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In 2007, the Al-Qaeda Organization in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) emerged after the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC) aligned itself with Al-Qaeda. This development captured the world’s attention and led several scholars and policymakers to ask the question: Why did this merger take place and what does it say about the motivations of GSPC? This research investigates three hypotheses: (1) This merger is merely an ideological one without operational implications; (2) this merger is ideological, operational, and logistical; or (3) this merger is merely a rebranding of a failing organization that needed to survive and, therefore, is not a genuine threat to the United States and its European allies. Exploring the evolution of Algerian Islamism, from the rise of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) and the Armed Islamic Group (GIA) to the GSPC and AQIM, this study concludes that hypothesis 3 is the best explanation of the merger between GSPC and Al-Qaeda. Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington DC 20503.

Tags:
Al qaeda history, Politics,

Department of History, American University in Cairo, Cairo, Egypt This article examines the nature of religious terrorism, principally with reference to al-Qaeda. It argues that a distinction must be made between the ultimate aims and the immediate objectives of ‘religious’ terrorists, and that while the ultimate aims will be religiously formulated, the immediate objectives will often be found to be almost purely political. This distinction is illustrated with reference to such premodern religious terrorists as the Assassins and Zealots. Immediate objectives, are for many purposes more important than ultimate aims. Although the immediate objectives of al-Qaeda on 9=11 cannot be established with certainty, it is highly probably that the intention was to provoke a response from the US that would have a radicalizing impact on al-Qaeda’s constituency. Reference to public opinion in the Middle East, especially in Egypt, shows that this is indeed what has happened. Such an impact is a purely political objective, familiar to historians of terrorism from at least the time of Errico Malatesta and the ‘propaganda of the deed’ in the 1870s. While no direct link between Malatesta and al-Qaeda exists, al-Qaeda was certainly in contact with contemporary theories that Malatesta would have recognized, and seems to have applied them. Even though its immediate objectives are political rather than religious, al-Qaeda is a distinctively Islamic group. Not only is its chosen constituency a confessional one, but al-Qaeda also uses—and when necessary adapts—well-known Islamic religious concepts to motivate its operatives, ranging from conceptions of duty to conceptions of ascetic devotion. This is demonstrated with reference to the ‘Last Night’ document of 9=11. The conclusion is that terrorism which can be understood in political terms is susceptible to political remedies.

Tags:
Al qaeda history, Politics,

This project came about when trying to make a low cost autonomous robot for use in education. The idea being that students would be able to identify with the Xbox controller and enjoy hacking it into something far more interesting! The Concept: This was a concept to make a low cost autonomous programmable robot for education using low cost every day things that the students could identify with – ie. The Xbox Controller. There are of course several existing product in this market most notably the Lego NXT and the Vex Systems. Both of these allow users to build and program autonomous robots, but there are two key differences, 1) On the XBugBot the programming and the processor are not separate! 2) The price! The XBugBot can be build for around 1/10th of the cost of the competing products! The humble Xbox Controller. What is the Xbox controller? Well once connected to the PC it becomes a low cost wireless DAQ (Data Acquisition System), it has several digital inputs (Buttons) and several analogue inputs (Joy Sticks etc.), plus two motor control outputs (Vibration Motors). What can it become? - Meet XBugBot: Hack your Xbox Controller and add a couple of wheels and sensors and you get an XBugBot! How is it Controlled? Using the FlowStone graphical programming language from DSPRobotics: (www.dsprobotics.com ) FlowStone is an awesome teaching tool for science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) as is graphical so students can easily relate and understand it. Also the Xbox Controller is already pre-programmed into FlowStone so you can just use the Xbox Module and start programming your Bot. Programming and Processor:...

Tags:
Xbox parts, Gaming,

Dog Health: Vaccinations Almost all authorities believe that dogs should be vaccinated against common or dangerous infectious diseases. Vaccines don’t always completely protect a dog from getting sick. However, they usually provide a great deal of protection and reduce the severity of symptoms if the dog does become infected. It is best to consult with a local veterinarian to come up with the best vaccination schedule for your canine companions. There are no viable alternatives to vaccines. What Are Vaccines? Vaccines are liquid suspensions of dead or weakened viruses or bacteria that reduce the risk of infection by those organisms. Several types of vaccines are available for dogs: Modified Live Vaccines. Modified live vaccines trigger an immune reaction, but have lost most or all of their ability to cause infectious disease. Killed Vaccines. Killed vaccines are made from dead organisms, which can’t cause infection but can stimulate an immune response. Modified live vaccines typically cause a faster, more effective, and longer-lasting immunity than killed vaccines. Recombinant Vaccines. Some newer vaccines use recombinant technology and genetic engineering to alter potentially infectious organisms.

