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We describe a novel approach to distributed optimization and control of offshore oil production systems. The model incorporates a complex pipeline network. Oil and gas production systems are represented as a network of connected hierarchical structures of sub sea wells, manifolds and clusters. We consider multiphase flow of water, gas, and oil in the pipelines, and account for discrete switching and typical inflow characteristics of the sub sea wells. Network methods based on variational calculus provide a modeling framework for decentralized optimization and control. Conservation laws and the second law of thermodynamics combined with the passivity theory of nonlinear control lead to conditions for stability and optimality. We describe interconnections in networks through matrix representations that capture a network's topology. Control strategies are derived from the model, and stability and convergence to the optimal solution follows from the passivity conditions. The proposed distributed controller network can be seen as a special case of a Multi Agent System (MAS). Keywords process control, oil production, network theory, irreversible thermodynamics, distributed control, passivity, agents, Lagrangean decomposition, production optimization, multiphase flow.
Optimal Implementation of On-Line Optimization Xueyu Chen1, Ralph W. Pike1, Thomas A. Hertwig 2 and Jack R. Hopper3 1. Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 USA, 2. IMC Agrico Company, Convent, LA 70822 USA, 3. Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77710 USA Abstract Results from a theoretical and numerical evaluation of on-line optimization algorithms were used to recommend the best way to conduct on-line optimization. This optimal procedure conducts combined gross error detection and data reconciliation to detect and rectify gross errors in plant data sampled from the distributed control system. The Tjoa-Biegler method (the contaminated Gaussian distribution) was used for gross errors in the range of 3σ - 30σ or the robust method (Lorentzian distribution) for larger gross errors. This step generates a set of measurements containing only random errors which is used for simultaneous data reconciliation and parameter estimation using the least squares method. Updated parameters are used in the plant model for economic optimization that generates optimal set points for the distributed control system. Applying this procedure to a Monsanto sulfuric acid contact plant, a 3% increase in profit and a 10% reduction in SO2 emissions were projected over current operating condition which is consistent with other reported applications. Keywords: On-line optimization; data reconciliation parameter estimation; process optimization...
A control scheme for an air conditioning system is proposed, based on the continuous monitoring of the thermal, electric and climate variables. The dynamic behavior of the relevant variables is determined and expressed in terms of a compact model (the system transfer function). In this study, the indoor temperature control loop has been implemented using a conventional PI algorithm. The controller varies the speed of the compressor motor by means of a frequency inverter, which, in its turn, controls the refrigeration load. It has been observed that the PI controller reduced the variation of the indoor temperature, with significant improvement in the comfort conditions and reduction in the energy consumption. The derived model proved to be suitable for this type of application. Other dynamic important characteristics of the building and of the airconditioning equipment have been highlighted. The information contained in this model could also be useful for new design and retrofitting. KEYWORDS Direct Expansion AC Simulation, Modeling and Control; Environmental Comfort; Energy Saving..
This thesis investigates control and optimization of distributed stochastic systems motivated by current wireless applications. In wireless communication systems, power control is important at the user level in order to minimize energy requirements and to maintain communication Quality of Service (QoS) in the face of user mobility and fading channel variability. Clever power allocation provides an eﬃcient means to overcome in the uplink the so-called near-far eﬀect, in which nearby users with higher received powers at the base station may overwhelm signal transmission of far away users with lower received powers, and to compensate for the random ﬂuctuations of received power due to combined shadowing and possibly fast fading (multipath interference) eﬀects. With the wireless uplink power control problem for dynamic lognormal shadow fading channels as an initial paradigm, a class of stochastic control problems is formulated which includes a fading channel model and a power adjustment model. For optimization of such a system, a cost function is proposed which reﬂects the QoS requirements of mobile users in wireless systems. For the resulting stochastic control problem, existence and uniqueness of the optimal control is established. By dynamic programming, a Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation is derived for the value function associated with the stochastic power control problem. However, due to the degenerate nature of the HJB equation, the value function cannot be interpreted as a classical solution, which hinders the solution of explicit control laws or even the reliance on numerical methods. In the next step, a perturbation technique is applied to the HJB equation and a suboptimal control law using a classical solution...
