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Pemanfaatan Hasil Samping Penggilingan Padi dalam Menunjang ...

Sistem Agroindustri di Pedesaan Sri Widowati Balai Penelitian Bioteknologi Tanaman Pangan, Bogor ABSTRACT Use of Side Products of Rice Mills in Support of Agroindustry. Sri Widowati. Rice is the most important food crop in Indonesia. Rice production, processing, and distribution activities need more labours and may become sources of income to the farmers. The country’s rice production rate is relatively low, i.e. 50% of the population growth rate. Therefore, rice production need to be imporved by increasing of the crop productivity, breeding through conventional and modern technologies (biotechnology), extensification, as well as post harvest handling and processing of side product from rice mills. Type of rice grain polish affected the physical quality of rice. Type of grain friction resulted in lower rice brewers (2%), glossy, but low whiteness (41%). Type of grain abrassiveness type resulted in higher rice brewers (5%), but seem to be more whiteness (55%). Polishing rate enfluenced the yield recovery of the side product, especially for rice bran; the higher polishing rate, the higher of rice bran recovery. Side product from rice mills are rice husk (15-20%), rice bran (8-12%), and rice brewer (±5%). The annual rice production of the country is approximately 49.8 million ton. This means that about 7.5-10 million ton of rice husk, 4-6 million ton of rice bran, and 2.5 million ton of rice brewer were produced annually. The use of side product from rice mills were still limited. Rice brewer is commonly used material for traditional food product, flour, and high protein rice flour. Rice husk is used for planting media, fuel, component in brick making. Coarse bran was used as animal feed, while the fine bran was used in making traditional food and extrusion product. High nutrient content of stabilized rice bran can be used as raw material in food and non-food industries. Key words: Rice, side product of rice mill, agroindustry B beras merupakan komoditas yang sangat penting di Indonesia. Betapa pentingnya beras bagi kehidupan bangsa Indonesia, dapat dikaji peranannya dalam aspek bu-daya, sosial, ekonomi,bahkan poli-tik. Produksi, prosesing, dan distri-busi beras merupakan salah satu sumber pendapatan dan tenaga kerja yang besar dalam perekono-mian Indonesia. Beras dikonsumsi oleh lebih dari 40% penduduk Indonesia (Damardjati, 1997). Konsumsi beras per kapita meningkat tajam dari 110 kg pada tahun 1968 menjadi 146 kg pada tahun 1983 dan kenaikan tampak lamban setelah tercapai swasembada beras. Beberapa hal yang memacu peningkatan kebutuhan beras,yaitu peningkatan konsumsi per kapita,peningkatan populasi dan Hak Cipta  2001, Balitbio perbaikan ekonomi yang mendorong bergesernya pola makan dari nonberas ke beras (Kuntowijoyo, 1991)...

Proses Ekstrusi untuk Pengolahan Hasil Samping Penggilingan Padi

PROSES EKSTRUSE UNTUK PENGOLAHAN MASIL SAMPENG PENGGELENGAN PAD1 (MENBR DAN BEKATtJI,) Joko ~ermanianto",Z a ~ a ~ulandari"danErni ~ m a w a t i ~ ) ~ekafuf.merupakan hasil safnping penggilingan padi yang secara nasioizal cukup banyak yaitu tersedia bekatul sekitar 4 - 6 juta ton/tahun dun menir sekitar 2,5 - 4 juta toidtahun. Deizgan pertimbangan ketersediaan yang cukup serta nilai gizi bekatul yang tinggi yaittc protein 14%, lenzak 18%, karbohidrat 36%, abu 10% dan serat kasar 12% serta kaya akan vitairrin ~naka hasil sanlping itu cukup potensial untuk dikembangkan. Peneliliar? ini bertujuan zi~zfuk mengenzbangkai7 produk ekstrusi hasil .sninpir?g penggilingan pndi (bekaeul, menir) dan jagung daiam upaya peningkatan manfaat dan nilai ekononzi~?-ya. Pda penelitian ini dilakukan percobaan pembuatan produk dengan berbagai .forr~rir/asi (campurani antara bekatul, menir d m jagung. Fornzulasi yang dibuat ndalah sebagai berikut : jagung (1 00%), menir (1OQ%j,menir :bekatul (90 :lo), menir : bekatul (80 :20), inenir :bekatul (30 : 70), menir :bekatul (40 :60), menir : bekatul (50 : 5 0 ) , nzenir : bekatul (60 : 40). rwenir : bektul : jagung (33,3 : 33,3 :33,3j, dan ntenir :bekatul :jagurzg (50 :25 :25). Hasil uji$sik nzutu produk ekstrusi inenunjukkan dengan sentakin mer~irirgknt persentase bekatul didalam fon?2ulasi akan menurunkan nilai derajat gelatinisasi, rasio pengembangai~,indeks keiarutan dalani air (11. dan indeks penyerapan air(lPA) . Untuk tekstur produk , .sentakin Hr~ggi 10)persentase bekatul didalain produk , tekstur semakin keras. Analisa nutrisi produk ekstrusi meliputi kadar air, kadar abu, kadar protein d a kadar lerrrak. Untuk kadar air berkisar antara 5,13% sarnpai 7,01%. k-adar air prodztk ekstrusi tidhk tergantung pada formulasi produk. Sedangkan untuk kadar abzc, kndnr protein don kndar len~ak tergantztng pa& ,fomzulasi produk. Dengan menir~gkafnya persentnse bekatul dalam produk akai? rnetlingkatkan kndnr abu, kadm protein dai? kadar lemak dari produk Hal ini disebabkan A-adar abu, kadar protein don kadnr leinak dari bekatul relatif lebih tinggi dibnndingka~~ dengan kndar ahu, kadar protein dan lindar len~ak dari bekatul. Nilai gizi produk ekstrusi khususn~ln niiai asani amino semakin ~ne~zingkat dengan semakin tingginya persentase bekatul dalant fownulasi produk. Hasil uji orgatzoleptik terhadap teksrur dari kesepuluh forn~ulanzenu~?jukkn~7 bahwa penanzbahan bekatul lebih besar dari 30% menurunkan nilai penerinlaan ko~zsurnen, hnik dari segi rasa, urnma, aroma mauput? kerenvahan. Pei~urunan tingkot kesukaan terhadap rnsa sebapi akibat dari munculva "after taste" pahit karena adanya kompnner~ saponin dalain bekatul, ~zantun dengan penanrhahnn jagung dapat memperbaiki nilai kesukaan secara organoleptik. PENDAHULUAN Pernanfaatan sumber daya pertanian & beberapa negara berkembang rnasih sangat kurag. Salah satu cara untuk rneningkatkan sumberhya pertanian tersebut adalah dengarr cam pengmekaragman Gara pengolaha yang bemjuan untuk meningkatkan penlmfaatan dan It,Jumsan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, FATETA-IPB 'Mahasiswa Junrsan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, EATETA-IPB...

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