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Auto Buying Service, started by Frank and Wanda Lewark in 1970. Their goal was to provide quality vehicles to the local residents. The same goals are true today, but a lot of change has taken place. Wanda Lewark has played a major role in the State Association for independent auto dealers.
Tutorial http://www.investopedia.com/university/forexmarket/default.asp Thanks for downloading the printable version of this tutorial. As always, we welcome any feedback or suggestions. http://www.investopedia.com/contact.aspx Table of Contents 1) Forex: Introduction 2) Forex: What Is It? 3) Forex: Reading a Quote and Understanding the Jargon 4) Forex: Benefits and Risks 5) Forex: History and Market Participants 6) Forex: Economic Theories and Data 7) Forex: Fundamental Trading Strategies 8) Forex: Technical Analysis 9) Forex: Ready To Trade? 10) Forex: The Conclusion Introduction Foreign exchange (forex or FX for short) is one of the most exciting, fast-paced markets around. Until recently, trading in the forex market had been the domain of large financial institutions, corporations, central banks, hedge funds and extremely wealthy individuals. The emergence of the internet has changed all of this, and now it is possible for average investors to buy and sell currencies easily with the click of a mouse. Daily currency fluctuations are usually very small. Most currency pairs move less than one cent per day, representing a less than 1% change in the value of the currency. This makes foreign exchange one of the least volatile financial markets around. Therefore, many speculators rely on the availability of enormous leverage to increase the value of potential movements. In the forex market, leverage can be as much as 250:1. Higher leverage can be extremely risky, but because of round-the-clock trading and deep liquidity, foreign exchange brokers have been able to make high leverage an industry standard in order to make the movements meaningful for FX traders. (Page 1 of 30) Copyright © 2010, Investopedia.com - All rights reserved. Investopedia.com – the resource for investing and personal finance education. Extreme liquidity and the availability of high leverage have helped to spur the market's rapid growth and made it the ideal place for many traders. Positions can be opened and closed within minutes or can be held for months. Currency prices are based on objective considerations of supply and demand and cannot be manipulated easily because the size of the market does not allow even the largest players, such as central banks, to move prices at will. The forex market provides plenty of opportunity for investors. However, in order to be successful, a currency trader has to understand the basics behind currency movements. The goal of this tutorial is to provide a foundation for investors or traders who are new to the currency markets. We'll cover the basics of foreign exchange, its history and the key concepts you need to understand in order to be able to participate in this market. We'll also venture into how to start trading currencies and the different types of strategies that can be employed. What Is It? The foreign exchange market is the "place" where currencies are traded. Currencies are important to most people around the world, whether they realize it or not, because currencies need to be exchanged in order to conduct foreign trade and business. If you are living in the U.S. and want to buy cheese from France, either you or the company that you buy the cheese from has to pay the French for the cheese in euros (EUR). This means that the U.S. importer would have to exchange the equivalent value of U.S. dollars (USD) into euros. The same goes for traveling. A French tourist in Egypt can't pay in euros to see the pyramids because it's not the locally accepted currency. As such, the tourist has to exchange the euros for the local currency, in this case the Egyptian pound, at the current exchange rate. The need to exchange currencies is