Thank you for purchasing a SYSMAC CP-series CP1E Programmable Controller. This manual contains information required to use the CP1E. Read this manual completely and be sure you understand the contents before attempting to use the CP1E. This manual is intended for the following personnel, who must also have knowledge of electrical systems (an electrical engineer or the equivalent). • Personnel in charge of installing FA systems • Personnel in charge of designing FA systems • Personnel in charge of managing FA systems and facilities Applicable Products CP-series CP1E CPU Units • Basic Models CP1E-E (S)D A basic model of CPU Unit that support basic control applications using instructions such as basic, movement, arithmetic, and comparison instructions. • Application Models CP1E-N/NA (S )D An application model of CPU Unit that supports connections to Programmable Terminals, inverters, and servo drives. The CP Series is centered around the CP1H, CP1L, and CP1E CPU Units and is designed with the same basic architecture as the CS and CJ Series. Always use CP-series Expansion Units and CP-series Expansion I/O Units when expanding I/O capacity. I/O words are allocated in the same way as for the CPM1A/CPM2A PLCs, i.e., using fixed areas for inputs and outputs. CP1E CPU Unit Software User’s Manual(W480)
The following guide will assist you to setup a remote and online connection to the Omron equipment placed on the customer site using your Omron CXProgrammer software installed on your PC. Prerequisites for this guide are: You have an operational LinkManager installed on your PC with a GateManager certificate that allows you to connect to the SiteManager agents. You have the Omron software installed. You have the Omron device agent installed and configured on the SiteManager at the remote site, and there is access between the SiteManager and the Omron PLC. A Serial attached PLC (Such as the CJ1M) must be configured with agent device type Omron / Serial PLC on the SiteManager. A network attached PLC must be configured with agent device type Omron / Ethernet PLC on the SiteManager. A USB attached PLC (such as the CP1H) must be configured with agent device type Omron / USB PLC on the SiteManager. Note that this connection type requires a SiteManager model with USB support and minimum SiteManager version 12035 and LinkManager version 12155. If any of these prerequisites are not met, you should contact the person / department responsible within your own company or at the company responsible hereof. System Overview The communication path is as follows: CX-Programmer LinkManager GateManager SiteManager PLC. This guide will elaborate on the components marked with bold. The following system overview depicts a SiteManager 3229 at the customer location: Application note, Omron PLC and CX-Programmer Version: 5.3, June 2012
GENERAL INFORMATION Trouble Shooting - Basic Procedures GENERAL INFORMATION Trouble Shooting - Basic Procedures * PLEASE READ THIS FIRST * NOTE: This is GENERAL information. This article is not intended to be specific to any unique situation or individual vehicle configuration. The purpose of this Trouble Shooting information is to provide a list of common causes to problem symptoms. For model-specific Trouble Shooting, refer to SUBJECT, DIAGNOSTIC, or TESTING articles available in the section(s) you are accessing. ACCESSORIES & ELECTRICAL CHARGING SYSTEM TROUBLE SHOOTING NOTE: This is GENERAL information. This article is not intended to be specific to any unique situation or individual vehicle configuration. The purpose of this Trouble Shooting information is to provide a list of common causes to problem symptoms. For model-specific Trouble Shooting, refer to SUBJECT, DIAGNOSTIC, or TESTING articles available in the section(s) you are accessing. NOTE: This is GENERAL information. This article is not intended to be specific to any unique situation or individual vehicle configuration. The purpose of this Trouble Shooting information is to provide a list of common causes to problem symptoms. For model-specific Trouble Shooting, refer to SUBJECT, DIAGNOSTIC, or TESTING articles available in the section(s) you are accessing. BASIC CHARGING SYSTEM TROUBLE SHOOTING CHART CONDITION & POSSIBLE CAUSE CORRECTION Vehicle Will Not Start me Saturday, April 18, 2009 3:35:56 AM 3:36:11 Page 1 © 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC. 2007 Chrysler Sebring GENERAL INFORMATION Trouble Shooting - Basic Procedures Dead battery Check battery cells, alternator belt tension and alternator output Check all charging system connections Check and replace as necessary Loose or corroded battery connections Ignition circuit or switch malfunction Alternator Light Stays On With Engine Running Loose or worn alternator drive belt Loose alternator wiring connections Short in alternator light wiring Defective alternator stator or diodes Defective regulator Alternator Light Stays Off With Ignition Switch ON Blown fuse Defective alternator Defective indicator light bulb or socket Check alternator drive tension and condition, See Belt Adjustment in TUNE-UP article in the TUNE-UP section Check all charging system connections See Indicator Warning Lights in STANDARD INSTRUMENTS in the ACCESSORIES & EQUIPMENT section See Bench Tests in ALTERNATOR article See Regulator Check in ALTERNATOR article See WIRING DIAGRAMS See Testing in ALTERNATOR article See Indicator Warning Lights in STANDARD INSTRUMENTS in the ACCESSORIES & EQUIPMENT section me Saturday, April 18, 2009 3:35:57 AM
out there with overcooked plasticky interiors. The Subaru Forester 2.5XT is not one of them. It is the very model of restraint, with an aggregation of sport seats, textures, textiles, and metallic elements in the cockpit that put it in the same league as the attractive Mercury Mountaineer’s interior design. It doesn’t wear on you or distract you; it’s just there to look plenty good and serve your needs as they arise. The nattily attired bucket seats will not fit 100 percent of the population in comfort 100 percent of the time, but we sure liked the way they held our 95th-percentile middle-aged body in and down, and we didn’t have to readjust them once during the 600-mile blitz from New York to like, but then we’re lunatics. The cheap and cheerful strut suspension works okay on the street but not in the lab. Testing generated a pretty weak skidpad performance of 0.75 g, indicating that bigger tires are in order. The brakes stopped the car from 70 mph in 184 feet. SUBARU FORESTER 2.5XT Vehicle type: front-engine, 4-wheel-drive, 5-passenger, 5-door wagon Price as tested: $25,520 Price and option breakdown: base Subaru Forester 2.5XT (includes $550 freight), $25,520 Major standard accessories: power steering, windows, and locks; A/C; cruise control; tilting steering wheel; rear defroster and wiper C / D TEST RESULTS Sound system: Subaru AM/FM-stereo radio/CD changer, 7 speakers ...
