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Nutrient Solution Formulation for Hydroponic (Perlite, Rockwool, NFT) Tomatoes in Florida1 George J. Hochmuth and Robert C. Hochmuth2 Plants require 16 elements for growth and these nutrients can be supplied from air, water, and fertilizers. The 16 elements are carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), boron (B), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo), and chlorine (Cl). The key to successful management of a fertilizer program is to ensure adequate concentrations of all nutrients throughout the life cycle of the crop. Inadequate or excessive amounts of any nutrient result in poor crop performance. Excessive amounts can be especially troublesome since they can damage the crop, waste money and fertilizer resources, and pollute the environment when fertilizer is released during flushing of the nutrient delivery system. problem comes early in the season when plants become too vegetative (bullish) from too much N. The bullish growth distorts the leaves and stems, causing cracks and grooves in the stems. These openings are excellent entry ports for decay-causing organisms such as soft rot. Bullish plants usually produce misshapen fruits often with significant amounts of blossom-end rot and cat-facing. Keeping the N level low (60 to 70 parts per million) early in the season helps eliminate bullishness. For Florida greenhouse vegetable producers, management focuses on all nutrients except for C, H, and O. The latter three elements are usually supplied in adequate amounts from air and water. Growers in northern climates, where greenhouses are not ventilated in the winter, see benefits from additions of C from carbon dioxide (CO2). Increased yields in Florida from additions of CO2 are unlikely due to the need for frequent ventilation. Nutrient management programs should begin with an understanding of the nutrient solution concentrations in parts per million (ppm) for the various nutrients required by tomato plants. By managing the concentrations of individual nutrients, growers can control the growth and yield of the crop. Table 1 presents the fertilizer recommendations for tomatoes for the various growth stages during the season in Florida. These recommendations are applicable to all types of production systems (perlite, rockwool, and NFT) in which healthy roots are maintained, and are a suitable base when determining a nutrient solution plan for cucumbers and peppers. However, cucumbers will need more N early in the season than tomato.
All rights reserved. Mechanical, electronic, photographic or other reproduction or copying from this book or parts of it are according to the present Danish copyright law not allowed without written permission from or agreement with GRUNDFOS Management A/S. GRUNDFOS Management A/S cannot be held responsible for the correctness of the information given in the book. Usage of information is at your own responsibility. In the Department of Structural and Fluid Mechanics we are happy to present the first English edition of the book: ’The Centrifugal Pump’. We have written the book because we want to share our knowledge of pump hydraulics, pump design and the basic pump terms which we use in our daily work. ’The Centrifugal Pump’ is primarily meant as an internal book and is aimed at technicians who work with development and construction of pump components. Furthermore, the book aims at our future colleagues, students at universities and engineering colleges, who can use the book as a reference and source of inspiration in their studies. Our intention has been to write an introductory book that gives an overview of the hydraulic components in the pump and at the same time enables technicians to see how changes in construction and operation influence the pump performance. In chapter 1, we introduce the principle of the centrifugal pump as well as its hydraulic components, and we list the different types of pumps produced by Grundfos. Chapter 2 describes how to read and understand the pump performance based on the curves for head, power, efficiency and NPSH. In chapter 3 you can read about how to adjust the pump’s performance when it is in operation in a system. The theoretical basis for energy conversion in a centrifugal pump is introduced in chapter 4, and we go through how affinity rules are used for scaling the performance of pump impellers. In chapter 5, we describe the different types of losses which occur in the pump, and how the losses affect flow, head and power consumption. In the book’s last chapter, chapter 6, we go trough the test types which Grundfos continuously carries out on both assembled pumps and pump components to ensure that the pump has the desired performance. The entire department has been involved in the development of the book. Through a longer period of time we have discussed the idea, the contents and the structure and collected source material. The framework of the Danish book was made after some intensive working days at ‘Himmelbjerget’. The result of the department’s engagement and effort through several years is the book which you are holding. We hope that you will find ‘The Centrifugal Pump’ useful, and that you will use it as a book of reference in you daily work. Enjoy!...
