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1. Crops can be produced on non-arable land (not fit for farming). Ex. Land with poor soils, and contamination (i.e., high heavy metal and salinity levels). *The grower doesn’t have to have good soil since the systems, bags, etc. are placed on top of the ground. 2. Isolation from diseases or insect pests usually found in the soil. *The plant roots are contained in systems, bags, etc. and do not grow through soil that might contain diseases or other pests such as insects and nematodes. *Additionally, white fabric ground covers can be placed on the greenhouse floor to further isolate the systems and plants from soil-borne pests. NOTE: The white fabric also reflects light back up into the canopy enhancing photosynthesis, allows for ease of cleaning and helps control humidity and weeds. 3. Direct and immediate control over the rhizosphere. *Since the roots are either growing in water or growing through an inert medium, whatever is in the nutrient solution is bathing the roots. Therefore, nutrient concentrations and pH can be adjusted quickly. 4. High planting densities are possible which minimizes use of land area. *For field tomatoes a typical planting density is 4000 to 5000 plants per acre. Greenhouse hydroponic tomatoes can be 10,000 to 11,000 plants per acre! *Plants can be grown closer together because of the use of indeterminant (“vining”) varieties that take up less area than do bush varieties usually used for field cropping. Also they need less root room – the plants are “spoon fed” the nutrient and water they need and do not have to grow a large root system to find these, as field tomatoes do in the soil. 5. Higher yields are ...
Nutrient Solution Formulation for Hydroponic (Perlite, Rockwool, NFT) Tomatoes in Florida1 George J. Hochmuth and Robert C. Hochmuth2 Plants require 16 elements for growth and these nutrients can be supplied from air, water, and fertilizers. The 16 elements are carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), boron (B), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo), and chlorine (Cl). The key to successful management of a fertilizer program is to ensure adequate concentrations of all nutrients throughout the life cycle of the crop. Inadequate or excessive amounts of any nutrient result in poor crop performance. Excessive amounts can be especially troublesome since they can damage the crop, waste money and fertilizer resources, and pollute the environment when fertilizer is released during flushing of the nutrient delivery system. problem comes early in the season when plants become too vegetative (bullish) from too much N. The bullish growth distorts the leaves and stems, causing cracks and grooves in the stems. These openings are excellent entry ports for decay-causing organisms such as soft rot. Bullish plants usually produce misshapen fruits often with significant amounts of blossom-end rot and cat-facing. Keeping the N level low (60 to 70 parts per million) early in the season helps eliminate bullishness. For Florida greenhouse vegetable producers, management focuses on all nutrients except for C, H, and O. The latter three elements are usually supplied in adequate amounts from air and water. Growers in northern climates, where greenhouses are not ventilated in the winter, see benefits from additions of C from carbon dioxide (CO2). Increased yields in Florida from additions of CO2 are unlikely due to the need for frequent ventilation. Nutrient management programs should begin with an understanding of the nutrient solution concentrations in parts per million (ppm) for the various nutrients required by tomato plants. By managing the concentrations of individual nutrients, growers can control the growth and yield of the crop. Table 1 presents the fertilizer recommendations for tomatoes for the various growth stages during the season in Florida. These recommendations are applicable to all types of production systems (perlite, rockwool, and NFT) in which healthy roots are maintained, and are a suitable base when determining a nutrient solution plan for cucumbers and peppers. However, cucumbers will need more N early in the season than tomato.
