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Like much of agriculture, Alabama’s aquacultural production sector has been under stress for several years. Alabama producers and intermediaries in the system face competition from others in the ﬁsh and seafood industry, both domestically and internationally, as well as from producers and handlers of other protein sources. Prices for farm level products have generally been depressed and input costs have been on the rise. Thus, proﬁt margins have become thin to nonexistent. Resource owners are interested in identifying and evaluating viable alternative uses for their productive assets. To cope in this environment and be proﬁtable, Alabama aquacultural producers must organize and operate to maximize efﬁciency and be innovative in decisions and actions. Existing ﬁsh production technologies and approaches, primarily pond culture, may not compete effectively. Increasing yield per unit of water, lowering cost per unit of product, and/or enhancing market access could improve the plight of producers. This study aims to identify and assess the technical and economic feasibility of an alternative production system that integrates hydroponic tomato production with production of channel catﬁsh or tilapia using recirculating water through a closed, controlled environment using separate greenhouses to produce tomatoes and ﬁsh throughout the year.
Table of contents 1. Different types of pump systems 2. Three important characteristics of a pump system: pressure, friction and flow 3. What is friction in a pump system 4. Energy and head in pump systems 5. Static head 6. Flow rate depends on elevation difference or static head 7. Flow rate depends on friction 8. How does a centrifugal pump produce pressure 9. What is total head 10 What is the relationship between head and total head 11. How to determine friction head 12. The performance or characteristic curve of the pump 13. How to select a centrifugal pump Examples of total head calculations - sizing a pump for a home owner application 14. Examples of common residential water systems 15. Calculate the pump discharge pressure from the pump total head. Appendix A Flow rate and friction loss for different pipe sizes based at different velocities Appendix B Formulas and an example of how to do pipe friction calculations Appendix C Formulas and an example of how to do pipe fittings friction calculations Appendix D Formula and an example of how to do velocity calculation for fluid flow in a pipe Appendix E The relationship between pressure head and pressure... This tutorial is intended for anyone that has an interest in centrifugal pumps. There is no math, just simple explanations of how pump systems work and how to select a centrifugal pump. For those who want to do detail calculations, some examples have been included in the appendices. This tutorial answers the following questions: - What are the important characteristics of a pump system? - What is head and how is it used in a pump system to make calculations easier? - What is static head and friction head and how do they affect the flow rate in a pump system? - How does a centrifugal pump produce pressure? - Why is total head and flow the two most important characteristics of a centrifugal pump? - What is meant by the pump rating? And what is the optimal operating point of a centrifugal pump? - How to do details calculations that will allow you to size and select a centrifugal pump? - How to verify that your centrifugal pump is providing the rated pressure or head? - What is density and specific gravity and how do they relate to pressure and head? Copyright . 2005---- www.lightmypump.com---------- Revised October 9, 2007
Fluids/Solids Handling Understand the Basics of Centrifugal Pump Operation By starting from such fundamentals as head and pressure, the authors have developed practical tips for specification and operation that provide for cost-effectiveness and reliability. Kimberly Fernandez, Bernadette Pyzdrowski, Drew W. Schiller and Michael B. Smith, KBR C entrifugal pumps are the most common type of kinetic pump, and are used most often in applications with moderate-to-high flow and low head. As the workhorse of the chemical process industries (CPI), centrifugals are almost always more economical to own, operate and maintain than other types of pumps. Parameters needed in specifying The process engineer is normally responsible for specifying the process requirements of the pump, including the conditions and physical properties of the liquid, and, most importantly, the ﬂowrate, pressure, density and viscosity. The ﬂowrate determines the capacity of the pump, and the head depends on the density and viscosity of the liquid. In general, the required ﬂowrate is determined by the material and energy balances. Design margins, typically between 0–25%, are added to the material-balance ﬂowrate to account for unexpected variations in properties or conditions, or to ensure that the overall plant meets its performance criteria. Also, minimum ﬂow protection is often added as continuous circulation. Occasionally, the required ﬂowrate (including design margins) may fall in the low range of that for centrifugal pumps. In such cases, a minimum-size pump rated for continuous service is speciﬁed, and the extra pump capacity is typically consumed by circulation from the discharge to the source. 52 www.cepmagazine.org May 2002 CEP During speciﬁcation, the maximum pressure a pump will develop during any aspect of operation, including startup, shutdown and upset conditions is determined. The shutoff pressure is the maximum pressure a pump will develop under zero-ﬂow conditions, which reﬂects a fully blocked outlet. Variables to consider when determining the design pressure include: • maximum pressure of the source (e.g., relieving pressure of a vessel) • maximum head developed by the pump (i.e., shutoff head) • maximum static head of the ﬂuid in the pump’s suction line • maximum pump operating speed (for variablespeed drives) • possibility of operator intervention during an upset. The head h is the most commonly used measurement of the energy at any point of the system, or of the system as a whole. It is deﬁned as: h=...
The Top-Flo® name represents the finest in sanitary process equipment. TOP-FLO® pumps have been designed to offer efficient transfer of product over a wide range of head and viscosity conditions. TOP-FLO® pumps are easy to install, clean, and operate. This catalog will answer many of the questions you may have regarding TOP-FLO® pumps. If you require additional information, a representative will be happy to assist you and can be reached at 1-800-458-6095. TOP-FLO® pumps are suitable for use in CIP (clean-in-place) installations. This feature enables easy self-cleaning with no dismantling or take-down. Sanitizing of all product contact areas is automatic. All TOP-FLO® pumps are available in standard inlet sizes and outlet sizes. In addition, enlarged inlet sizes are available for... Motor Data is not included as part of 4-step ordering number. Provide the following information: • Horsepower and RPM TF-C100, TF-C114, TF-C216, TF-C218, TF-C328 • Electrical phase and voltage Note: • TEFC is standard • TF-C Series furnished without legs unless otherwise specified on order. If motor is furnished from another source, supply the following: • Casing Gaskets: BUNA (Standard). If other type is required, specify on order. • Enlarged inlet: When ordering pump with enlarged inlet state inlet size, i.e., TF-C218MD with 3" inlet. 3 port connections • Horsepower • RPM • NEMA frame size M - Clamp (Standard) Remember to order needed accessories: T - Acme Bevel Seat Thread • Seal Kits and Parts S - NPT Female Thread • Gaskets F - Flanged • Clamps W - Weld • Hangers type of seal/standard material: 4 D - External balanced sanitary seal DG - External balanced sanitary seal w/clamped insert E - Water cooled balanced double seal F - External balanced seal w/cascading water • Air Relief Valves • Check Valve • Butterfly Valves • Ball Valves • Fittings 1 TOP-FLO® TF-C Series Centrifugal Pumps seal specifications TYPE D External Balanced Seal (Sanitary) "tf-c" series Model No. TF-C100 TF-C114 TF-C216 TF-C218 TF-C328 Inlet 1-1/2 1-1/2 or 2 2 or 2-1/2 2 or 3 3 or 4 Outlet 1 1-1/2 1-1/2 1-1/2 2 Max. Imp. 3.68 4 6 8 8 pump specifications Pump Casings: • Volute type - Standard • Inlet-oversizing as noted in chart above Pump Connections: sanitary: industrial: • Clamp • Threaded • Bevel Seat (ACME) • Flanged Pump Construction Materials: • All wetted parts - 316 SS • Seals - Carbon (other seals available) • Casing Gasket - BUNA (Standard) • FKM, EPDM, and PTFE are available Pump Finishes: • Polished or Electropolished Pump Seals: • Available in D, DG, E, and F styles Motor, Electrical: • 3 Phase - 230/460 volts - 1750 & 3500 rpm • Single Phase - 115/230 volts - 1750 & 3500 rpm Motor Housings: • TEFC (Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled) • Washdown Duty • Other styles available on request For light duty transfer requirements, see Top Line brochure (TF-C100). 2 This versatile seal has numerous applications but yet is extremely durable. Dairy products, soft vegetables, beverages, and even acid cleaning solutions and detergents are among the recommended uses. type DG External Balanced Seal with Clamped-in Seat (Sanitary) The DG seal uses the standard Type D rotating seal components with a reversible silicon carbide, tungsten carbide or ceramic seat. Typical applications include liquid sugar, beverage syrup, chocolate and abrasive products.