Reading and understanding centrifugal pump curves is key to proper pump selection, and to their reliable and efficient operation. This Tech Brief examines how pump curves can provide data about a pump’s ability to produce flow against certain head, shows how to read a typical centrifugal pump curve, and provides information about pump efficiency and brake horsepower. Pumps are the workhorses of any drinking water distribution or wastewater collection system. They operate 24 hours a day, 365 days a year getting water to homes and business, and removing wastewater from them. A correctly sized pump will work efficiently for many years, saving a system money and energy. An incorrectly sized pump can fail if it’s too small or result in unnecessary expense if it’s too big. Pump curves provide a way to see the correct size a pump should be for specific conditions. Pump Terminology Before discussing specific details, it helps to understand typical terms associated with pump curves: Impeller—the moving element in a pump that drives the liquid. Volute—the spiral-shaped casing surrounding a pump impeller that collects the liquid discharged by the impeller. Head—a measure of the pressure or force exerted by water expressed in feet. Centrifugal pump curves show pressure as head, which is the equivalent height of water with specific gravity = 1. Static Head—the vertical height difference from the surface of a water source to the centerline of the impeller. The vertical height difference from the centerline of the impeller to the discharge point is called discharge static head, while the vertical height difference from the surface of the water source to the discharge point is known as total static head. Total Head / Total Dynamic Head—the total height difference (total static head) plus friction losses and demand pressure from nozzles etc. (total discharge head) = total dynamic head. Capacity/Flow—the rate of liquid flow that can be carried, typically measured in gallons per minute (gpm). Net Positive Suction Head—how much suction lift a pump can achieve by creating a partial vacuum. Atmospheric pressure then pushes liquid into pump. A method of calculating if the pump will work or not. Cavitation—cavities or voids in liquid. Bubbles take up space leading to a drop in pump capacity. Collapsing bubbles can damage the impeller and volute, making cavitation a problem for both the pump and the mechanical seal. Specific Gravity—the weight of liquid in comparison to water at approximately 20° C (SG = 1). Specific Speed—a measure of the function of pump flow, head, and efficiency. Vapor Pressure—the force exerted by the gas released by a liquid in a closed space. If the vapor pressure of a liquid is greater than the surrounding air pressure, the liquid will boil. Viscosity—a measure of a liquid’s resistance to flow (i.e., how thick it is). The viscosity determines the type of pump used, how fast it can run, and with gear pumps, the internal clearances required. Friction Loss—the amount of pressure / head required to force liquid through pipes and fittings.
2014 Chevrolet Silverado 1500 with 2-Speed Transfer Case RPO Codes NQG, NQH 2014 GMC Sierra 1500 with 2-Speed Transfer Case RPO Codes NQG, NQH Some customers may want to tow their vehicle behind another vehicle with all four tires on the ground. This is referred to as flat, dinghy towing or even as a “toad” (slang for towed vehicle). Towing in this manner is acceptable only on certain 4WD trucks depending on the transfer case option. The vehicle should be properly equipped and prepared as described below. The information contained in this bulletin supplements the Owner’s Manual. Please provide a copy of this bulletin to customers that want to dinghy tow their truck. Towing Set Up Procedure Notice: Use extra care whenever towing another vehicle. Do not exceed the towing vehicle's ratings such as the gross combination weight rating (GCWR) by adding the weight of the dinghy towed vehicle or vehicle damage may result. Recreational/Dinghy tow basic setup procedures Four wheel drive pick-ups with a two speed transfer case (that have a neutral and a 4 low position): 1. Tow only in forward direction. Position the vehicle to be towed behind the towing vehicle. 2. Securely attach the vehicle to the tow vehicle. 3. Firmly apply the parking brake, start the engine and shift the transmission to neutral. Caution: Shifting the transmission to neutral can cause the vehicle to roll and may cause personal injury. 4. Shift the transfer case to neutral. Caution: Shifting the transfer case to Neutral can cause the vehicle to roll, even if the transmission is in park (automatic) or 1st gear (manual), and may cause personal injury. 5. Check for transfer case neutral by shifting transmission to reverse then drive and verify there is no engagement. 6. While the transmission is in drive, turn the ignition key to Accessory. Copyright 2013 General Motors LLC. All Rights Reserved. 7. Shift the transmission to Park. 8. Depower the vehicle by removing the negative cable at the battery. This procedure must be followed or the steering column could be damaged. • Cover the negative battery post with a nonconducting material and prevent any contact between the negative battery terminal and the negative battery cable. Notice: If power is provided by accidental contact of the cable and terminals, damage to the towed vehicle may result, which would not be covered under the New Vehicle Limited Warranty. 9. Verify the steering column is unlocked. 10. Release the park brake only after verifying the towed vehicle is attached to the towing vehicle. 11. The ignition key must remain in the towed vehicle. Manually lock the doors and use 2nd key for access. Disconnecting the Towed Vehicle 1. Leave the truck connected to the tow vehicle. 2. Connect the battery. 3. Set the parking brake and place transmission in Park. 4. Shift the transfer case to 2 HI. 5. Disconnect the truck from the towing vehicle. 6. Reset any lost ...