All Intellectual Property, as defined below, owned by or which is otherwise the property of Samsung or its respective suppliers relating to the SAMSUNG Phone, including but not limited to, accessories, parts, or software relating there to (the “Phone System”), is proprietary to Samsung and protected under federal laws, state laws, and international treaty provisions. Intellectual Property includes, but is not limited to, inventions (patentable or unpatentable), patents, trade secrets, copyrights, software, computer programs, and related documentation and other works of authorship. You may not infringe or otherwise violate the rights secured by the Intellectual Property. Moreover, you agree that you will not (and will not attempt to) modify, prepare derivative works of, reverse engineer, decompile, disassemble, or otherwise attempt to create source code from the software. No title to or ownership in the Intellectual Property is transferred to you. All applicable rights of the Intellectual Property shall remain with SAMSUNG and its suppliers. Open Source Software Some software components of this product, including but not limited to 'PowerTOP' and 'e2fsprogs', incorporate source code covered under GNU General Public License (GPL), GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL), OpenSSL License, BSD License and other open source licenses. To obtain the source code covered under the open source licenses, please visit: http://opensource.samsung.com. Disclaimer of Warranties; Exclusion of Liability EXCEPT AS SET FORTH IN THE EXPRESS WARRANTY CONTAINED ON THE WARRANTY PAGE ENCLOSED WITH THE PRODUCT, THE PURCHASER TAKES THE PRODUCT "AS IS", AND SAMSUNG MAKES NO EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTY OF ANY KIND WHATSOEVER WITH RESPECT TO THE PRODUCT, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE MERCHANTABILITY OF THE PRODUCT OR ITS FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE; THE DESIGN, CONDITION OR QUALITY OF THE PRODUCT; THE PERFORMANCE OF THE PRODUCT; THE WORKMANSHIP OF THE PRODUCT OR THE COMPONENTS CONTAINED THEREIN; OR COMPLIANCE OF THE PRODUCT WITH THE REQUIREMENTS OF ANY LAW, RULE, SPECIFICATION OR CONTRACT PERTAINING VZW_i545_UM_Eng_MD2e_CH_050813_F3
Available applications and services are subject to change at any time. Table of Contents Get Started 1 Your Phone at a Glance 1 Set Up Your Phone 1 Activate Your Phone 2 Complete the Setup 3 Set Up Voicemail 4 Sprint Account Information and Help 5 Sprint Account Passwords 5 Manage Your Account 5 Sprint Support Services 6 Phone Basics Your Phone’s Layout Key Functions 7 7 7 Turn Your Phone On and Off 8 Turn Your Screen On and Off 9 Features 9 Motions and Gestures 9 Smart Screen 10 Air View 11 Voice Control 12 Multi Window 12 Touchscreen Navigation 13 Tap 13 Touch and Hold 14 Swipe or Slide 14 Drag 15 Flick 15 Rotate 16 Pinch and Spread 17 Your Home Screen 17 Create Shortcuts 18 Add and Remove Primary Shortcuts 19 Add and Remove Widgets 19 i Extended Home Screens 20 Recent Applications 20 Status Bar 20 Enter Text 21 Text Input Methods 21 Google Voice Typing 22 Samsung Keyboard 23 Swype 23 Tips for Editing Text 24 Phone Calls Make Phone Calls 25 25 Call Using the Keypad 25 Call from Logs 25 Call from Contacts 25 Call a Number in a Text Message 26 Call a Number in an Email Message 26 Call Emergency Numbers 26 Receive Phone Calls 27 Answer an Incoming Call 27 Mute the Ringing Sound 27 Reject an Incoming Call 28 Reject a Call with a Text Message 28 Phone Call Options 28 Dialing Options 28 Caller ID 29 Call Waiting 29 3-way Calling 29 Call Forwarding 30 In-call Options 30 Speed Dials 31 Voicemail 32 Set Up Voicemail 32 Retrieve Your Voicemail Messages 33 Voicemail Notification 33 Visual Voicemail 33 Logs 34 View Logs 34 ii Logs Options 34 Clear Logs 34 Contacts 36 Get Started With Contacts 36 Access Contacts 36 Contacts Options 36 Add a Contact 37 Save a Phone Number 38 Edit a Contact 38 Add or Edit Information for a Contact 38 Assign a Picture to a Contact 39 Assign a Ringtone to a Contact 39 Link a Contact 40 Delete a Contact 40 Add Entries to Your Favorites 40 Create Groups 40 Share a Contact 41 Accounts and Messaging 43 Google Account 43 Create a Google Account 43 Sign In to Your Google Account 43 Access Gmail 44 Send a Gmail Message 44 Read and Reply to Gmail Messages 45 Samsung Account 45 Email 45 Add an Email Account 46 Add a Microsoft Exchange ActiveSync Account 46 Compose and Send Email 47 Reply or Forward Email 48 Manage Your Email Inbox 48 Edit Email Settings 49 Delete an Email Account 51 Text and Multimedia Messaging 52 Send a Text Message (SMS) 52 Send a Multimedia Message (MMS) 52 Save and Resume a Draft Message 53 iii New Messages Notification 54 Managing Messages 54 Text and MMS Settings 56 Social Networking Accounts 58 YouTube 58 Google+ 58 Hangouts 59 Apps and Entertainment DivX 60 60 DivX Legal Information 60 Locate Your VOD Registration Number 60 Register Your DivX Device for VOD Playback of Purchased Movies 60 Google Play Store 61 Find and Install an App 61 Create a Google Wallet Account 62 Open an Installed App 62 Uninstall an App 63 Navigation 63 Google Maps 63 Scout™ 63 Samsung Apps 64 Music Apps 64 Google Play Music 64 Music 64 Sprint Music Plus 67 Google Play Movies & TV 68 Google Play Books 68 Google Play Games 68 Google Play Magazines 68 Group Play 69 Sprint Zone 70 Sprint TV & Movies 70 Samsung Link 71 Configure Samsung Link Settings 71 Use Samsung Link to Share Media with Another Device 72 CBS Sports 72 BaconReader 73
Available applications and services are subject to change at any time. TABLE OF CONTENTS GET STARTED 1 Your Phone at a Glance 1 Set Up Your Phone 1 Install the battery 1 Charge the Battery 2 Turn your Phone On 2 Activation and Service 3 Create Your Account and Pick Your Plan 3 Activate Your Phone 4 Manage Your Account 4 Top-Up Your Account 4 Additional Information 5 Complete the Setup 5 Set Up Voicemail 6 Memory Card 6 Install a microSD Card 7 Remove a microSD Card 7 View microSD Card Memory 7 Format a microSD Card 7 Unmount a microSD Card 8 PHONE BASICS Your Phone’s Layout Key Functions 9 9 9 Turn Your Phone On and Off 10 Turn Your Screen On and Off 10 Touchscreen Navigation 11 Multi Window 16 Your Home Screen 17 Creating Shortcuts 18 Adding and Removing Primary Shortcuts 18 Adding and Removing Widgets 19 Extended Home Screens 19 Recent Apps 20 i Status Bar 20 Enter Text 21 Touchscreen Keyboards 21 Text Input Methods 22 Google Voice Typing 22 Samsung Keyboard 23 Swype 23 Tips for Editing Text 24 PHONE CALLS Make Phone Calls 26 26 Call Using the Keypad 26 Call from Logs 26 Call from Contacts 26 Call a Number in a Text Message 27 Call a Number in an Email Message 27 Call Emergency Numbers 27 Enhanced 911 (E911) Information 28 Receive Phone Calls 28 Answer an Incoming Call 28 Mute the Ringing Sound 28 Reject an Incoming Call 29 Voicemail 29 Retrieve Voicemail Messages 29 Voicemail Notification 29 Visual Voicemail 30 Phone Call Options 30 Dialing Options 30 Caller ID 30 Call Waiting 31 3-Way Calling 31 Call Forwarding 31 In-call Options 32 Speed Dialing 33 Logs 33 View Logs 34 Logs Options 34 Clear Logs 34 ii CONTACTS 35 Get Started with Contacts 35 Access Contacts 35 Add a Contact 35 Save a Phone Number 36 Edit a Contact 36 Add or Edit Information for a Contact 37 Assign an Image to a Contact 37 Assign a Ringtone to a Contact 37 Link a Contact 38 Delete a Contact 38 Add Contacts to Your Favorites 38 Create Groups 39 Create a New Group 39 Add a Contact to a Group 39 