• This task is not yet tagged. Jane wants to sell her Subaru Forester and does research online to find other cars for sale in her area. She checks on craigslist.com and finds 22 Subaru Foresters recently listed, along with their mileage (in miles), age (in years), and listed price (in dollars). (Collected on June 6th, 2012 for the San Francisco Bay Area.) She examines the scatterplot of price versus age and determines that a linear model is appropriate. She finds the equation of the least squares regression equation: predicted price = 24, 247.56 − 1482.06 age. a. What variable is the explanatory (independent) variable and what are the units it is measured in? What variable is the response (dependent) variable and what are the units it is measured in? b. What is the slope of the least squares regression line and what are its units? c. Interpret the slope of the least squares regression line in the context of the problem, discussing what the slope tells you about how price and age are related. Use appropriate units in your answer. d. What is the y-intercept of the least squares regression line? Interpret the y-intercept in the context of the problem, including appropriate units. Commentary This problem could be used as a lesson or an assessment. It is important to emphasize that regression lines always have context in statistics and that we can understand the importance of slope by thinking about “rise over run” using units from the context. It is also a good place to remind them that while slope always has an important meaning in a regression model, the yintercept may not, though in this example it does. The US News and World Report website lists the average national price of a 2012 (age = 0) Subaru Forester to be a range of $20,505 to $29,411 depending on the features ( http://usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/carstrucks/Subaru_Forester/prices/ ).
Subaru Remote Programming (Type 2) PLEASE NOTE: REQUIRES SUBARU KEY PROGRAMMING SOFTWARE & SOFTWARE VERSION 10.05 OR HIGHER (BETA AT THE TIME OF THIS PUBLICATION). These instructions are just for the remote which programs separate from the transponder. The following vehicles are supported: YEAR 2005 MAKE Subaru MODEL Outback 2.5XT/3.0R 2006 2006 2006 Subaru Subaru Subaru B9 Tribeca Legacy Outback 2007 2007 2007 Subaru Subaru Subaru B9 Tribeca Legacy Outback 2008 2008 2008 2008 Subaru Subaru Subaru Subaru Impreza Legacy Outback Tribeca 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 Subaru Subaru Subaru Subaru Subaru Forester Impreza Legacy Outback Tribeca 2010 2010 2010 2010 2010 Subaru Subaru Subaru Subaru Subaru Forester Impreza Legacy Outback Tribeca 2011 Subaru Forester Photo # 1 OPEN UP THE REMOTE TO OBTAIN THE REQUIRED 8 DIGIT ID CODE THAT SHOULD BE LOCATED ON A WHITE STICKER ATTACHED TO THE CIRCUIT BOARD. THE TOP LINE IS THE CODE YOU NEED. (11562847 IN THE PHOTO) NOTE: EACH REMOTE WILL HAVE ITS OWN UNIQUE ID CODE. COPYRIGHT ADVANCED DIAGNOSTICS USA INC. 2012 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED PROGRAMMING SEQUENCE Select: Subaru/ USA/ Remotes/ Type2 CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE 2 This Procedure requires SMC (Smart Card) COPYRIGHT ADVANCED DIAGNOSTICS USA INC. 2012 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Using the touch screen on the PRO Enter the 8 digit code from the remote label found inside the remote (See Photo #1 on Page 1 Touch the CHECK MARK on the touch screen to program the remote code displayed on the screen VERY IMPORTANT: Please Wait 20-30 seconds before testing the remote CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE