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anemia semasa kehamilan

Systemic treatment for prostate cancer - Annals of Oncology

Annals of Oncology 17 (Supplement 10): x211–x213, 2006 doi:10.1093/annonc/mdl262 Systemic treatment for prostate cancer A. Horwich Institute of Cancer Research & Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton, Surrey, UK treatment of metastatic prostate cancer ª 2006 European Society for Medical Oncology side-effects of androgen ablation Common side-effects of androgen ablation include loss of libido and hot flashes, but a range of others have been reported such as fatigue, weight gain, depression, memory loss and loss of bone mineral density. Osteopenia is a particular problem of long-term therapy, but may be prevented by bisphosphonates [7]. intermittent hormone therapy This is based on the idea that allowing reversal of the castrate state may prolong the period to development of androgenindependence and improve quality of life [8]. Results from phase III trials are needed to evaluate the place of this approach. hormone-refractory prostate cancer There are a number of systemic management approaches for the patient with prostate cancer progressing while on hormone ablation therapy. These include secondary hormone manipulation, cytotoxic chemotherapy, systemic isotope therapies and bisphosphonate therapy. Since the predominant pattern of metastatic prostate cancer includes bone and pelvic lymph node metastases the most prevalent clinical problems are bone pain, urinary obstruction, spinal cord compression, lymph edema of the lower limbs, anemia and cachexia. Management of patients who have failed hormone ablation therapy is more difficult than treating patients who are ¨ hormone-naıve since second-line treatments tend to have only transient benefit. Early referral for palliative and supportive care should be considered, including radiotherapy for bone pain, spinal cord compression, lymph edema or hematuria. The sequence of further therapeutic attempts is influenced by factors such as the disease-free interval induced by primary hormone therapy, the grade and growth rate of the cancer and the specific symptoms, general health and performance status of the patient. second-line hormones The first approach to patients who become refractory to hormone ablation is usually with an additional hormone...

Stay Updated with the Daily News of Malaysia via BeritaSemasa.com.my

Berita Semasa is a site featuring a variety of good information in terms of sports news, world news, economic news, education news, Malaysia’s national news, automotive news and issues of Public & Private Employees. For more information, please visit: http://www.beritasemasa.com.my/

Berita terkini dibangunkan sekal tahun 2009 yang mana sejak daripada dahulu lagi dikenali dengan jenama Berita semasa

Berita terkini adalah adalah portal yang seringkali berkongsi pelbagai berita penting & isu semasa terkini meliputi berita dunia, berita semasa, berita pendidikan, berita ekonomi, berita sukan, pendidikan, nasional dan dunia yang menjadi perhatian rakyat Malaysia untuk diperbincangkan bersama pembaca setia Berita Semasa. Untuk semakan portal berita semasa, sila layari http://www.beritaterkini.my

Male Organ Problems and Anemia – Avoiding Loss of Function

Avoiding embarrassing male organ problems, such as uncooperative equipment, means staying healthy, especially where anemia is concerned. This condition affects oxygen in the blood, which every healthy male organ needs.

COMMON INTESTINAL PARASITES IN CATS AND DOGS ...