Send a Message to Group Members 39 Share a Contact ACCOUNTS AND MESSAGING Google 40 41 41 Create a Google Account 41 Access Gmail 41 Send a Gmail Message 42 Read and Reply to Gmail Messages 42 Email 43 Add an Email Account 43 Add a Microsoft Exchange ActiveSync Account 43 Compose and Send Email 44 View and Reply to Email 45 Manage Your Email Inbox 45 Edit Email Settings 46 Delete an Email Account 49 Text and Multimedia Messaging 49 Send a Message 49 New Messages Notification 50 Managing Message Conversations 50 Messaging Settings 52 Social Networking Accounts 54 iii Flipboard 54 Google+ 54 Hangouts 54 YouTube 55 APPS AND ENTERTAINMENT Samsung Link 56 56 Configure Samsung Link Settings 56 Use Samsung Link to Share Media with Another Device 57 Group Play 57 DivX 58 DivX Legal Information 59 Locating Your VOD Registration Number 59 Register Your DivX Device for VOD Playback of Purchased Movies 59 Google Play Store 60 Find and Install an App 60 Create a Google Wallet Account 61 Open an Installed App 61 Uninstall an App 61 Google Play Books 61 Google Play Magazines 62 Google Play Movies & TV 62 Google Play Music 62 Music App 62 Google Maps 63 WEB AND DATA 64 Internet 64 Chrome 64 Data Services (3G and 4G) 64 Your Data Services User Name 64 4G Services 65 Wi-Fi 65 Turn Wi-Fi On and Connect to a Wireless Network Bluetooth 65 66 Turn Bluetooth On or Off 66 Connect a Bluetooth Headset or Car Kit 67 Reconnect a Headset or Car Kit 67 Disconnect or Unpair from a Bluetooth Device 68
Samsung Galaxy S® II Software Upgrade Samsung has released a software update for the C Spire Samsung Galaxy S II(SCH-R760), OS Jelly Bean software version 4.1.2 version build GB28. Please follow the instructions below to download and install Simple Upgrade Tool using your Windows PC. This software upgrade is only valid for the C Spire Samsung Galaxy S II (SCH-R760). It is incompatible with all other models. Requirements Computer Desktop/Laptop computer running either Microsoft Windows 7, Vista, or XP Currently, there is no support at this time for Apple computers All firewall & anti-virus programs should be disabled Administrative privileges required to download & install software including drivers An available USB port on the PC that supports 2.0 USB Mobile Device Fully charged battery Other USB data cable (included in Retail Box) Note: this is the same cable used to charge your device Direct connection of the USB cable to the computer's USB port is strongly advised. The use of a USB hub or docking station is not recommended. Your PC must be connected to a live internet connection to download the SimpleDL tool Back Up Your Information Important: This update was designed to simply upgrade the operating system of the device while leaving certain types of user data intact. This user data includes pictures, videos, messages and contacts. Certain settings, such as wallpaper and ringtone assignments, may be reset back to factory default. To be safe, it is best practice to always back up all data and assume that everything will be lost. Below you will find options to backup contacts, messages and help to reinstall third party applications. Note: When you sync to your Google Gmail and Exchange ActiveSync® accounts, you are backing up your information. Google Gmail and Exchange ActiveSync information on your device including contacts are stored remotely on the Google and Microsoft Exchange server. Contacts Save Contacts to SD Card Export to SD Card 1. From the Home screen, touch Contacts > Menu > More. 2. Touch Import/Export > Export to SD card. 3. Confirm export by selecting OK. Import to SD Card 1. From the Home screen, touch Contacts > Menu > More. 2. Touch Import/Export, then touch Import from SD card. 3. Confirm export by selecting OK.
