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Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency Have we found the cause and cure of MS? Robert J. Fox, MD Alex Rae-Grant, MD Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Robert J. Fox, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195 firstname.lastname@example.org Neurology® 2011;77:1 Multiple sclerosis (MS) has traditionally been considered an autoimmune disorder—an abnormal immune system attacking an otherwise healthy brain, spinal cord, or optic nerve. But even in its original description by Charcot, the perivenular predilection of MS lesions suggested a potential vascular etiology. In 1935, Tracy Putman1 reported an animal model of MS based on injecting obstructing agents into the venous sinuses. On the basis of this model he treated 74 patients with MS with the anticoagulant dicumarol, with mixed results.2 After lying dormant for over half a century, the vascular theory of MS re-emerged with a series of publications led by the Italian vascular surgeon Paolo Zamboni. He used ultrasound and catheter-based venography to describe venous insufficiency in the internal jugular veins (IJV), vertebral veins, and deep cerebral veins of patients with MS, coining the term chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI).3 Five ultrasound criteria were proposed (figure), although these have yet to be validated against a criterion standard. Using these criteria, Zamboni and colleagues reported a surprisingly high 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity in discriminating patients with MS from controls. The same group reported clinical improvements in an open-label study of catheter-based venoplasty,4 later provocatively named the liberation procedure. The public response to these reports was profound.5 Web sites, blogs, Facebook pages, and other...
Porter’s five forces model is a tool that is deployed by businesses and organizations throughout the world. It basically helps to explain where the power lies of a company in a business situation. It helps to depict a clear picture of the characteristics of the position where a company is and compares with the characteristics of the position where it wants to move. With a clear picture, a company can enhance its strength, improve the weak areas and avoid the negativities in the environment.
Note: A word about this brochure. Audi of America, Inc., believes the specifications in this brochure to be correct at the time of printing. However, specifications, standard equipment, options, fabrics, and colors are subject to change without notice. Some equipment may be unavailable when your vehicle is built. Please ask your dealer for advice concerning current availability of standard and optional equipment, and your dealer will verify that your vehicle will include the equipment you ordered. Vehicles in this brochure are shown with optional equipment. See your dealer for complete details on the New Vehicle Limited Warranty, twelve-year limited warranty against corrosion perforation, and Audi 24/7 Roadside Assistance. (Roadside assistance coverage provided by Road America in the U.S. Certain conditions apply; see your dealer for details.) Tires supplied by various manufacturers. “Audi,” all model names, “Audi connect,” “MMI,” “quattro,” “Sideguard,” “Singleframe” and the Singleframe grille design, “S line,” “TFSI,” “Truth in Engineering,” and the four rings logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of AUDI AG. “AdBlue” is a registered trademark of the Verband der Automobilindustrie. “Bang & Olufsen” is a registered trademark of Bang & Olufsen. The BLUETOOTH word mark and logos are owned by the Bluetooth SIG, Inc., and use of any such marks by AUDI AG is under license. “BOSE” and “AudioPilot” are registered trademarks of the Bose Corporation. “GOOGLE,” “Google Earth” and “Google Maps Street View” are trademarks of Google Inc. “HD Radio” and the HD Radio logo are proprietary trademarks of iBiquity Digital Corporation. “HomeLink” is a registered trademark of Johnson Controls Technology Company. “ICEpower” is a registered trademark of Bang & Olufsen. “iPod” is a registered trademark of Apple Inc. “Servotronic” is a registered trademark of the AM General Corporation. “SiriusXM” and all related marks and logos are trademarks of SiriusXM Radio Inc. and its subsidiaries. “TDI” is a registered trademark of Volkswagen AG. “Tiptronic” is a registered trademark of Dr. Ing h.c. F. Porsche AG. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Some European models shown. AoA1313378 © 2012 Audi of America, Inc. Printed in the U.S.A.