If you live in an apartment or condo and dream of cozying up by the fire, there is an ideal solution: an electric fireplace. The warm, radiant heat of today’s electric fireplaces can be purchased at the store, carried home in the back of your car and installed in minutes. Simply plug the fireplace into an outlet and you’re ready to fire it up. It’s even easy to carry an electric fireplace up a flight of stairs. Electric fireplaces are designed to be plug-andplay appliances, much like a stereo or a television. Simply turn them off and on as needed, and enjoy them when the mood hits! And with realistic fire technology that rivals a wood burning fire, the end result is snap, crackling great! BEAUTIFUL FIRE FOR WARMER CLIMATES Electric fireplaces make having a fire possible no matter the time of year…and, for just pennies a day. On a warm night, simply turn on the fire – minus the heat – and in seconds you can be basking in the glow of the fire while still sitting in your shorts. Then, when evening temperatures dip, turn on the heat option to take the chill off. Electric fireplaces work well in colder climates, as well. With variable heat controls, you can create enough heat to warm your toes or crank it up to keep a 400 square foot space at a comfortable temperature. And, because it requires no venting, an electric fireplace is perfect for locations where installing a fireplace is tricky, such as basements. those who desire a more traditional design, there are electric fireplaces that mimic wood or gas burning fireplaces, complete with mantel, fireplace surround and doors. From Victorian details to classic lines, there are many options for traditional homes. IDEAL ELECTRIC LOCATIONS: • • • • • Condos Cabins RVs Dens Entertainment centers • Town homes • Mobile homes • Basements • Bedrooms • Offices • Cottages Realistic Crackling: Pop a CD of crackling sounds into the stereo to simulate the sounds of a fire while enjoying your electric fireplace. EURO-MODERN STYLING, OR NOT The design of an electric fireplace can be modern or traditional. Electric fireplaces can be found with angular lines, unique shapes and “Austin Powers” features. These Euro-styled fireplaces can include frosted glass beads instead of logs, and fire in shades of pink, blue and red. Yet, for For a list of specialty retailers, visit www.hpba.org. Electric Fireplace Checklist on reverse side
Feel artistic strongly believe that each student has their own level of understanding for art and therefore each student deserve individualize attention to use their creativity. We give lessons based on each student's interest, level and age. You may see few students in our class during any given time but each one of them working on different projects.
CAUTION! ELECTRIC SHOCK HAZARD • Read these instructions. • Keep these instructions. • Heed all warnings. • Follow all instructions. • Do not use this apparatus near water. • Clean only with dry cloth. • Do not block any ventilation openings. Install in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. • Do not install near any heat sources such as radiators, heat registers, stoves, or other apparatus (including amplifiers) that produce heat. • Do not defeat the safety purpose of the polarized or grounding-type plug. A polarized plug has two blades with one wider than the other. A grounding type plug has two blades and a third grounding prong. The wide blade or the third prong is provided for your safety. If the provided plug does not fit into your outlet, consult an electrician for replacement of the obsolete outlet. • Protect the power cord from being walked on or pinched particularly at plugs, convenience receptacles, and the point where they exit from the apparatus. • Only use attachments/accessories specified by the manufacturer. • Unplug this apparatus during lightning storms or when unused for long periods of time. • Refer all servicing to qualified service personnel. Servicing is required when the apparatus has been damaged in any way, such as power-supply cord or plug is damaged, liquid has been spilled or objects have fallen into the apparatus, the apparatus has been exposed to rain or moisture, does not operate normally, or has been dropped. • Do not push objects into apparatus vents or slots because fire or electric shock hazards could result. • No naked (open) flame sources, such as lighted candles, should be placed on or near the apparatus. • The device has been evaluated for use in tropical and moderate climates only. • The apparatus shall not be exposed to dripping or splashing. No objects filled with liquids, such as vases, shall be placed on or near the apparatus. • Place apparatus in a stable location so it will not fall causing product damage or bodily harm. • Operate the apparatus only from the low level audio line output jack of the computer or of an audio device. • If headphone jack is provided, the following warning should be observed: Excessive or extended sound pressure from earphones and headphones can cause hearing damage or loss. Listen at reasonable volume level. • For portable apparatus or apparatus weighing 7kg (15 lbs) or less: the product label may be affixed under a lid, on the exterior of the bottom, or on the stands of the apparatus. • The apparatus shall be disconnected from the mains by placing the power/ standby switch in the standby position and unplugging the power cord of the apparatus from the AC mains receptacle. • The socket-outlet (receptacle) shall be installed near the equipment and shall be easily accessible and the AC mains disconnect device (plug) shall remain readily operable. • Due to environmental concerns, please follow battery disposal recycling instructions following at the end of the product life. • Danger of explosion if the remote control battery is incorrectly replaced. Replace only with the same or equivalent type.