A Message from Ed Peper “Your Success is Our Success”… We can’t say it any more simply. We want to partner with you and help your business grow in the year ahead, and frankly, we’ll do anything it takes to be your preferred fleet vehicle provider. That’s why we are so excited to share news on what we can offer you for the 2013 model year. We want you to know that you can count on us to provide Great Products, Innovative Business Solutions and an Exceptional Customer Experience. Here’s what we mean: Great Products: With more than 40 vehicles in GM’s extensive lineup, we can offer you a breadth of choices to meet all of your automotive fleet needs. Our offerings from Chevrolet, Buick, GMC and Cadillac include everything from cars and crossovers, to vans and utilities, and trucks. In addition, because we are dedicated to the environment, we provide you with a number of propulsion options that will help all of us reduce our dependence on petroleum, improve fuel economy and reduce emissions. You can count on all of GM’s products to be safe and reliable, and as always, we’ll make sure you get outstanding value. Innovative Business Solutions: We know that our vehicles need to do more for customers like you to meet the challenging demands of a competitive marketplace. That’s why we’ve designed and built them with innovative business solutions. We can provide you with the latest features that make your mobile office more functional. We have accessories and storage solutions that can organize your cargo, and we work with professional upfitting partners who can match quality truck bodies and equipment with your specific vocational demands. In addition, we have programs like FleetTrac, a consolidated billing system, that reduces a fleet manager’s administrative burdens and makes service visits for drivers more convenient. Basically, we have turnkey solutions to any vehicle and utility issues you may have, and we do all of this with the clear intent of making your work life a whole lot easier. Exceptional Customer Experience: Beyond the great products and features, we can provide you with the best customer experience found anywhere in the industry. Everyone at GM Fleet and Commercial, from our sales and service professionals to our experts at the Fleet Action Center, is focused on addressing any questions or concerns you have. We are not just another supplier of vehicles. We are a solid, reliable business partner with fleet expertise and responsive service that you can count on. The bottom line is that we want to help you succeed at what you do. In the year ahead, as the economy improves and you make plans to refresh your vehicle fleet, we hope you will consider General Motors. You can be sure that we will go out of our way to exceed your expectations. Thank you,...
1. Prior to the first use of the fireplace verify the following: · Are the circuit breakers for the unit on? · Are the light bulbs in your fireplace loose? (to check, follow the instructions for replacing the light bulbs in the maintenance section of this manual) 2. The heater on your fireplace may emit a slight, harmless odor when first used. This odor is a normal condition caused by the initial heating of internal heater parts and will not occur again. 3. The information regarding the model of your fireplace can be found on the rating plate located on the back of the unit. 4. If you have any technical questions or concerns regarding the operation of your fireplace, or require service contact your Travis Industries, Inc. dealer before returning the product to the point of purchase. You can find a Travis dealer at www.travisproducts.com 3 IMPORTANT INSTRUCTIONS PLEASE RETAIN THIS USER’S GUIDE FOR FUTURE REFERENCE When using electrical appliances, basic precautions should always be followed to reduce the risk of fire, electric shock, and injury to persons, including the following: 1. Read all instructions before using the Fireplace. 2. The heater is hot when in use. To avoid burns, do not let bare skin touch hot surfaces. The trim around the heater outlet becomes hot during heater operation. Keep combustible materials, such as furniture, pillows, bedding, papers, clothes, and curtains at least 3 feet (0.9m) from the front of the unit. CAUTION: High Temperature. Keep electrical cords, drapery, and other furnishings at least 3FT (.9m) from the front of the heater and away from the side and rear. 3. Extreme caution is necessary when any heater is used by or near children or invalids and whenever the unit is left operating and unattended. 4. Always unplug the fireplace when not in use. 5. Do not operate any unit with a damaged cord or plug, or if the heater has malfunctioned, or if the fireplace has been dropped or damaged in any manner. Return heater to authorized service facility for examination, electrical or mechanical adjustment, or repair. 6. Do not use outdoors. 7. The fireplace is not intended for use in bathrooms, laundry areas and similar indoor locations. CAUTION RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK DO NOT OPEN NO USER-SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE...