Legal Disclaimer: This manual has been created exclusively for rescuers who have been specially trained in the area of providing emergency rescue after automobile accidents and who are therefore qualiﬁed to use the activities described in this manual. Furthermore, this manual shows the maximum possible equipment speciﬁcation in the model overview. Vehicle speciﬁcations and special options as well as Audi model availability are constantly subject to change. Therefore, Audi reserves the right to change the content of this manual at all times. Please note: The information contained in this manual is not intended for customers or for repair shops and dealers. Customers may gather detailed information from their vehicle owner’s manual regarding vehicle function as well as any occupant safety features and system descriptions. Repair shops and dealers obtain repair information through their normal channels. (Status: 08/2013) • Hint: The maximum possible equipment speciﬁcation is always shown In the model overview. You will ﬁnd “Rescue and Recovery involving Audi Vehicles” in a separate part of the same title. The creation of this Rescue Data sheets is supported by Moditech Rescue Solutions (www.moditech.com). The vehicle overviews in the attachment are also included in interactive form in the data base “Crash Recovery System”. • Audi 80 / S2 1990 – 1995 only R5 turbo only V6 + 16V Legend Control module Gas generator Rollover protection Battery Pretensioner Gas-pressure damper Fuel tank +S2 Limousine Reinforcement 80 Airbag Status: 08/2013, Audi AG • Audi 80 / S2 / RS2 Avant 1992 – 1995
Utz von Wagner, Daniel Hochlenert, Peter Hagedorn Department for Applied Mechanics, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt, Germany Summary Considerable effort is spent in the design and testing of disk brakes of modern passenger cars. This effort can be reduced if refined mathematical-mechanical models are used for studying the dynamics of these brakes before prototypes are available. The present paper is devoted to the modeling of a floating caliper disk brake, special regard being given to the suppression of squeal. The model developed includes the brake rotor, modeled as a flexible rotating plate, housing, piston, yoke, and friction pads. In this nonlinear model all the prominent features of squeal are reproduced, such as e.g. independence of the frequency on the speed, etc. In a test rig built in Darmstadt, the model is validated. In addition, the set-up also permits active control by using ”smart pads”. Those pads, which include piezoceramic actuators are successfully used for the suppression of squeal.
The paper presents a robust feedback control method to suppress the vibration and squeal noise phenomenon in disc brake model using an active force control (AFC) strategy. A two degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) Wagner model was considered in the study as the main dynamical element to be controlled. The system was tested for robustness and effectiveness in reducing the vibration and squeal, taking into account a number of disturbances acting on the system. Three control schemes were simulated and compared involving the classic proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, AFC with crude approximation (AFCCA) and AFC with fuzzy logic (AFCFL) schemes. The AFC-based schemes show superior performance compared to the PID only counterpart with the AFCFL method producing the best performance. increases warranty costs. It is still rather difficult to predict its occurrence. However, disk brake systems are used more extensively in modern vehicles and have become the focus of brake squeal research -. The mechanism of disk brake squeal arise because of three reasons; alternative stick and slip motion between pad and disk, static instability due to excessive braking force, and dynamic instability arising from the friction force . The system parameters were chosen such that the inertia and elastic properties of the wobbling disk represent two orthogonal elastic eigen modes with three nodal diameters of a real disk as later experimentally investigated in -. An open loop control system is considered for detecting the squeal case . By preloading the brake, rotating the disc, extracting natural frequencies and complex eigen values, this new approach combines all in a single continuous step. The simulation results show that significant pad bending vibration may be responsible for the disc brake squeal and it can be reduced by decreasing the friction coefficient, increasing the stiffness of the disc, by...
Model T-BWT-3-31RC A trailer mounted single reel carrier-tensioner, the WAGNERSMITH Model T-BWT-3-31RC is designed for use in a wide range of stringing and tensioning application. Both simple to operate and easy to maintain, the Model T-BWT-3-31RC is another innovative WAGNER-SMITH product designed and developed to meet the changing needs of the powerline construction industry. MAJOR OPERATING / SAFETY FEATURES • The reel and spindle assembly lifts straight out of the machine without having to shift to the side. No tools required for reel removal. • Bronze brake discs are standard for smooth operation and low maintenance. • All unit operating controls are located at the operators station, off the ground, for operator safety. • A fairlead roller assembly is provided as standard. UNIT PERFORMANCE Maximum Tension Rating Line Speed (Average) STANDARD FEATURES Tension Brakes Manually actuated caliper/20 in. diameter Bronze disc brakes Reel Brakes Manually actuated caliper/16 in. diameter bronze disc brake Front Hitch Adjustable 3” Lunette eye Lighting D.O.T. Regulation Front Jack Manual crank type Rear Jack Manual pin type Tires 11R x 17.5HC Load Range “H” Axle Single 10,000 lb. capacity Suspension Leaf spring Brakes Electric with Breakaway switch MODEL T-BWT-3-31RC SPECIFICATIONS 3,000 lbs 0 - 4 mph BULLWHEEL TENSIONER Diameter Groove Diameter Number of Grooves Replaceable Segments Bullwheel Lining 31” (bottom of groove) 1.50” 5 Yes Elastomer (bolt-on) REEL CARRIER Max. Reel Diameter Max. Reel Width Max. Reel Weight Spindle Diameter 84” 48” 7,000 lbs. 2 3/4” complete w/locking collars DIMENSIONS & WEIGHT Hydraulic actuated bullwheel brakes Hydraulic actuated reel brake Manual reel rewind complete with handcrank Hydraulic reel rewind motor & hose’s Unit Length Unit Width Unit Height Net Weight GVWR 16 ft. 7 in. 8 ft. 0 in. 8 ft. 7 in. 4,580 lbs. 11,000 lbs. Wagner-Smith Equipment Co. 921 S. Burleson Blvd., Burleson, TX 76028 East of the Rockies: Phone: (800)666-6567 (817)447-8085 Fax: (817)447-8917 West of the Rockies: Phone (800) 444-7064 (503) 692-0979 Fax: (503) 692-0474 Website: www.wagnersmithequipment.com In our continuing effort to improve our equipment, all specifications and design features are subject to change without notice.
