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1. Crops can be produced on non-arable land (not fit for farming). Ex. Land with poor soils, and contamination (i.e., high heavy metal and salinity levels). *The grower doesn’t have to have good soil since the systems, bags, etc. are placed on top of the ground. 2. Isolation from diseases or insect pests usually found in the soil. *The plant roots are contained in systems, bags, etc. and do not grow through soil that might contain diseases or other pests such as insects and nematodes. *Additionally, white fabric ground covers can be placed on the greenhouse floor to further isolate the systems and plants from soil-borne pests. NOTE: The white fabric also reflects light back up into the canopy enhancing photosynthesis, allows for ease of cleaning and helps control humidity and weeds. 3. Direct and immediate control over the rhizosphere. *Since the roots are either growing in water or growing through an inert medium, whatever is in the nutrient solution is bathing the roots. Therefore, nutrient concentrations and pH can be adjusted quickly. 4. High planting densities are possible which minimizes use of land area. *For field tomatoes a typical planting density is 4000 to 5000 plants per acre. Greenhouse hydroponic tomatoes can be 10,000 to 11,000 plants per acre! *Plants can be grown closer together because of the use of indeterminant (“vining”) varieties that take up less area than do bush varieties usually used for field cropping. Also they need less root room – the plants are “spoon fed” the nutrient and water they need and do not have to grow a large root system to find these, as field tomatoes do in the soil. 5. Higher yields are ...
Like much of agriculture, Alabama’s aquacultural production sector has been under stress for several years. Alabama producers and intermediaries in the system face competition from others in the ﬁsh and seafood industry, both domestically and internationally, as well as from producers and handlers of other protein sources. Prices for farm level products have generally been depressed and input costs have been on the rise. Thus, proﬁt margins have become thin to nonexistent. Resource owners are interested in identifying and evaluating viable alternative uses for their productive assets. To cope in this environment and be proﬁtable, Alabama aquacultural producers must organize and operate to maximize efﬁciency and be innovative in decisions and actions. Existing ﬁsh production technologies and approaches, primarily pond culture, may not compete effectively. Increasing yield per unit of water, lowering cost per unit of product, and/or enhancing market access could improve the plight of producers. This study aims to identify and assess the technical and economic feasibility of an alternative production system that integrates hydroponic tomato production with production of channel catﬁsh or tilapia using recirculating water through a closed, controlled environment using separate greenhouses to produce tomatoes and ﬁsh throughout the year.
History of Hydroponics. • Hanging gardens of ... World War II-hydroponics in western Pacific. • Plastics .... TOV (tomato on the vine): Tradiro, Ambiance,. Balance ... History of Hydroponics • • • • • Hanging gardens of Babylon Aztec floating gardens World War II-hydroponics in western Pacific Plastics changed everything! Boom in 1990’s – – – – Space program Growing in deserts Vertical farming Large scale production Advantages •Crops can be grown where soil is unsuitable •Reduced plant disease •More control •Bigger yields Disadvantages •Initial costs higher •Deeper knowledge is needed •If introduced, diseases can easily spread •Needs more attention The basics • Growing substrates • Nutrient solution • System designs Growing Substrates • What makes a good media? – Provides support – Good pore size – Does not clog system – Does not affect nutrient solution Photo: /www.aquaponicsusa.com
Greenhouse tomato production has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. However, of all the greenhouse crops, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are the most complicated to grow because they require the most management, the most labor, and the most light. A grower must be committed to meeting the daily demands of production in order to be successful. Prospective growers need to get as much information as they can about all aspects of greenhouse production before beginning this enterprise. Marketing The development of farmers markets, roadside farm markets, and produce auctions across the state offer significant opportunities to sell produce from the farm. Tomatoes can be sold directly from the greenhouse at retail prices. Wholesale markets include supermarkets, restaurants, caterers, and wholesale distributors. Market Outlook The U.S. greenhouse tomato market is increasing dramatically as many consumers will now pay an increased price for a red, ripe tomato. It is possible for Kentucky growers to sell greenhouse tomatoes in this expanding market. Early-season tomato production may also capture higher prices resulting in profitability from intensive production systems. Excellent light, moderate heating costs, high yields, and good prices make spring the best time for greenhouse tomato production in Kentucky. On the other hand, fall and winter production generally results in low returns due to reduced yields and high fuel costs. For this reason, it is difficult to recommend production schedules where tomato harvest would be expected from December through mid February. Production Considerations Production systems There is no single best system for successfully growing greenhouse tomatoes. Many production systems will work if the grower correctly manages fertilization and watering. With experience, individual growers will be able to determine the best and most economic techniques to use in their greenhouse. A number of different types of growing media can be used for greenhouse tomatoes, including good field soil, packaged commercial mixes, and various types of hydroponic media. Use only materials that have been sterilized, pasteurized, or manufactured under clean, disease-free conditions. Small growers often use in-ground soil culture in the beginning, but generally switch to perlite or pinebark culture as they learn more about tomato production. A drip irrigation system is used for the distribution of water and nutrients. Tomatoes require 4 square feet of space per plant. This crop will require attention everyday to ensure success. Equipment (such as fans, vents,...
Nutrient Solution Formulation for Hydroponic (Perlite, Rockwool, NFT) Tomatoes in Florida1 George J. Hochmuth and Robert C. Hochmuth2 Plants require 16 elements for growth and these nutrients can be supplied from air, water, and fertilizers. The 16 elements are carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), boron (B), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo), and chlorine (Cl). The key to successful management of a fertilizer program is to ensure adequate concentrations of all nutrients throughout the life cycle of the crop. Inadequate or excessive amounts of any nutrient result in poor crop performance. Excessive amounts can be especially troublesome since they can damage the crop, waste money and fertilizer resources, and pollute the environment when fertilizer is released during flushing of the nutrient delivery system. problem comes early in the season when plants become too vegetative (bullish) from too much N. The bullish growth distorts the leaves and stems, causing cracks and grooves in the stems. These openings are excellent entry ports for decay-causing organisms such as soft rot. Bullish plants usually produce misshapen fruits often with significant amounts of blossom-end rot and cat-facing. Keeping the N level low (60 to 70 parts per million) early in the season helps eliminate bullishness. For Florida greenhouse vegetable producers, management focuses on all nutrients except for C, H, and O. The latter three elements are usually supplied in adequate amounts from air and water. Growers in northern climates, where greenhouses are not ventilated in the winter, see benefits from additions of C from carbon dioxide (CO2). Increased yields in Florida from additions of CO2 are unlikely due to the need for frequent ventilation. Nutrient management programs should begin with an understanding of the nutrient solution concentrations in parts per million (ppm) for the various nutrients required by tomato plants. By managing the concentrations of individual nutrients, growers can control the growth and yield of the crop. Table 1 presents the fertilizer recommendations for tomatoes for the various growth stages during the season in Florida. These recommendations are applicable to all types of production systems (perlite, rockwool, and NFT) in which healthy roots are maintained, and are a suitable base when determining a nutrient solution plan for cucumbers and peppers. However, cucumbers will need more N early in the season than tomato.
Available applications and services are subject to change at any time. Table of Contents Get Started 1 Your Phone at a Glance 1 Set Up Your Phone 1 Activate Your Phone 4 Complete the Setup Screens 4 Set Up Voicemail 6 Sprint Account Information and Help 7 Sprint Account Passwords 7 Manage Your Account 7 Sprint Support Services 8 Phone Basics 10 Your Phone’s Layout 10 S Pen Overview 11 Understanding the S Pen 12 Removing the S Pen from your Phone 12 Using the S Pen 13 Screen Capture 15 Air View 17 Turn Your Phone On and Off 17 Turn Your Screen On and Off 17 Multi Window Overview 18 Enable Multi Window 18 Display Multi Window 18 Work With Multi Window 18 Touchscreen Navigation 19 Your Home Screen 24 Home Screen Overview 24 Creating Shortcuts 25 Adding and Removing Primary Shortcuts 26 Adding and Removing Widgets 27 Extended Home Screens 27 Recently Used Applications 28 Status Bar 29 i Enter Text 31 Touchscreen Keyboards 32 Text Input Methods 32 Google Voice Typing 33 Samsung Keyboard Input Options 34 Samsung Keyboard Options 36 Swype Input Options 37 Swype Text Entry Options 38 Tips for Editing Text 40 Phone Calls Make Phone Calls 41 41 Call Using the Keypad 41 Call from Logs 41 Call from Contacts 42 Call a Number in a Text Message 43 Call a Number in an Email Message 43 Call Emergency Numbers 43 Receive Phone Calls 44 Answer an Incoming Call 44 Mute the Ringing Sound 44 Reject an Incoming Call 45 Reject a Call with a Text Message 45 Voicemail (Traditional) 45 Set Up Voicemail Through the Phone App 45 Retrieve Your Voicemail Messages 46 Voicemail Notification 46 Visual Voicemail 46 Set Up Visual Voicemail 47 Review Visual Voicemail 47 Listen to Multiple Voicemail Messages 47 Configure Visual Voicemail Options 48 Configure Visual Voicemail Settings 49 Automatically Enable the Speakerphone 50 Change Your Main Greeting via the Voicemail Menu 50 Edit the From Name via the Voicemail Menu 50 Record a Visual Voicemail Message 51 Phone Call Options 51 ii Dialing Options 51 Caller ID 52 Call Waiting 52 3-way Calling 52 Call Forwarding 53 In-call Options 53 Speed Dialing 54 Logs 56 View Logs. 56 Logs Options 56 Clear Logs 57 Call Settings 57 Call Rejection 57 Set Reject Messages 57 Ringtones and Keypad Tones 58 Call Alert 58 Call Answering/Ending 59 Auto Screen Off During Calls 59 Accessory Settings for Call 59 My Call Sound 59 Use Extra Volume for Calls 60 Increase Volume in Pocket 60 Additional Settings 60 US Dialing 61 International Dialing 61 TTY Mode 61 DTMF Tones 62 Voicemail Settings 62 Voice Privacy 63 Contacts 65 Get Started With Contacts 65 Access Contacts 65 The Contacts List 66 Add a Contact 67 Save a Phone Number 68 Edit a Contact 70 Add or Edit Information for a Contact 70 iii Assign a Stored Picture to a Contact 71 Assign a New Picture to a Contact 71 Assign a Ringtone to a Contact 72 Join a Contact 72 Delete a Contact 72 Synchronize Contacts 73 Add Entries to Your Favorites 74 Add Facebook Content to Your Contacts 74 Create Groups 75 Share a Contact 76 Accounts and Messaging 78 Gmail / Google 78 Create a Google Account 78 Sign In to Your Google Account 79 Access Gmail 79 Send a Gmail Message 79 Read Gmail Messages 80 Reply to Gmail Messages 81 Email 81 Add an Email Account 82 Add a Corporate Email Account 82 Compose and Send Email 84 View and Reply to Email 84 Manage Your Email Inbox 85 Corporate Email Features 86 Edit Email Account Settings 87 Edit Corporate Email Account Settings 88 Delete an Email Account 90 Add the Email Widget 90 Text Messaging and MMS 91 Compose Text Messages 91 Send a Multimedia Message (MMS) 91 Save and Resume a Draft Message 93 New Messages Notification 93 Managing Message Conversations 93 Text and MMS Options 95 Social Networking Accounts 98
Available applications and services are subject to change at any time. Table of Contents Get Started 1 Your Phone at a Glance 1 Set Up Your Phone 1 Activate Your Phone 2 Complete the Setup 3 Set Up Voicemail 4 Sprint Account Information and Help 5 Sprint Account Passwords 5 Manage Your Account 5 Sprint Support Services 6 Phone Basics Your Phone’s Layout Key Functions 7 7 7 Turn Your Phone On and Off 8 Turn Your Screen On and Off 9 Features 9 Motions and Gestures 9 Smart Screen 10 Air View 11 Voice Control 12 Multi Window 12 Touchscreen Navigation 13 Tap 13 Touch and Hold 14 Swipe or Slide 14 Drag 15 Flick 15 Rotate 16 Pinch and Spread 17 Your Home Screen 17 Create Shortcuts 18 Add and Remove Primary Shortcuts 19 Add and Remove Widgets 19 i Extended Home Screens 20 Recent Applications 20 Status Bar 20 Enter Text 21 Text Input Methods 21 Google Voice Typing 22 Samsung Keyboard 23 Swype 23 Tips for Editing Text 24 Phone Calls Make Phone Calls 25 25 Call Using the Keypad 25 Call from Logs 25 Call from Contacts 25 Call a Number in a Text Message 26 Call a Number in an Email Message 26 Call Emergency Numbers 26 Receive Phone Calls 27 Answer an Incoming Call 27 Mute the Ringing Sound 27 Reject an Incoming Call 28 Reject a Call with a Text Message 28 Phone Call Options 28 Dialing Options 28 Caller ID 29 Call Waiting 29 3-way Calling 29 Call Forwarding 30 In-call Options 30 Speed Dials 31 Voicemail 32 Set Up Voicemail 32 Retrieve Your Voicemail Messages 33 Voicemail Notification 33 Visual Voicemail 33 Logs 34 View Logs 34 ii Logs Options 34 Clear Logs 34 Contacts 36 Get Started With Contacts 36 Access Contacts 36 Contacts Options 36 Add a Contact 37 Save a Phone Number 38 Edit a Contact 38 Add or Edit Information for a Contact 38 Assign a Picture to a Contact 39 Assign a Ringtone to a Contact 39 Link a Contact 40 Delete a Contact 40 Add Entries to Your Favorites 40 Create Groups 40 Share a Contact 41 Accounts and Messaging 43 Google Account 43 Create a Google Account 43 Sign In to Your Google Account 43 Access Gmail 44 Send a Gmail Message 44 Read and Reply to Gmail Messages 45 Samsung Account 45 Email 45 Add an Email Account 46 Add a Microsoft Exchange ActiveSync Account 46 Compose and Send Email 47 Reply or Forward Email 48 Manage Your Email Inbox 48 Edit Email Settings 49 Delete an Email Account 51 Text and Multimedia Messaging 52 Send a Text Message (SMS) 52 Send a Multimedia Message (MMS) 52 Save and Resume a Draft Message 53 iii New Messages Notification 54 Managing Messages 54 Text and MMS Settings 56 Social Networking Accounts 58 YouTube 58 Google+ 58 Hangouts 59 Apps and Entertainment DivX 60 60 DivX Legal Information 60 Locate Your VOD Registration Number 60 Register Your DivX Device for VOD Playback of Purchased Movies 60 Google Play Store 61 Find and Install an App 61 Create a Google Wallet Account 62 Open an Installed App 62 Uninstall an App 63 Navigation 63 Google Maps 63 Scout™ 63 Samsung Apps 64 Music Apps 64 Google Play Music 64 Music 64 Sprint Music Plus 67 Google Play Movies & TV 68 Google Play Books 68 Google Play Games 68 Google Play Magazines 68 Group Play 69 Sprint Zone 70 Sprint TV & Movies 70 Samsung Link 71 Configure Samsung Link Settings 71 Use Samsung Link to Share Media with Another Device 72 CBS Sports 72 BaconReader 73
Available applications and services are subject to change at any time. TABLE OF CONTENTS GET STARTED 1 Your Phone at a Glance 1 Set Up Your Phone 1 Install the battery 1 Charge the Battery 2 Turn your Phone On 2 Activation and Service 3 Create Your Account and Pick Your Plan 3 Activate Your Phone 4 Manage Your Account 4 Top-Up Your Account 4 Additional Information 5 Complete the Setup 5 Set Up Voicemail 6 Memory Card 6 Install a microSD Card 7 Remove a microSD Card 7 View microSD Card Memory 7 Format a microSD Card 7 Unmount a microSD Card 8 PHONE BASICS Your Phone’s Layout Key Functions 9 9 9 Turn Your Phone On and Off 10 Turn Your Screen On and Off 10 Touchscreen Navigation 11 Multi Window 16 Your Home Screen 17 Creating Shortcuts 18 Adding and Removing Primary Shortcuts 18 Adding and Removing Widgets 19 Extended Home Screens 19 Recent Apps 20 i Status Bar 20 Enter Text 21 Touchscreen Keyboards 21 Text Input Methods 22 Google Voice Typing 22 Samsung Keyboard 23 Swype 23 Tips for Editing Text 24 PHONE CALLS Make Phone Calls 26 26 Call Using the Keypad 26 Call from Logs 26 Call from Contacts 26 Call a Number in a Text Message 27 Call a Number in an Email Message 27 Call Emergency Numbers 27 Enhanced 911 (E911) Information 28 Receive Phone Calls 28 Answer an Incoming Call 28 Mute the Ringing Sound 28 Reject an Incoming Call 29 Voicemail 29 Retrieve Voicemail Messages 29 Voicemail Notification 29 Visual Voicemail 30 Phone Call Options 30 Dialing Options 30 Caller ID 30 Call Waiting 31 3-Way Calling 31 Call Forwarding 31 In-call Options 32 Speed Dialing 33 Logs 33 View Logs 34 Logs Options 34 Clear Logs 34 ii CONTACTS 35 Get Started with Contacts 35 Access Contacts 35 Add a Contact 35 Save a Phone Number 36 Edit a Contact 36 Add or Edit Information for a Contact 37 Assign an Image to a Contact 37 Assign a Ringtone to a Contact 37 Link a Contact 38 Delete a Contact 38 Add Contacts to Your Favorites 38 Create Groups 39 Create a New Group 39 Add a Contact to a Group 39 Send a Message to Group Members 39 Share a Contact ACCOUNTS AND MESSAGING Google 40 41 41 Create a Google Account 41 Access Gmail 41 Send a Gmail Message 42 Read and Reply to Gmail Messages 42 Email 43 Add an Email Account 43 Add a Microsoft Exchange ActiveSync Account 43 Compose and Send Email 44 View and Reply to Email 45 Manage Your Email Inbox 45 Edit Email Settings 46 Delete an Email Account 49 Text and Multimedia Messaging 49 Send a Message 49 New Messages Notification 50 Managing Message Conversations 50 Messaging Settings 52 Social Networking Accounts 54 iii Flipboard 54 Google+ 54 Hangouts 54 YouTube 55 APPS AND ENTERTAINMENT Samsung Link 56 56 Configure Samsung Link Settings 56 Use Samsung Link to Share Media with Another Device 57 Group Play 57 DivX 58 DivX Legal Information 59 Locating Your VOD Registration Number 59 Register Your DivX Device for VOD Playback of Purchased Movies 59 Google Play Store 60 Find and Install an App 60 Create a Google Wallet Account 61 Open an Installed App 61 Uninstall an App 61 Google Play Books 61 Google Play Magazines 62 Google Play Movies & TV 62 Google Play Music 62 Music App 62 Google Maps 63 WEB AND DATA 64 Internet 64 Chrome 64 Data Services (3G and 4G) 64 Your Data Services User Name 64 4G Services 65 Wi-Fi 65 Turn Wi-Fi On and Connect to a Wireless Network Bluetooth 65 66 Turn Bluetooth On or Off 66 Connect a Bluetooth Headset or Car Kit 67 Reconnect a Headset or Car Kit 67 Disconnect or Unpair from a Bluetooth Device 68