All Intellectual Property, as defined below, owned by or which is otherwise the property of Samsung or its respective suppliers relating to the SAMSUNG Phone, including but not limited to, accessories, parts, or software relating there to (the “Phone System”), is proprietary to Samsung and protected under federal laws, state laws, and international treaty provisions. Intellectual Property includes, but is not limited to, inventions (patentable or unpatentable), patents, trade secrets, copyrights, software, computer programs, and related documentation and other works of authorship. You may not infringe or otherwise violate the rights secured by the Intellectual Property. Moreover, you agree that you will not (and will not attempt to) modify, prepare derivative works of, reverse engineer, decompile, disassemble, or otherwise attempt to create source code from the software. No title to or ownership in the Intellectual Property is transferred to you. All applicable rights of the Intellectual Property shall remain with SAMSUNG and its suppliers. Open Source Software Some software components of this product incorporate source code covered under GNU General Public License (GPL), GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL), OpenSSL License, BSD License and other open source licenses. To obtain the source code covered under the open source licenses, please visit: http://opensource.samsung.com. Disclaimer of Warranties; Exclusion of Liability EXCEPT AS SET FORTH IN THE EXPRESS WARRANTY CONTAINED ON THE WARRANTY PAGE ENCLOSED WITH THE PRODUCT, THE PURCHASER TAKES THE PRODUCT "AS IS", AND SAMSUNG MAKES NO EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTY OF ANY KIND WHATSOEVER WITH RESPECT TO THE PRODUCT, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE MERCHANTABILITY OF THE PRODUCT OR ITS FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE; THE DESIGN, CONDITION OR QUALITY OF THE PRODUCT; THE PERFORMANCE OF THE PRODUCT; THE WORKMANSHIP OF THE PRODUCT OR THE COMPONENTS CONTAINED THEREIN; OR COMPLIANCE OF THE PRODUCT WITH THE REQUIREMENTS OF ANY LAW, RULE, SPECIFICATION OR CONTRACT PERTAINING THERETO. NOTHING CONTAINED IN THE INSTRUCTION MANUAL SHALL BE CONSTRUED TO CREATE AN EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTY OF ANY KIND WHATSOEVER WITH RESPECT TO THE PRODUCT. IN ADDITION, SAMSUNG SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES OF ANY KIND RESULTING FROM THE PURCHASE OR USE OF SCH-R760_UM_Eng_FE19_CH_062012_F5 THE PRODUCT OR ARISING FROM THE BREACH OF THE EXPRESS WARRANTY, INCLUDING INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, OR LOSS OF ANTICIPATED PROFITS OR BENEFITS. SAMSUNG IS NOT LIABLE FOR PERFORMANCE ISSUES OR INCOMPATIBILITIES CAUSED BY YOUR EDITING OF REGISTRY SETTINGS, OR YOUR MODIFICATION OF OPERATING SYSTEM SOFTWARE. USING CUSTOM OPERATING SYSTEM SOFTWARE MAY CAUSE YOUR DEVICE AND APPLICATIONS TO WORK IMPROPERLY.
All rights reserved. Mechanical, electronic, photographic or other reproduction or copying from this book or parts of it are according to the present Danish copyright law not allowed without written permission from or agreement with GRUNDFOS Management A/S. GRUNDFOS Management A/S cannot be held responsible for the correctness of the information given in the book. Usage of information is at your own responsibility. In the Department of Structural and Fluid Mechanics we are happy to present the first English edition of the book: ’The Centrifugal Pump’. We have written the book because we want to share our knowledge of pump hydraulics, pump design and the basic pump terms which we use in our daily work. ’The Centrifugal Pump’ is primarily meant as an internal book and is aimed at technicians who work with development and construction of pump components. Furthermore, the book aims at our future colleagues, students at universities and engineering colleges, who can use the book as a reference and source of inspiration in their studies. Our intention has been to write an introductory book that gives an overview of the hydraulic components in the pump and at the same time enables technicians to see how changes in construction and operation influence the pump performance. In chapter 1, we introduce the principle of the centrifugal pump as well as its hydraulic components, and we list the different types of pumps produced by Grundfos. Chapter 2 describes how to read and understand the pump performance based on the curves for head, power, efficiency and NPSH. In chapter 3 you can read about how to adjust the pump’s performance when it is in operation in a system. The theoretical basis for energy conversion in a centrifugal pump is introduced in chapter 4, and we go through how affinity rules are used for scaling the performance of pump impellers. In chapter 5, we describe the different types of losses which occur in the pump, and how the losses affect flow, head and power consumption. In the book’s last chapter, chapter 6, we go trough the test types which Grundfos continuously carries out on both assembled pumps and pump components to ensure that the pump has the desired performance. The entire department has been involved in the development of the book. Through a longer period of time we have discussed the idea, the contents and the structure and collected source material. The framework of the Danish book was made after some intensive working days at ‘Himmelbjerget’. The result of the department’s engagement and effort through several years is the book which you are holding. We hope that you will find ‘The Centrifugal Pump’ useful, and that you will use it as a book of reference in you daily work. Enjoy!...
