID box to choose a picture to identify the contact. • Touch First name, then enter a first name for the contact. • Touch Last name, then enter a last name for the contact. After entering a last name touch Expand to enter a Name prefix or Middle name. • Touch Phone number to enter a phone number, then touch the Label button to choose a label, from Mobile, Home, Work, Work Fax, Home Fax, Pager, Other, or Custom to create a custom label. To add another number, touch Add phone number. • Touch Email address to enter an email address, then touch the Label button to choose a label, from Home or Work. Get to Know the Samsung Galaxy S® II Add an account to sync contacts from 1. From the Home screen, touch Contacts > Menu > More > Accounts. 2. From this screen the General sync settings can be controlled. Touch Add account. 3. Select the account to be added. For this example under Integrated Contacts Accounts select Facebook. 5. Select desired option from list then touch Sync. 6. The new account is shown in the Accounts and Sync list. Touch the Back key. 7. The contacts are updated with the new account contacts. Contacts that match existing contacts are linked. 4. Enter account Email and Password then touch Log in. 8. The Facebook profile can be seen in the contact.
These instructions must always be kept close to the product's operating location or directly with the product. Flowserve products are designed, developed and manufactured with state-of-the-art technologies in modern facilities. The unit is produced with great care and commitment to continuous quality control, utilizing sophisticated quality techniques, and safety requirements. Flowserve is committed to continuous quality improvement and being at service for any further information about the product in its installation and operation or about its support products, repair and diagnostic services. These instructions are intended to facilitate familiarization with the product and its permitted use. Operating the product in compliance with these instructions is important to help ensure reliability in service and avoid risks. The instructions may not take into account local regulations; ensure such regulations are observed by all, including those installing the product. Always coordinate repair activity with operations personnel, and follow all plant safety requirements and applicable safety and health laws and regulations. These instructions must be read prior to installing, operating, using and maintaining the equipment in any region worldwide. The equipment must not be put into service until all the conditions relating to safety noted in the instructions, have been met. It is a legal requirement that machinery and equipment put into service within certain regions of the world shall conform with the applicable CE Marking Directives covering Machinery and, where applicable, Low Voltage Equipment, Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), Pressure Equipment Directive (PED) and Equipment for Potentially Explosive Atmospheres (ATEX). Where applicable the Directivesand any additional Approvals coverimportant safety aspects relating to machinery and equipment and the satisfactory provision of technical documents and safetyinstructions. Where applicable thisdocument incorporatesinformation relevant to these Directives and Approvals.
Fluids/Solids Handling Understand the Basics of Centrifugal Pump Operation By starting from such fundamentals as head and pressure, the authors have developed practical tips for specification and operation that provide for cost-effectiveness and reliability. Kimberly Fernandez, Bernadette Pyzdrowski, Drew W. Schiller and Michael B. Smith, KBR C entrifugal pumps are the most common type of kinetic pump, and are used most often in applications with moderate-to-high flow and low head. As the workhorse of the chemical process industries (CPI), centrifugals are almost always more economical to own, operate and maintain than other types of pumps. Parameters needed in specifying The process engineer is normally responsible for specifying the process requirements of the pump, including the conditions and physical properties of the liquid, and, most importantly, the ﬂowrate, pressure, density and viscosity. The ﬂowrate determines the capacity of the pump, and the head depends on the density and viscosity of the liquid. In general, the required ﬂowrate is determined by the material and energy balances. Design margins, typically between 0–25%, are added to the material-balance ﬂowrate to account for unexpected variations in properties or conditions, or to ensure that the overall plant meets its performance criteria. Also, minimum ﬂow protection is often added as continuous circulation. Occasionally, the required ﬂowrate (including design margins) may fall in the low range of that for centrifugal pumps. In such cases, a minimum-size pump rated for continuous service is speciﬁed, and the extra pump capacity is typically consumed by circulation from the discharge to the source. 52 www.cepmagazine.org May 2002 CEP During speciﬁcation, the maximum pressure a pump will develop during any aspect of operation, including startup, shutdown and upset conditions is determined. The shutoff pressure is the maximum pressure a pump will develop under zero-ﬂow conditions, which reﬂects a fully blocked outlet. Variables to consider when determining the design pressure include: • maximum pressure of the source (e.g., relieving pressure of a vessel) • maximum head developed by the pump (i.e., shutoff head) • maximum static head of the ﬂuid in the pump’s suction line • maximum pump operating speed (for variablespeed drives) • possibility of operator intervention during an upset. The head h is the most commonly used measurement of the energy at any point of the system, or of the system as a whole. It is deﬁned as: h=...