Valued Customer, We are pleased that you have chosen to purchase an electric fireplace manufactured by Dimplex North America Ltd. Over the years, valuable memories will occur around the warmth and comfort of your hearth. Thank you for allowing our product to be the backdrop for those special moments. 7204820200REV03 QUICK REFERENCE GUIDE FOR THE DIMPLEX ELECTRIC FIREPLACE 1. Before using the electric corner wall mounted fireplace verify: • Are the circuit breakers for the unit on? • Are the light bulbs loose? (to check, follow the instructions for replacing the light bulbs under the maintenance section of this manual) 2. The heater may emit a slight, harmless odor when first used. This odor is a normal condition caused by the initial heating of internal heater parts. 3. The information regarding the model of your unit can be found on the rating plate located inside the unit on the top left hand corner above the mirror. 4. If you have any questions or concerns regarding the operation of your fireplace, contact Dimplex customer service at 1-888-DIMPLEX (1-888346-7539).
EMERGENCY POWER KIT FOR CHEVROLET VOLT FEATURES: Utilizes 12V accessory power system of the Volt Provides backup power without needing to run the Volt’s gasoline engine* Includes all hardware and accessories designed specifically for the Volt No drilling or other modifications to the Volt are needed Quick disconnect system allows for easy connection of inverter Maximum Inverter Size supported: 1000W with 2000W surge. Installation Time: 30 minutes DESCRIPTION: The EVEX-1000W is a do-it-yourself** wiring kit to provide emergency backup power from your Chevrolet Volt. The kit is custom-designed for the Volt, to allow for a hidden installation with power connector access through the fuse box compartment on the left-side of the hatch storage area. The kit includes a fuse holder with fuse, heavy duty wires cut to length with soldered leads and pre-installed wire terminals, as well as a heavy duty connector set to allow quick connections to the inverter of your choice as needed. The kit is designed for a maximum inverter size of 1000W with 2000W surge. This maximum size is designed to work within the limits of the Volt’s 12V power electronics design. WHAT’S INCLUDED: Fuse holder and fuse, with heavy duty Velcro to secure holder 4AWG wiring for positive and negative 12V connections 8AWG wiring for chassis connection (required by some inverters) High current DC connector for quick inverter connect when emergency power is needed Step by step instruction manual for installation 1000W true sine wave inverter (optional, select when ordering) More details including frequently asked questions are available on our website. * The vehicle is required to be turned on for emergency back-up power. In most scenarios, the engine will not run, and the 12V system will get its power from the Volt’s high voltage traction battery. In some scenarios however, the engine may cycle on and off intermittently. This may occur if the high voltage traction battery is depleted, if the vehicle is in mountain or hold mode, if temperatures are below 40F, or if the vehicle’s hood is open. Always make sure vehicle is in a properly ventilated area! Exhaust will be emitted when engine is running. ** If you are not experienced and comfortable with 12V wiring, please seek the assistance of a professional. EVEX-1000W email@example.com http://www.evextend.com
Fit and Fat? Yes, you can be fit and overweight within reason. The trick is to control your weight so you can be physically active. There are plenty of people who get regular physical activity, yet they are overweight. A recent study showed people who are fit and carrying extra pounds may not be at increased risk of developing or dying from heart disease or cancer when compared to people of healthy weight.1 Likewise, thin people are not necessarily healthy if they carry excess belly fat. What matters more than weight is the amount and type of body fat. Studies show that fat around the midsection or belly fat may be more harmful than fat elsewhere on the body.2 Why? Belly or visceral fat embedded into muscles and around vital organs can have a metabolic impact compared to subcutaneous fat, which is the type of fat that simply sits beneath the skin like on your hips. Abdominal fat is also a predictor of risk for obesity-related diseases such as Type 2 diabetes, elevated cholesterol, high blood pressure and heart disease. Generally ladies should strive for a waist circumference below 35 inches and men, 40 inches according to the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. Eat Whatever You Want As Long You Exercise It might sound logical that if you work out, you can eat whatever you want, but this is usually not the most effective way to lose weight. Believe it or not, it is easier not to eat the chocolate cake than it is to burn it off. One slice of decadent chocolate cake could contain as many as 500 calories and require up to five miles of jogging to burn it off. Losing weight occurs when you create a calorie deficit either by eating fewer calories, burning calories through exercise or a combination of both. Diet plans that include cutting calories and regular physical activity tend to be the most successful and sustainable. Further, the quality of the food you consume and regular physical activity are important