Never spill liquid of any kind onto or into the product. To avoid damage of internal components and to prevent battery leakage, do not place the product on a vibrating surface. Never use it under sporting, exercising, or any vibrating environment which will probably cause unexpected short current or damage rotor devices, HDD, Optical drive, and even exposure risk from lithium battery pack. · · · Using electrical power · This product should be operated from the type of power indicated on the marking label. If you are not sure of the type of power available, consult your dealer or local power company. Do not allow anything to rest on the power cord. Do not locate this product where people will walk on the cord. If an extension cord is used with this product, make sure that the total ampere rating of the equipment plugged into the extension cord does not exceed the extension cord ampere rating. Also, make sure that the total rating of all products plugged into the wall outlet does not exceed the fuse rating. Do not overload a power outlet, strip or receptacle by plugging in too many devices. The overall system load must not exceed 80% of the branch circuit rating. If power strips are used, the load should not exceed 80% of the power strip's input rating. This product's AC adapter is equipped with a three-wire grounded plug. The plug only fits in a grounded power outlet. Make sure the power outlet is properly grounded before inserting the AC adapter plug. Do not insert the plug into a non-grounded power outlet. Contact your electrician for details. · · · · Warning! The grounding pin is a safety feature. Using a power outlet that is not properly grounded may result in electric shock and/or injury. v Note: The grounding pin also provides good protection from unexpected noise produced by other nearby electrical devices that may interfere with the performance of this product. · Use the product only with the supplied power supply cord set. If you need to replace the power cord set, make sure that the new power cord meets the following requirements: detachable type, UL listed/CSA certified, type SPT-2, rated 7 A 125 V minimum, VDE approved or its equivalent, 4.6 meters (15 feet) maximum length. Product servicing Do not attempt to service this product yourself, as opening or removing covers may expose you to dangerous voltage points or other risks. Refer all servicing to qualified service personnel. Unplug this product from the wall outlet and refer servicing to qualified service personnel when: · the power cord or plug is damaged, cut or frayed · · · · · liquid was spilled into the product the product was exposed to rain or water the product has been dropped or the case has been damaged the product exhibits a distinct change in performance, indicating a need for service the product does not operate normally after following the operating instructions Note: Adjust only those controls that are covered by the operating instructions, since improper adjustment of other controls may result in damage and will often require extensive work by a qualified technician to restore the product to normal condition. Guidelines for safe battery usage This notebook uses a Lithium-ion battery. Do not use it in a humid, wet or corrosive environment. Do not put, store or leave your product in or near a heat source, in a high temperature location, in strong direct sunlight, in a microwave oven or in a pressurized container, and do not expose it to temperatures over 60°C (140°F). Failure to follow these guidelines may cause the battery to leak acid, become hot, explode or ignite and cause injury and/or damage. Do not pierce, open or disassemble the battery. If the battery leaks and you come into contact with the leaked fluids, rinse thoroughly with water and seek medical attention immediately. For safety reasons, and to prolong the lifetime of the battery, charging will not occur at temperatures below 0°C (32°F) or above 40°C (104°F). The full performance of a new battery is achieved only after two or three complete charge and discharge cycles.. Your user manual ACER ASPIRE 5315 Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