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Dog health, Health,

ALGEBRA 2/ TRIGONOMETRY Friday, June 14, 2013 — 1:15 – 4:15 p.m. SAMPLE RESPONSE SET Table of Contents Practice Papers—Question 28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Practice Papers—Question 29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Practice Papers—Question 30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Practice Papers—Question 31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Practice Papers—Question 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Practice Papers—Question 33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Practice Papers—Question 34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Practice Papers—Question 35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Practice Papers—Question 36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Practice Papers—Question 37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Practice Papers—Question 38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Practice Papers—Question 39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Practice Papers—Question 28 28 Determine the sum and the product of the roots of the equation 12x2 ϩ x Ϫ 6 ϭ 0. Score 2: The student has a complete and correct response. Algebra 2/Trigonometry – June ’13 [2] Practice Papers—Question 28 28 Determine the sum and the product of the roots of the equation 12x2 ϩ x Ϫ 6 ϭ 0. Score 1: The student made a computational error by omitting a negative sign. Algebra 2/Trigonometry – June ’13 [3] Practice Papers—Question 28 28 Determine the sum and the product of the roots of the equation 12x2 ϩ x Ϫ 6 ϭ 0. Score 1: The student made a conceptual error by using the expression Algebra 2/Trigonometry – June ’13

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Algebra trigonometry, Education,

SAMPLE RESPONSE SET Table of Contents Question 28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Question 29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Question 30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Question 31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Question 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Question 33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Question 34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Question 35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Question 36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Question 37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Question 38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Question 39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Question 28 28 Show that sec θ sin θ cot θ ϭ 1 is an identity. Score 2: The student has a complete and correct response. Algebra 2/Trigonometry – Jan. ’14 [2] Question 28 28 Show that sec θ sin θ cot θ ϭ 1 is an identity. Score 1: 1 sin θ The student made a substitution error by replacing _____ with _____ . Algebra 2/Trigonometry – Jan. ’14 tan θ [3] cos θ Question 28 28 Show that sec θ sin θ cot θ ϭ 1 is an identity. Score 0: The student made multiple errors when substituting for sec θ and sin θ. Algebra 2/Trigonometry – Jan. ’14 [4] Question 29 29 Find, to the nearest tenth of a square foot, the area of a rhombus that has a side of 6 feet and an angle of 50°. Score 2: The student has a complete and correct response. Algebra 2/Trigonometry – Jan. ’14

Tags:
Algebra trigonometry, Education,

Algebra 2 and Trigonometry is a new text for a course in intermediate algebra and trigonometry that continues the approach that has made Amsco a leader in presenting mathematics in a modern, integrated manner. Over the last decade, this approach has undergone numerous changes and refinements to keep pace with ever-changing technology. This textbook is the final book in the three-part series in which Amsco parallels the integrated approach to the teaching of high school mathematics promoted by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics in its Principles and Standards for School Mathematics and mandated by the New York State Board of Regents in the Mathematics Core Curriculum. The text presents a range of materials and explanations that are guidelines for achieving a high level of excellence in their understanding of mathematics. In this book: ✔ The real numbers are reviewed and the understanding of operations with irrational numbers, particularly radicals, is expanded. ✔ The graphing calculator continues to be used as a routine tool in the study of mathematics. Its use enables the student to solve problems that require computation that more realistically reflects the real world. The use of the calculator replaces the need for tables in the study of trigonometry and logarithms. ✔ Coordinate geometry continues to be an integral part of the visualization of algebraic and trigonometric relationships. ✔ Functions represent a unifying concept throughout. The algebraic functions introduced in Integrated Algebra 1 are reviewed, and exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions are presented. ✔ Algebraic skills from Integrated Algebra 1 are maintained, strengthened, and expanded as both a holistic approach to mathematics and as a bridge to advanced studies. ✔ Statistics includes the use of the graphing calculator to reexamine range, quartiles, and interquartile range, to introduce measures of dispersion such as variance and standard deviation, and to determine the curve that best represents a set of bivariate data.

Tags:
Algebra trigonometry, Education,