CATIA V6 Structural Analysis (STA) Assess mechanical behavior early in the design process with CAD-integrated analysis. Make CAD-Integrated Analysis Work for You Global competition requires the creation of better products faster and at lower costs without sacrificing quality. Many companies have adopted Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE), but it has often been used by a limited number of highlyqualified specialists towards the end of the development cycle. This practice ends up restricting CAE’s effectiveness in the design phase. Performing simulation earlier in the design phase with industryproved design-integrated analysis technology can provide significant time and cost savings. About CATIA V6 Structural Analysis The tight integration of the CATIA Structural Analysis solution within the CAD environment allows design-analysis iterations to be performed rapidly by designers working within the CATIA design environment. It enables linear stress and modal analysis on parts and hybrid assemblies, including surfaces, solids, and wireframe geometries. Each 3D part is directly meshed and all connections are automatically generated to ensure mechanism consistency, as enabled through a unique joining technology. Features & Benefits • Linear stress and modal analysis on parts and hybrid assemblies enables designers and design engineers to simulate and validate assemblies that include surfaces, solids, and wireframe geometries. • Associativity between design and analysis specifications allows the analysis model to remain consistent with the design, no matter how often and substantial the design changes. • Easy-to-use pre- and postprocessing capabilities enable CATIA designers to transition easily to using CATIA analysis products in the same environment. • Automatic mesh generation for 1D, 2D, and 3D geometries generates reliable finite element meshes without user input. Tools are available to modify and make improvements wherever necessary, as well.
Autodesk® Revit® Autodesk® Revit® Structure Autodesk® Robot™ Structural Analysis Professional Integrating Autodesk Revit, Revit Structure, and Robot Structural Analysis Professional This paper explores the interoperability between Autodesk Revit, Revit Structure, and Robot Structural Analysis Professional—including recommended workflows, analytical modeling best practices, and the details of the data exchange between the software solutions. Structural engineers typically start the design process by interpreting architectural drawings, creating design documentation, and creating various analytical models. These analytical models must be consistently coordinated with respect to general framing layout, material and section properties, and loading. Once analysis and design is complete the design documentation is modified to reflect the most current design. This workflow is repeated for each iteration of the design process. ® ® ® ® The link between Autodesk Revit 2013 or Autodesk Revit Structure 2013 software and ® Autodesk Robot™ Structural Analysis Professional 2013 software helps make this workflow smoother by facilitating the coordination of design documentation with structural analytical design information. 1 Revit software supports the Building Information Modeling (BIM) process for structural engineers by providing a physical model of the structure to use for documentation and an associated analytical model as well as other structural attributes and properties to use for structural analysis and design. Robot Structural Analysis Professional supports BIM with its advanced analysis and multi-material design functionality. The bidirectional interoperability of Revit and Robot Structural Analysis Professional software helps reduce the time needed to create and update multiple analysis models and helps to avoid 1 Autodesk Revit 2013 contains the functionality of Autodesk® Revit® Architecture 2013, Autodesk® Revit® MEP 2013, and Autodesk® Revit® Structure 2013 software, and is available in the Autodesk® Building Design Suite Premium and Ultimate editions. To limit product name repetition, the use of the name “Revit” throughout the rest of this paper refers to both Autodesk Revit and Autodesk Revit Structure.
Abstract. In spite of the Internet’s phenomenal growth and social impact, many aspects of the collective communication behavior of its users are largely unknown. Understanding the structure and dynamics of the behavioral networks that connect users with each other and with services across the Internet is key to modeling the network and designing future applications. We present a characterization of the properties of the behavioral networks generated by several million users of the Abilene (Internet2) network. Structural features of these networks oﬀer new insights into scaling properties of network activity and ways of distinguishing particular patterns of traﬃc. For example, we ﬁnd that the structure of the behavioral network associated with Web activity is characterized by such extreme heterogeneity as to challenge any simple attempt to model Web server traﬃc.