The Top-Flo® name represents the finest in sanitary process equipment. TOP-FLO® pumps have been designed to offer efficient transfer of product over a wide range of head and viscosity conditions. TOP-FLO® pumps are easy to install, clean, and operate. This catalog will answer many of the questions you may have regarding TOP-FLO® pumps. If you require additional information, a representative will be happy to assist you and can be reached at 1-800-458-6095. TOP-FLO® pumps are suitable for use in CIP (clean-in-place) installations. This feature enables easy self-cleaning with no dismantling or take-down. Sanitizing of all product contact areas is automatic. All TOP-FLO® pumps are available in standard inlet sizes and outlet sizes. In addition, enlarged inlet sizes are available for... Motor Data is not included as part of 4-step ordering number. Provide the following information: • Horsepower and RPM TF-C100, TF-C114, TF-C216, TF-C218, TF-C328 • Electrical phase and voltage Note: • TEFC is standard • TF-C Series furnished without legs unless otherwise specified on order. If motor is furnished from another source, supply the following: • Casing Gaskets: BUNA (Standard). If other type is required, specify on order. • Enlarged inlet: When ordering pump with enlarged inlet state inlet size, i.e., TF-C218MD with 3" inlet. 3 port connections • Horsepower • RPM • NEMA frame size M - Clamp (Standard) Remember to order needed accessories: T - Acme Bevel Seat Thread • Seal Kits and Parts S - NPT Female Thread • Gaskets F - Flanged • Clamps W - Weld • Hangers type of seal/standard material: 4 D - External balanced sanitary seal DG - External balanced sanitary seal w/clamped insert E - Water cooled balanced double seal F - External balanced seal w/cascading water • Air Relief Valves • Check Valve • Butterfly Valves • Ball Valves • Fittings 1 TOP-FLO® TF-C Series Centrifugal Pumps seal specifications TYPE D External Balanced Seal (Sanitary) "tf-c" series Model No. TF-C100 TF-C114 TF-C216 TF-C218 TF-C328 Inlet 1-1/2 1-1/2 or 2 2 or 2-1/2 2 or 3 3 or 4 Outlet 1 1-1/2 1-1/2 1-1/2 2 Max. Imp. 3.68 4 6 8 8 pump specifications Pump Casings: • Volute type - Standard • Inlet-oversizing as noted in chart above Pump Connections: sanitary: industrial: • Clamp • Threaded • Bevel Seat (ACME) • Flanged Pump Construction Materials: • All wetted parts - 316 SS • Seals - Carbon (other seals available) • Casing Gasket - BUNA (Standard) • FKM, EPDM, and PTFE are available Pump Finishes: • Polished or Electropolished Pump Seals: • Available in D, DG, E, and F styles Motor, Electrical: • 3 Phase - 230/460 volts - 1750 & 3500 rpm • Single Phase - 115/230 volts - 1750 & 3500 rpm Motor Housings: • TEFC (Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled) • Washdown Duty • Other styles available on request For light duty transfer requirements, see Top Line brochure (TF-C100). 2 This versatile seal has numerous applications but yet is extremely durable. Dairy products, soft vegetables, beverages, and even acid cleaning solutions and detergents are among the recommended uses. type DG External Balanced Seal with Clamped-in Seat (Sanitary) The DG seal uses the standard Type D rotating seal components with a reversible silicon carbide, tungsten carbide or ceramic seat. Typical applications include liquid sugar, beverage syrup, chocolate and abrasive products.