Reading and understanding centrifugal pump curves is key to proper pump selection, and to their reliable and efficient operation. This Tech Brief examines how pump curves can provide data about a pump’s ability to produce flow against certain head, shows how to read a typical centrifugal pump curve, and provides information about pump efficiency and brake horsepower. Pumps are the workhorses of any drinking water distribution or wastewater collection system. They operate 24 hours a day, 365 days a year getting water to homes and business, and removing wastewater from them. A correctly sized pump will work efficiently for many years, saving a system money and energy. An incorrectly sized pump can fail if it’s too small or result in unnecessary expense if it’s too big. Pump curves provide a way to see the correct size a pump should be for specific conditions. Pump Terminology Before discussing specific details, it helps to understand typical terms associated with pump curves: Impeller—the moving element in a pump that drives the liquid. Volute—the spiral-shaped casing surrounding a pump impeller that collects the liquid discharged by the impeller. Head—a measure of the pressure or force exerted by water expressed in feet. Centrifugal pump curves show pressure as head, which is the equivalent height of water with specific gravity = 1. Static Head—the vertical height difference from the surface of a water source to the centerline of the impeller. The vertical height difference from the centerline of the impeller to the discharge point is called discharge static head, while the vertical height difference from the surface of the water source to the discharge point is known as total static head. Total Head / Total Dynamic Head—the total height difference (total static head) plus friction losses and demand pressure from nozzles etc. (total discharge head) = total dynamic head. Capacity/Flow—the rate of liquid flow that can be carried, typically measured in gallons per minute (gpm). Net Positive Suction Head—how much suction lift a pump can achieve by creating a partial vacuum. Atmospheric pressure then pushes liquid into pump. A method of calculating if the pump will work or not. Cavitation—cavities or voids in liquid. Bubbles take up space leading to a drop in pump capacity. Collapsing bubbles can damage the impeller and volute, making cavitation a problem for both the pump and the mechanical seal. Specific Gravity—the weight of liquid in comparison to water at approximately 20° C (SG = 1). Specific Speed—a measure of the function of pump flow, head, and efficiency. Vapor Pressure—the force exerted by the gas released by a liquid in a closed space. If the vapor pressure of a liquid is greater than the surrounding air pressure, the liquid will boil. Viscosity—a measure of a liquid’s resistance to flow (i.e., how thick it is). The viscosity determines the type of pump used, how fast it can run, and with gear pumps, the internal clearances required. Friction Loss—the amount of pressure / head required to force liquid through pipes and fittings.
© Copyright by KSB Aktiengesellschaft Published by: KSB Aktiengesellschaft, Communications (V5), 67225 Frankenthal / Germany All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be used, reproduced, stored in or intro duced in any kind of retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means (electro nic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise) without the prior written permission of the publisher. 4th completely revised and ex panded edition 2005 Layout, drawings and composition: KSB Aktiengesellschaft, Media Production V51 ISBN 3-00-017841-4 ... Contents Nomenclature...................................................................6 Pump Types .................................................................8–9 Selection for Pumping Water. .........................................10 . Pump Data................................................................................10 Pump Flow Rate.......................................................................10 Developed Head and Developed Pressure of the Pump. ............10 . Efficiency and Input Power.......................................................10 Speed of Rotation.....................................................................11 Specific Speed and Impeller Type. .............................................11 . Pump Characteristic Curves......................................................13 System Data..............................................................................16 System Head ............................................................................16 Bernoulli’s Equation..................................................................16 Pressure Loss Due to Flow Resistances.....................................18 . Head Loss in Straight Pipes.......................................................18 Head Loss in Valves and Fittings. .............................................22 . System Characteristic Curve. ....................................................26 . Pump Selection.........................................................................28 . Hydraulic Aspects.....................................................................28 Mechanical Aspects..................................................................29