Installing Windows XP Professional SP2 on Acer Aspire 5315-2153 Laptop There are two methods for getting this to work, one only requires the internet, a few minutes, and a CD burner. The other requires a USB floppy drive. UPDATE: We’ve got a working modem driver now. Check out the tutorial on getting it up and running (should be installed last). You’ll probably also need a USB thumb drive for either method, and of course your copy of WinXP. You may have already tried to install WinXP on this notebook. With the BIOS set to it’s defaults, the WinXP install disk can’t even see it’s Hard Drive, and if you set the hard drive to a non AHCI mode in the BIOS (such as native emulation), you are increasing your risk of data corruption, and at the same time reducing your speed. These two methods are the correct way to handle the situation, and result in no performance compromises. NOTE: All data on the hard drive will be erased. If you experience problems related to .DLL files, try DLLCentral.com for resources and downloads. The Floppy Method First we’ll explain the floppy method, as it’s the fastest if you’ve already got the floppy drive and a blank floppy. Download the floppy creator from here: f6_floppy_maker.zip Extract the executable from the zip archive, insert a blank floppy, and run the executable, following the prompts to create an “F6 Driver Floppy.” Attach your USB floppy drive to the new Acer notebook. In order to be able to boot from the CD, we’ll first need to make a couple of quick changes in the notebook’s BIOS. Click here for instructions on modifying the BIOS settings. Now boot your notebook from your WinXP install disk. One of the first prompts once the screen turns blue is to hit F6 to use a driver floppy. Hit F6, insert the driver floppy. Windows won’t really give you any prompt that you’ve done things right, it will just keep installing for a while. After some time, windows will ask you to pick which driver off of the floppy you want — you should choose “Intel(R) 82801HEM/HBM SATA AHCI Controller (Mobile ICH8M-E/M).” Be sure to leave the floppy in during the install, as windows will periodically pull files off of it until the installation is complete. The Windows installer will ask you to where you’d like install Windows XP… follow the prompts to delete all the current partitions, then follow the prompts to create a new partition, and install Windows XP to that. You may chose the “quick format” to speed things up. After windows is done installing, you’ll need to install some drivers. Acer isn’t providing a driver set for WinXP on this notebook. We recommend installing drivers in this order:...
Aspire 5920G Series Service Guide Service guide files and updates are available on the ACER/CSD web; for more information, please refer to http://csd.acer.com.tw PRINTED IN TAIWAN Revision History Please refer to the table below for the updates made on Aspire Chapla service guide. Date II Chapter Updates Copyright Copyright © 2007 by Acer Incorporated. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any language or computer language, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, magnetic, optical, chemical, manual or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Acer Incorporated. Disclaimer The information in this guide is subject to change without notice. Acer Incorporated makes no representations or warranties, either expressed or implied, with respect to the contents hereof and specifically disclaims any warranties of merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. Any Acer Incorporated software described in this manual is sold or licensed "as is". Should the programs prove defective following their purchase, the buyer (and not Acer Incorporated, its distributor, or its dealer) assumes the entire cost of all necessary servicing, repair, and any incidental or consequential damages resulting from any defect in the software. Acer is a registered trademark of Acer Corporation. Intel is a registered trademark of Intel Corporation. Pentium and Pentium II/III are trademarks of Intel Corporation. Other brand and product names are trademarks and/or registered trademarks of their respective holders. III Conventions The following conventions are used in this manual: SCREEN MESSAGES NOTE Gives bits and pieces of additional information related to the current topic. WARNING Alerts you to any damage that might result from doing or not doing specific actions. CAUTION Gives precautionary measures to avoid possible hardware or software problems. IMPORTANT IV Denotes actual messages that appear on screen. Reminds you to do specific actions relevant to the accomplishment of procedures. Preface Before using this information and the product it supports, please read the following general information. 1. This Service Guide provides you with all technical information relating to the BASIC CONFIGURATION decided for Acer's "global" product offering. To better fit local market requirements and enhance product competitiveness, your regional office MAY have decided to extend the functionality of a machine (e.g. add-on card, modem, or extra memory capability). These LOCALIZED FEATURES will NOT be covered in this generic service guide. In such cases, please contact your regional offices or the responsible personnel/channel to provide you with further technical details.