COMMON INTESTINAL PARASITES IN CATS AND DOGS Roundworms (Ascarids) Both cats and dogs can be infected by roundworms. They acquire them by ingesting soil/feces contaminated by eggs and larvae or by eating infected rodents, birds and insects. Puppies and kittens are often infected by the mother while still in the uterus. They can also be infected while nursing. Diagnosis can be made by finding eggs by microscopic exam of the feces or by seeing adult worms voided in the feces or vomit. Larval forms can migrate through the lungs and cause a condition known as verminous pneumonia. Adult roundworms live in the small intestines and can form in large enough numbers to cause intestinal blockage and death. They can also be transmitted to people and cause a serious illness known as visceral larval migrans and blindness caused by ocular larval migrans. Hookworms are a serious parasite of cats and dogs. Pets acquire them by ingesting infective larvae or by the actual penetration of larvae through their skin or feet. They can also be transmitted by the mother during pregnancy or through nursing. These parasites can only be found by microscopic exam of feces. Hookworms attach to the intestinal lining and feed off the blood of their host. They can cause severe enough anemia to cause sudden collapse and death, especially in young, weak and malnourished animals. Other animals may show a slowly progressive wasting disease. Weight loss, diarrhea and tarry or bloody stools frequently occur in animals with hookworms. Hookworms can also be transmitted to humans and cause a skin disorder known as cutaneous larval migrans or creeping eruption. Whipworms are small, thin worms that live in the large intestine and cecum of dogs. It is extremely rare in North American cats. Dogs acquire them by ingesting eggs from contaminated soil/feces. These eggs are very resistant and can live in the soil for 5-7 years. Infection can only be detected by microscopic exam of the feces. Eggs are shed in low numbers, thus, it may take several stool sample exams to be detected. This can make diagnosing a whipworm infection difficult. Whipworms can cause diarrhea, bloody stools, weight loss and poor general health. Massive rectal bleeding occasionally occurs. Severe infection can result in electrolyte imbalances that will mimic a life-threatening disease condition known as hypoadrenocorticism. There are several species of tapeworms. Both cats and dogs can be infected. The most common routes of infection are by eating small rodents/rabbits or by ingesting fleas which carry the infective stage. Tapeworms live in the small intestine with their head buried in the lining. They are relatively harmless to your pet, but can cause mild GI upset on occasion. Tapeworms can be difficult to diagnose on fecal exams as the eggs are often passed in the packets (segments). These segments can be seen in your pets feces or coming out from the anus. They usually are passed as short, flat, whitish objects around ¼-1/2” long. They will also sometimes stay connected and appear as a long, flat ribbon- like object. They will be moving if still alive. Dried out segments appear as yellow-gold rice like objects attached to the hair around the anus. People should not mistake maggots for tapeworms. Maggots are rounded and are not seen in freshly passed stool. Humans cannot acquire tapeworms from their pets. They can, however, acquire them by the same routes as their pets...

interesting dog health facts - Bark Avenue Daycamp

INTERESTING DOG HEALTH FACTS Here are a few facts regarding your dog’s health that every owner should know….. It takes only minutes for a pet left in a vehicle on a warm day to succumb to heatstroke and suffocation. On a 78 degree day, temperatures in a car parked in the shade can exceed 90 degrees -- and hit a scorching 160 degrees if parked in the sun! Chocolate affects a dog’s heart and nervous system; a few ounces is enough to kill a small dog. Female dogs that are spayed eliminate the chance of uterine infection, uterine cancer, and ovarian cancer. Male dogs that are neutered nearly eliminate the risk of perineal hernias and tumors. Dogs sweat through their pads and feet. Most dogs are lactose intolerant. You are better off avoiding milk in your dog’s diet. Dogs can hear high-pitched sounds (like some insects make), that a human cannot even detect. Tapeworms can lead to anemia in your dog. Dogs get heartworms from being bitten by ONE infected mosquito. (Heartworm meds are a MUST!) Beware; anti-freeze (ethylene glycol), the day-glo green colored fluid frequently seen near curbs, is very deadly to your pet if ingested...