the primary reason why the forex market is the largest, most liquid financial market in the world. It dwarfs other markets in size, even the stock market, with an average traded value of around U.S. $2,000 billion per day. (The total volume changes all the time, but as of April 2004, the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) reported that the forex market traded U.S. $1,900 billion per day.) One unique aspect of this international market is that there is no central marketplace for currency exchange. Rather, trade is conducted electronically over-the-counter (OTC), which means that all transactions occur via computer networks between traders around the world, rather than on one centralized This tutorial can be found at:
AUTO-SCAN FM RADIO KIT MODEL FM-88K ELENCO® 150 Carpenter Avenue Wheeling, IL 60090 (847) 541-3800 Website: www.elenco.com e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org To see our complete line of Educational Products go to WWW.ELENCO.COM Assembly and Instruction Manual ELENCO ® Copyright © 2011 by ELENCO® All rights reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced by any means; electronic, photocopying, or otherwise without written permission from the publisher. 753050 PARTS LIST GLOSSARY (Continued) If you are a student, and any parts are missing or damaged, please see instructor or bookstore. If you purchased this kit from a distributor, catalog, etc., please contact ELENCO® (address/phone/e-mail is at the back of this manual) for additional assistance, if needed. DO NOT contact your place of purchase as they will not be able to help you. RF Radio Frequency. Sensitivity The ability of a receiver to pick up low-amplitude signals. Speaker An electronic device that turn electric impulses into sound. Surface-mount Technology RESISTORS Symbol R5 R1 R3 R4 R2 R6/S3 Value Color Code 10Ω 5% 1/4W brown-black-black-gold 680Ω 5% 1/4W blue-gray-brown-gold 5.6kΩ 5% 1/4W green-blue-red-gold 10kΩ 5% 1/4W brown-black-orange-gold 18kΩ 5% 1/4W brown-gray-orange-gold Potentiometer 50kΩ & switch w/ nut & washer Part # 121000 136800 145600 151000 151800 192522 CAPACITORS Qty. r1 r1 r1 r1 r1 r1 r1 r1 r2 r1 r1 r6 r2 r1 r1 r2 Symbol C6 C7 C10 C5 C8 C4 C13 C23 C11, C12 C15 C19 C3, C9, C14, C16, C17, C* C21, C22 C20 C1 C2, C18 Value 33pF 82pF 180pF 220pF 330pF 470pF 680pF 1500pF 3300pF 0.033μF 0.047μF 0.1μF 10μF 22μF 100μF 220μF Description Discap (33) Discap (82) Discap (181 or 180) Discap (221 or 220) Discap (331 or 330) Discap (471 or 470) Discap (681 or 680) Discap (152) Discap (332) Discap (333) Discap (473) Discap (104) Electrolytic radial Electrolytic radial Electrolytic radial Electrolytic radial Part # 213317 218210 221810 222210 223317 224717 226880 231516 233310 243318 244780 251010 271044 272244 281044 282244 COILS Qty. r1 r1 Symbol L2 L1 Value Qty. r1 r1 r1 r1 r1 Symbol D1 D2 D3 U2 U1 Description Coil 4-turn Coil 6-turn Value BB909/BB910 1N4001 Part # 430150 430160 SEMICONDUCTORS LM-386 or identical TDA7088T or identical Description Varactor Semiconductor silicon diode Red LED 3mm Low voltage audio power amplifier FM receiver SM installed on PC board Part # 310909 314001 350003 330386 MISCELLANEOUS Qty. r1 r1 r2 r1 r1 r1 r1 r1 Description Antenna FM PC board w/ installed U1 (TDA7088T) Push button switch 12mm Battery holder Speaker 8Ω Cap push button switch yellow Cap push button switch red Knob pot / switch Qty. r1 r2 r1 r1 r1 r 3” r1 Part # 484005 517038 540005 590096 590102 622001 622007 622050 -1- Description Screw M1.8 x 7.5mm Antenna screw M2 x 5mm Nut M1.8 Socket IC 8-pin Speaker pad Wire 22 ga. solid Solder Lead-free Part # 641100 643148 644210 664008 780128 834012 9LF99 Trimmer A semiconductor component that can be used to amplify signals, or as electronic switches. Varactor A method of using special components that are soldered to the PC board’s surface. A diode optimized to vary its internal capacitance with a change in its reverse bias voltage. Voltage Electrical potential difference measured in volts. An adjustable fine-tuning resistor, capacitor, or inductor of small values. Voltage Regulator A circuit that holds the DC voltage. QUIZ INSTRUCTIONS: Complete the following examination, check your answers carefully. 