to overall health, regardless of weight. So the next time you want to indulge in a calorie-rich food or beverage, enjoy a smaller portion and account for it in your daily calorie budget. Health Only Improves When You Lose Lots of Weight Seeking to reach your healthy weight is an excellent goal in support of good health. However, you may benefit from losing as little as 5-10 percent of your body weight. Studies show that even small amounts of weight loss may improve blood cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, blood pressure and lower risk for heart disease. Celebrate small victories on your journey toward a healthier weight. The payoff – people who lose weight slowly are more likely to keep it off. Skipping Breakfast Slashes Calories Studies show that breakfast eaters have healthier weights compared to breakfast skippers. Skipping breakfast or any meal usually results in overeating later in the day. Enjoying a nutritious meal in the morning sets the stage for the day. A breakfast that contains protein and fiber may keep blood sugar levels stable and hunger at bay until lunchtime. Your blood sugar and energy levels are low when you wake up in the morning. To get your body moving and energized after a long night’s rest, you need fuel in the form of a healthy breakfast. Another benefit, people who eat breakfast tend to have healthier diets overall, ones that are higher in nutrients. Breakfast may help you keep the weight off. We have learned from successful losers, the National Weight Control Registry of those who have lost weight and kept it off, make eating breakfast a daily habit. Reconsider where you slash calories in your diet and keep in mind you may save calories if you start your day the healthy way with a nutritious and delicious breakfast.
Thank you for choosing Electrolux, the new premium brand in home appliances. This Use & Care Guide is part of our commitment to customer satisfaction and product quality throughout the service life of your new appliance. ©2007 Electrolux Home Products, Inc. We view your purchase as the beginning of a relationship. To ensure our ability to continue serving you, please use this page to record important product information. Keep a record for quick reference Purchase date Electrolux model number Electrolux serial number NOTE Registering your product with Electrolux enhances our ability to serve you. You can register online at www.electroluxusa.com or by dropping your Product Registration Card in the mail. Questions? For toll-free telephone support in the U.S. and Canada: 1-877-4ELECTROLUX (1-877-435-3287) For online support and Internet production information visit http://www.electroluxusa.com All rights reserved. Printed in the USA Safety Important safety instructions Recognize safety symbols, words and labels Safety items throughout this manual are labeled with a WARNING or CAUTION based on the risk type as described below: This symbol alerts you to situations that may cause serious body harm, death or property damage. This symbol alerts you to situations that may cause bodily injury or property damage. If the information in this manual is not followed exactly, a fire or explosion may result causing property damage, personal injury or death. For your safety: • Do not store or use gasoline or other flammable vapors and liquids in the vicinity of this or any other appliance. • Installation and service must be performed by a qualified installer, servicer or the gas supplier. What to do if you smell gas: • Do not try to lite any appliance. • Do not touch any electrical switch; do not use any phone in your building. • Immediately call your gas supplier from a neighbor's phone. Follow the gas supplier's instructions. • If you cannot reach your gas supplier, call the fire department. Do not store items of interest to children in the cabinets above a range or on the backguard of a range. Children climbing on the range to reach items could be seriously injured. • All ranges can tip. • Injury to persons could result. • Install anti-tip device packed. with range. • See Installation Instructions. To reduce the risk of tipping, the range must be secured by properly installed anti-tip bracket provided with the range. To check if the bracket is installed properly, visually check that rear leveling leg is inserted into and fully secured by the anti-tip bracket by removing lower panel or storage drawer. For models with a warmer drawer, grasp the top rear edge of the range and carefully attempt to tilt it forward. Refer to the installation instructions for proper anti-tip bracket installation. • Never use this appliance as a space heater to heat or warm the room. Doing so may result in carbon monoxide poisoning. • Never cover any slots, holes or passages in the oven bottom or cover an entire rack with materials such as aluminum foil. Doing so blocks air flow through the oven and may cause carbon monoxide poisoning. Aluminum foil linings may trap heat, causing a fire hazard. • Stepping, leaning or sitting on the doors or drawers of this range can result in serious injuries and also cause damage to the range. Do not allow children to climb or play around the range. The weight of a child on an open door may cause the range to tip, resulting in serious burns or other injury. • Do not use the oven or Warmer oven/ Lower Oven(if equipped) for storage.