Stem Cell Transplant - American Cancer Society

atem Cell Transplant (Peripheral Blood, Bone Marrow, and Cord Blood Transplants) What we’ll cover here This document reviews bone marrow transplants and different types of stem cell transplants that are used to treat cancer. We will outline what a transplant is like for most people, and some of the issues that come with it. We will also briefly cover what it’s like to donate stem cells. What are stem cells and why are they transplanted? All of the blood cells in your body start out as young (immature) cells called hematopoietic stem cells. (Hematopoietic means blood-forming, and is pronounced he-muh-toe-poi-ET-ick.) Even though they may be called stem cells, these cells are not the same as stem cells from embryos that are studied in cloning and other types of research. Here, the words stem cells refer to bloodforming stem cells. Stem cells mostly live in the bone marrow (the spongy center of certain bones), where they divide to make new blood cells. Once blood cells are mature they leave the bone marrow and enter the bloodstream. A small number of stem cells also get into the bloodstream. These are called peripheral blood stem cells. Stem cell transplants are used to restore the stem cells when the bone marrow has been destroyed by disease, chemotherapy (chemo), or radiation. Depending on the source of the stem cells, this procedure may be called a bone marrow transplant, a peripheral blood stem cell transplant, or a cord blood transplant. We will give you more detail on each of these later. Any of these types may be called a hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The first successful bone marrow transplant was done in 1968. It was not until nearly 20 years later that stem cells taken from the bloodstream (peripheral blood) were transplanted with success. More recently, doctors have begun using cord blood from the placenta and umbilical cords of newborn babies as another source of stem cells. Today hundreds of thousands of patients have had stem cell transplants. This has led to better care for transplant patients and helped doctors know more about which patients are likely to have better results after transplant. What makes stem cells so important? Stem cells make the 3 main types of blood cells: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. We need all of these types of blood cells to keep us alive. And in order for these blood cells to do their jobs, you need to have enough of each type in your blood. Red blood cells (erythrocytes) Red blood cells (RBCs) carry oxygen from the lungs to all of the cells in the body, and then bring carbon dioxide back from the cells to the lungs to be exhaled. A blood test called a hematocrit shows how much of your blood is made up of RBCs. The normal range is about 35% to 50% for adults. People whose hematocrit is below this level have anemia. This can make them look pale and feel weak, tired, and short of breath. White blood cells (leukocytes) White blood cells (WBCs) fight infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and fungi. There are different types of WBCs. The most important in fighting infections are called neutrophils. When your absolute neutrophil count (ANC) drops below 1,000 per cubic millimeter (1,000/mm3) you have neutropenia, and your risk of infection increases. The danger is greatest at levels below 500/mm3...

Treatment of Prostate Cancer with Natural Therapeutics

Treatment of Prostate Cancer with Natural Therapeutics The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system that helps produce semen, the thick fluid that carries sperm cells. The prostate is a walnut-sized structure located beneath the bladder of males. It surrounds the upper part of the urethra. The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder. Prostate function is regulated by testosterone, the male sex hormone produced primarily in the testicles. It is important to note that benign conditions involving the prostate such as enlargement (benign prostatic hypertrophy, BPH), infections, and stones can mimic the symptoms of cancer, so a professional consultation is important. When the cancer metastasizes to the ribs, pelvis, or vertebral bodies it can lead to bone pain in prostate cancer patients. Diagnosis Prostate cancer diagnosis begins with a digital rectal examination by the health care professional. Additional tests such as a transrectal or transperineal needle biopsy can detect small prostatic nodules or more advanced cancerous growth. Transrectal ultrasound is also used for both diagnosis and to help guide needle biopsy. Serum acid phosphatase levels can be elevated when there is local extension or metastasis of disease. However, other conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia, multiple myeloma, Gaucher’s disease, and hemolytic anemia can also raise these levels. Radioimmunoassay analysis of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has become a standard test for diagnosing both localized as well as metastasized stages of the prostate cancer. Though controversial, PSA is the most sensitive marker for monitoring disease and is elevated in 25 to 92% of patients with prostate cancer. However, it is also raised in 30 to 50% of those with BPH. Prostate cancer often leads to osteoblastic (bone-formation cells) bony metastases, which are often detected on bone scans or x-rays of prostate cancer patients. Physicians often have difficulty in identifying what types of prostate cancers will spread and become dangerous. A new protein called KAI-1 has been identified as a marker for disease. If significant levels of KAI-1 are found in cancerous tissues, the cancer is not likely to spread. If the protein is not found, cancer typically spreads. Prostate cancer represents a significant number of malignancies in men over the age of 50 years...

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penyampaian laporan bencana dari masa ke semasa. 8. Memberi kenyataan dan laporan kepada media massa dan pihak berkuasa tertentu. ACTION CARD 2 ...

ISOBM 2011
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◊ stem+ circulating cells ◊ new anti cancer treatments ◊ tumor markers in clinical trials ◊ tumor related anemia ◊ vit d deficiency in cancer

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