6. The capacitance of the varactor is determined by . . . r A) the voltage level. r B) the amount of current in the circuit. r C) the signal strength of the RF carrier. r D) the amount of resistance in the circuit. 1. The number of cycles produced per second by a source of sound is called the . . . r A) amplitude. r B) vibration. r C) sound wave. r D) frequency. 7. The ability to select a specific band of frequencies, while rejecting others, is called . . . r A) selectivity. r B) sensitivity. r C) demodulation. r D) none of the above. 2. The frequency of the modulating signal determines the ... r A) number of times the frequency of the carrier changes per second. r B) maximum deviation of the FM carrier. r C) maximum frequency swing of the FM carrier. r D) amount of amplitude change of the FM carrier. 8. The process of mixing two signals to produce a third signal is called . . . r A) filtering. r B) detecting. r C) rectification. r D) heterodyning. 3. The FM broadcast band is . . . r A) 550 – 1,600kHz. r B) 10.7MHz. r C) 88 – 108MHz. r D) 98.7 – 118.7MHz. 9. The circuit designed to supply substantial power output into low impedance load is called . . . r A) power supply. r B) pre-amplifier. r C) power amplifier. r D) detector. 4. The AFC circuit is used to . . . r A) automatically hold the local oscillator on frequency. r B) maintain constant gain in the receiver to prevent such things as fading. r C) prevent amplitude variations of the FM carrier. r D) automatically control the audio frequencies in the receiver. 5. The device most often used for changing the local oscillator frequency with the AFC voltage is a . . . r A) feedthrough capacitor. r B) variable inductor. r C) varactor. r D) trimmer capacitor. 10. The gain of the LM-386 amplifier can be set in range from . . . r A) 1 to 20. r B) 20 to 200. r C) 0 to 200. r D) 50 to 100. Answers: 1. D, 2. A, 3. C, 4. A, 5. C, 6. A, 7. C, 8. D, 9. C, 10. B
Low-Power Narrowband FM Receiver . . . includes dual FM conversion with oscillators, mixers, quadrature discriminator, and meter drive/carrier detect circuitry. The MC3362 also has buffered first and second local oscillator outputs and a comparator circuit for FSK detection. • Complete Dual Conversion Circuitry... LOW–POWER DUAL CONVERSION FM RECEIVER Low Voltage: VCC = 2.0 to 6.0 Vdc SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNICAL DATA Low Drain Current (3.6 mA (Typical) @ VCC = 3.0 Vdc) Excellent Sensitivity: Input Voltage 0.6 µVrms (Typical) for 12 dB SINAD Externally Adjustable Carrier Detect Function Low Number of External Parts Required P SUFFIX PLASTIC PACKAGE CASE 724 Manufactured Using Motorolais MOSAICr Process Technology MC13135 is Preferred for New Designs DW SUFFIX PLASTIC PACKAGE CASE 751E (SO-24L) Figure 2. Pin Connections and Representative Block Diagram Figure 1. Simplified Application in a PLL Frequency Synthesized Receiver 1st Mixer Input 1 RF Input to 200 MHz 2nd LO Output 2
The TDA7000 is a monolithic integrated circuit for mono FM portable radios, where a minimum on peripheral components is important (small dimensions and low costs). The IC has an FLL (Frequency-Locked-Loop) system with an intermediate frequency of 70 kHz. The i.f. selectivity is obtained by active RC filters. The only function which needs alignment is the resonant circuit for the oscillator, thus selecting the reception frequency. Spurious reception is avoided by means of a mute circuit, which also eliminates too noisy input signals. Special precautions are taken to meet the radiation requirements. The TDA7000 includes the following functions: • R.F. input stage • Mixer • Local oscillator • I.F. amplifier/limiter • Phase demodulator • Mute detector • Mute switch QUICK REFERENCE DATA 2,7 to 10 V Supply voltage range (pin 5) VP Supply current at VP = 4,5 V IP typ. R.F. input