SAMSUNG GALAXY S® III Software Version JSS15J.I535VRUCML1. Verizon Wireless is pleased to announce a software update that will improve the performance of your Samsung Galaxy S® III and also enable support for the Samsung Galaxy Gear. SMART RELAY • ccess content simultaneously on your Gear and phone A Now you can use the Samsung Galaxy Gear with your Samsung Galaxy S® III smartphone. Just perform the software update, and you can use the Gear to call, email and text right from your wrist. For more information and to purchase a Galaxy Gear please visit www.vzw.com/ galaxygear. | Data Usage Applies. © 2013 Verizon Wireless. AUTO LOCK • nlocks your phone automatically, avoiding constant PIN entry U For more information on the Samsung Galaxy S® III, please visit www.vzw.com/galaxys3support | 1213-G9193 1 2 3 4 5 SAMSUNG GALAXY S® III FIND MY PHONE HANDS-FREE CALLING • Activate a remote alert from your Gear to track down your misplaced phone • nswer calls on your Gear when your A phone is out of reach CAMERA PEDOMETER & S HEALTH • Snap pictures quickly and easily with your Gear • rack your steps and activity on T your Gear | Data Usage Applies. © 2013 Verizon Wireless. For more information on the Samsung Galaxy S® III, please visit www.vzw.com/galaxys3support | 1213-G9193 1 2 3 4 5 SAMSUNG GALAXY S® III Once you perform the update, you can also access the Verizon Cloud and 5 MB of free storage conveniently on your device. With the Verizon Cloud you can: • Back up and access smartphone content in a secure place • Transfer content on multiple devices (smartphone, tablet and computer) • Save text messages, call logs, contacts, music and multimedia files • Restore data on a new device if your old one is lost or stolen Installing Verizon Cloud on your Samsung Galaxy S3 is easy. Follow the steps below: 1. Tap on the Backup Assistant Plus 2. A message will be displayed notification or open the Backup instructing to upgrade to Assistant Plus app Verizon Cloud 3. Tap on Update on the Google Play Store screen to upgrade to Verizon Cloud | Data Usage Applies. © 2013 Verizon Wireless. For more information on the Samsung Galaxy S® III, please visit www.vzw.com/galaxys3support | 1213-G9193 1 2 3 4 5 SAMSUNG GALAXY S® III When you upgrade to Android Jelly Bean 4.3 OS, the performance of your Samsung Galaxy S®III will improve in the following ways: THE FOLLOWING CAPABILITIES HAVE BEEN ADDED: • Media Backup in Backup Assistant has been removed • Move apps from internal memory to SD card (some applications may not support this feature) • Camera supports ‘Sound & Shot’ • Share videos simultaneously across 4 devices with Group Play • Multi Window has been enhanced • Access music player controls on the Lock Screen • ‘Location settings completed’ checkbox has been removed from Setup Wizard • Even more Bluetooth® Smart Accessories are now supported - ccessories include heart rate monitors, pedometers and A thermometers • Roaming on the TELUS Network in Canada is now possible THE FOLLOWING CHANGES HAVE BEEN MADE: • OS has been upgraded to Jelly Bean 4.3 • Starter Mode has been renamed to Easy Mode in Home Screen THE FOLLOWING APP NAMES HAVE RENAMED: • Samsung Link (formerly AllShare Play) • Easy Mode (formerly Starter Mode) • Screen Mirroring (formerly Allshare Cast) • Samsung Hub (consolidated from Media & Music) | Data Usage Applies. © 2013 Verizon Wireless. For more information on the Samsung Galaxy S® III, please visit www.vzw.com/galaxys3support