A Message from Ed Peper Beyond Great Products and Innovative Business Solutions… an Exceptional Customer Experience that you can’t get anywhere else! At General Motors, we are committed to providing you with a broad range of Great Products that have outstanding quality, reliability, safety and value. In the 2014 model year, our vehicle offerings get even better, as we are in the middle of one of the biggest product offenses in GM history. We offer you everything from small cars to heavy-duty trucks, and because we are dedicated to the environment, we provide you with a number of propulsion options that will help you reduce emissions while saving money at the same time. We are also committed to providing you with Innovative Business Solutions that allow you to provide your drivers with the features and functions they need to get their work done. This includes the latest features that make your mobile office more functional, and accessories and storage solutions that can organize your cargo. We also work with professional upfitting partners who can match quality truck bodies and equipment with your specific vocational demands. Basically, we have turnkey solutions to any vehicle and utility issues you may have. However, our focus goes beyond the great products and innovative business solutions we provide. Just as important is the Customer Experience we offer, and at GM Fleet & Commercial, you can count on it being Exceptional. We take a full circle approach to serving you. Our Fleet Account Executives help you to determine what products best meet your needs. Our production planning group makes sure your vehicles get built and delivered on time, and our service team ensures you get quick responses to any vehicle issues you might have. We are not just another supplier of vehicles. We are a solid, reliable business partner that offers fleet expertise and responsive service throughout your ownership experience. As you make plans to refresh your vehicle fleet in the 2014 model year, we hope you will consider General Motors. We want to partner with you and help you reach your business and sustainability goals. The bottom line is that we want to help you succeed at what you do, and we measure our success by yours. In other words, “Your Success is Our Success.” Thank you
2014 Silverado and Sierra Score a Safety First for Trucks New Chevrolet, GMC crew cabs receive first five-star scores under new rating system DETROIT – The 2014 Chevrolet Silverado 1500 and High Country and the GMC Sierra and Sierra Denali 1500 are the first pickup trucks to receive the highest possible five-star Overall Vehicle Score for safety since the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration changed its New Car Assessment Program for the 2011 model year. NHTSA only tested the crew cab models of Silverado and Sierra. Chevrolet and GMC expect crew cab models to account for 60 percent of their 2014 light duty full-size pickup truck sales. “Safety is as important to truck buyers as it is to car buyers,” said Gay Kent, GM general director of Vehicle Safety and Crashworthiness. “Silverado and Sierra set a benchmark for pickup truck safety by offering a full array of advanced features designed to protect occupants before, during and after a collision.” Silverado and Sierra offer fully boxed frames, extensive use of high-strength steel, and several segment-exclusive safety features are available, including Forward Collision Alert, Lane Departure Warning, and Safety Alert Seat. Safety Alert Seat warns the driver of potential traffic danger using directional vibration pulses from the seat cushion. The patented warning approach is tied to all of the onboard crash avoidance systems.
MSD Chevrolet V8 Pro-Billet Distributor PN 85551, PN 85561, PN 8547 Important: Read these Instructions before attempting the installation. Contents Timing Functions Choosing an Advance Curve Setting or Locking Out the Centrifugal Advance Installing the Distributor Adjusting the Slip Collar Wiring the Distributor Parts Included: 1 - Pro-Billet Distributor 1 - Rotor, PN 8467 1 - Distributor Cap, PN 8433 1 - Gasket 2 - O-ring Seals 1 - Tube of Gear Lubricant 1 - Advance Kit Note: An MSD Pro-Billet Distributor must be used with an MSD Ignition Control. TIMING FUNCTIONS Before continuing with the installation, here are a few definitions you should be aware of: Initial Timing: This is the base timing (also referred to as idle timing) of the engine before centrifugal advance begins. Centrifugal Advance: The centrifugal advance mechanism is made up of weights, springs, advance cam, and an advance stop bushing. The amount and rate of advance that your distributor is capable of is determined by the centrifugal timing. If you ever wish to lock out the centrifugal advance, refer to the centrifugal advance section. Total Timing: This is the total of the initial timing plus the centrifugal advance added together. Example: 10° Initial + 25° centrifugal = 35° Total Timing. AUTOTRONIC CONTROLS CORPORATION • 1490 HENRY BRENNAN DR., EL PASO, TEXAS 79936 • (915) 857-5200 • FAX (915) 857-3344 2 INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS CHOOSING AN ADVANCE CURVE The function of the advance curve is to match the ignition timing to the burning rate of the fuel and speed (rpm) of the engine. Any factor that changes the burning rate of the fuel or the engine speed can cause a need for an ignition timing change. Figure 1 shows some of the factors that will affect engine timing. FACTOR Cylinder Pressure RPM Vacuum Energy of Ignition Fuel Octane Mixture (Air/Fuel) Temperature Combustion Chamber Shape Spark Plug Location Combustion Turbulence Load Advance Timing For Low High High Low High Rich Cool Open Offset Low Light Retard Timing For High Low Low High Low Lean Hot Compact Center High Heavy Figure 1 Ignition Timing Factors. As you can see from the chart, most factors will change throughout the range of the engine operation. The timing mechanism of the distributor must make timing changes based on these factors. Example: A Chevy V8 has 11:1 compression, a high energy ignition and turns 5,500 rpm. With the specifications given, you will have to retard the timing for the high compression, low rpm and high energy ignition. By comparing the engine’s specifications against the chart, a usable timing guideline can be found. Engines with a combination of items from both columns will require a timing that is set in the mid range. Obviously a full technical explanation of correct ignition timing would be very complicated. The best way to arrive at a suitable ignition curve for your engine is to use the Ignition Timing Factors Chart as a guide and compare it to the Advance Graphs in Figure 2 until a suitable curve is found. When selecting your advance curve, use detonation (engine ping) as an indicator of too much advance, and a decrease in power as an indicator of too little advance. TIPS ON SELECTING AN ADVANCE CURVE • • • • • ...