frequency range frf 1,5 to 110 MHz 8 mA Sensitivity for -3 dB limiting (e.m.f. voltage) (source impedance: 75 Ω; mute disabled) EMF typ. 1,5 µV EMF typ. 200 mV Signal handling (e.m.f. voltage) (source impedance: 75 Ω) A.F. output voltage at RL = 22 kΩ Vo PACKAGE OUTLINE 18-lead DIL; plastic (SOT102HE); SOT102-1; 1996 July 24. May 1992 2 typ. 75 mV Philips Semiconductors Product speciﬁcation FM radio circuit TDA7000 Fig.1 Block diagram. May 1992 3 Philips Semiconductors Product speciﬁcation FM radio circuit TDA7000 RATINGS Limiting values in accordance with the Absolute Maximum System (IEC 134) Supply voltage (pin 5) VP max. 12 V Oscillator voltage (pin 6) V6-5 Total power dissipation see derating curve Fig.2 Storage temperature range Tstg Operating ambient temperature range Tamb VP−0,5 to VP + 0,5 V −55 to +150 °C 0 to + 60 °C Fig.2 Power derating curve. D.C. CHARACTERISTICS VP = 4,5 V; Tamb = 25 °C; measured in Fig.4; unless otherwise speciﬁed... A.C. CHARACTERISTICS VP = 4,5 V; Tamb = 25 °C; measured in Fig.4 (mute switch open, enabled); frf = 96 MHz (tuned to max. signal at 5 µV e.m.f.) modulated with ∆f = ± 22,5 kHz; fm = 1 kHz; EMF = 0,2 mV (e.m.f. voltage at a source impedance of 75 Ω); r.m.s. noise voltage measured unweighted (f = 300 Hz to 20 kHz); unless otherwise speciﬁed... Signal handling (e.m.f. voltage) for THD < 10%; ∆f = ± 75 kHz Signal-to-noise ratio Total harmonic distortion AM suppression of output voltage (ratio of the AM output signal referred to the FM output signal) FM signal: fm = 1 kHz; ∆f = ± 75 kHz AM signal: fm = 1 kHz; m = 80% Ripple rejection (∆VP = 100 mV; f = 1 kHz) Oscillator voltage (r.m.s. value) at pin 6 Variation of oscillator frequency ∆fosc...
This lab explores superheterodyne single and dual conversion receiver subsystems for analog and digital modulation. Two VHF (30–300 MHz) FM receivers are considered. The ﬁrst receiver employes a wideband (about 200 kHz) IF subsystem centered at 10.7 MHz, while the second employes a narrowband (about 10 kHz) IF subsystem centered at 455 kHz. The narrowband FM receiver also utilizes dual conversion, with the ﬁrst IF at 10.7 MHz and the second IF at 455 kHz. Both receivers have been constructed using readily available radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs) from NXP semiconductor1 . The receivers are presently in prototype form, constructed on an RF breadboard. In the future the receivers will be fabricated using a custom PCB. The high sensitivity of these receivers allows the wideband receiver to easily tune in FM broadcast stations and the narrowband receiver to receive the Colorado Springs national weather service (NOAA) station, and lab broadcast frequency shift keyed (FSK) digital modulation. Wideband FM Receiver The block diagram for the wideband receiver is given in Figure 1. The low-noise ampliﬁer (LNA) is not implemented at this time, nor is the front-end bandpass ﬁlter (BPF). A short wire (clip lead) will serve as the antenna in the experiment. The receiver requires and external local oscillator... LO frequency is 160 MHz. With low-side tuning for the LO, this means that carrier frequencies up 160 + 10.7 = 170.7 MHz can down-converted. The doubler is a passive circuit from Minicircuits2 , which in simple terms acts as a full-wave rectiﬁer, which has a strong second harmonic component. The mixer output is processed with a multistage IF ampliﬁer, with the 10.7 MHz IF passband shaping formed using ceramic ﬁlters. The nominal bandwidth of each ﬁlter is 280 kHz. Note from the schematic of Figure 2, the ceramic ﬁlters are external to the NXP SA636 RFIC. The ﬁnal stage 10.7 MHz IF BPF SFE10.7 An RF receiver needs to have high gain in order process weak signals arriving from a transmitter located many miles away. High gain over a wide bandwidth is hard to manage from a stability standpoint. Sensitive radio receivers also need to be very selective, that is supply high gain over just a relatively narrow band of frequencies. For the case of an FM receiver the needed bandwidth...
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6550PRO – Professional Master Fuel Injection Service Kit 6550UPD – Professional Fuel Injection Update Kit 6550MAN-08 – Professional Fuel Injection Application Manual 800-533-6127 www.otctools.com Professional Fuel System Service Kits • 6550PRO – Professional Master Fuel Injection Service Kit • 6550UPD – Professional Fuel Injection Update Kit 6550PRO Professional Master Fuel Injection Service Kit The new 6550PRO Professional Fuel Injection Master Fitting Kit from OTC puts a full coverage fuel system service kit in your toolbox and greater service opportunities in your shop! The 6550PRO from OTC comes with an analog fuel pressure gauge preferred by professional service technicians giving precise pressure readings as well as a view of pressure sweeps during the testing analysis. The pressure testing manifold is designed with a bypass valve letting the technician perform basic fuel flow assessments. The 6550PRO has more adapters than any other kit we’ve found giving the best coverage of any kit on the market. Domestic, Asian and European – we’ve got ‘em! Each adapter in the 6550PRO works with Schrader valve fittings to ensure user safety by preventing fuel spray when connecting or disconnecting the pressure gauge (included), the fuel line, or an accessory like a cleaning canister. All seals and o-rings in the 6550PRO from OTC are made with highly durable Viton material to prevent swelling or cracking when exposed to gasoline, alcohol blends and even the most aggressive injector cleaning chemicals. • 6550MAN-08 – Professional Fuel Injection Application Manual Every 6550PRO comes with an Application Manual (6550MAN-08) showing technical references for Make/Model/Year, Engine for vehicles produced between 1997 and 2008 – inclusive. We include Fuel Injection system, OE Fuel Pressure ranges, Fuel Pump Access point and disabling reference, OTC adapter reference and fuel line access locations for virtually FULL VEHICLE COVERAGE. 6550UPD – Professional Fuel Injection Update Kit Already own a Master Fuel Injection Adapter Kit (6550) from OTC? We’ve got you covered. We’ve designed an update kit (6550UPD) with you in mind. The update kit comes with additional fittings, new storage tray, and instructions so you can convert your existing 6550 Master Fuel Injection Adapter Kit to the 6550PRO in just minutes. The 6550UPD kit from OTC includes the 1997 to 2008 Application Manual (6550MAN-08) as well. Any way you cut it – Fuel System Service tools from OTC sets the bar with the fullest coverage and application information in the market today. Contact your local distributor to order yours today! 6550MAN-08 Professional Fuel Injection Application Manual Now technicians, don’t have to access a computer for the technical data needed for fuel system service. The 6550MAN-08 Application Manual from OTC puts the technical data reference information right at your fingertips – right at the vehicle. The manual also includes general safety and operating procedures gathered from technicians just like you. With multilingual translations, the 6550PRO, with the 6550MAN-08 Application Manual brings the best fuel system service capability to all of North ...
Hydroponics – Sustainable ... WHY HYDROPONICS: DO YOU KNOW. WHERE ... 1,400,000. 1,600,000. 1,800,000. 2,000,000. 1991. 2001. Cucumber. Tomato. Hydroponics – Sustainable st Century Agriculture for the 21 Richard Tyson University of Florida / Orange County Extension WHY HYDROPONICS: DO YOU KNOW WHERE YOUR FOOD COMES FROM ? LOCAL FOODS Food security Economic security Food safety Socially responsible Environmentally responsible The local foods movement - Lovavores Sourcing locally grown food is now just as important as sourcing organically grown foods – FreshPointe Regional Sales Manager, Orlando Homegrown Coop - Local Food Cooperative Local Harvest website http://www.localharvest.org/ Hydroponics : Definition • Growing plants without soil in a liquid or soilless media with a mineral nutrient solution
Hydroponics – Sustainable. Agriculture for the ... Variety of Hydroponic Systems Based on. Nutrient ... field grown vs $1.00 / lb for hydroponic tomatoes. Target ... Hydroponics – Sustainable st Century Agriculture for the 21 Richard Tyson University of Florida / Orange County Extension WHERE DOES YOUR FOOD COME FROM ? LOCAL FOODS Food security Economic security Food safety Socially responsible Environmentally responsible Hydroponics : Definition Growing plants without soil in a liquid or soilless media with a mineral nutrient solution Hydroponics Greenhouse or outdoor systems Environmental and labor friendly Crop choices ‐ environment and cost factors pH recommendation range from 5.5‐6.5 High tech and low tech systems