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Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability ...

Human interference with the climate system is occurring,1 and climate change poses risks for human and natural systems (Figure SPM.1). The assessment of impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability in the Working Group II contribution to the IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report (WGII AR5) evaluates how patterns of risks and potential benefits are shifting due to climate change. It considers how impacts and risks related to climate change can be reduced and managed through adaptation and mitigation. The report assesses needs, options, opportunities, constraints, resilience, limits, and other aspects associated with adaptation. Climate change involves complex interactions and changing likelihoods of diverse impacts. A focus on risk, which is new in this report, supports decision-making in the context of climate change, and complements other elements of the report. People and societies may perceive or rank risks and potential benefits differently, given diverse values and goals. Compared to past WGII reports, the WGII AR5 assesses a substantially larger knowledge base of relevant scientific, technical, and socioeconomic literature. Increased literature has facilitated comprehensive assessment across a broader set of topics and sectors, with expanded coverage of human systems, adaptation, and the ocean. See Background Box SPM.1.2 Section A of this summary characterizes observed impacts, vulnerability and exposure, and adaptive responses to date. Section B examines future risks and potential benefits. Section C considers principles for effective adaptation and the broader interactions among adaptation, mitigation, and sustainable development. Background Box SPM.2 defines central concepts, and Background Box SPM.3 introduces terms used to convey the degree of certainty in key findings. Chapter references in brackets and in footnotes indicate support for findings, figures, and tables. Figure SPM.1: Illustration of the core concepts of the WGII AR5. Risk of climate-related impacts results from the interaction of climate-related hazards (including hazardous events and trends) with the vulnerability and exposure of human and natural systems. Changes in both the climate system (left) and socioeconomic processes including adaptation and mitigation (right) are drivers of hazards, exposure, and vulnerability. [19.2, Figure 19-1]...

IPCC AR4 Chapter 10 - Global Climate Projections

The future climate change results assessed in this chapter are based on a hierarchy of models, ranging from AtmosphereOcean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs) and Earth System Models of Intermediate Complexity (EMICs) to Simple Climate Models (SCMs). These models are forced with concentrations of greenhouse gases and other constituents derived from various emissions scenarios ranging from nonmitigation scenarios to idealised long-term scenarios. In general, we assess non-mitigated projections of future climate change at scales from global to hundreds of kilometres. Further assessments of regional and local climate changes are provided in Chapter 11. Due to an unprecedented, joint effort by many modelling groups worldwide, climate change projections are now based on multi-model means, differences between models can be assessed quantitatively and in some instances, estimates of the probability of change of important climate system parameters complement expert judgement. New results corroborate those given in the Third Assessment Report (TAR). Continued greenhouse gas emissions at or above current rates will cause further warming and induce many changes in the global climate system during the 21st century that would very likely be larger than those observed during the 20th century. Mean Temperature All models assessed here, for all the non-mitigation scenarios considered, project increases in global mean surface air temperature (SAT) continuing over the 21st century, driven mainly by increases in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations, with the warming proportional to the associated radiative forcing. There is close agreement of globally averaged SAT multi-model mean warming for the early 21st century for concentrations derived from the three non-mitigated IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES: B1, A1B and A2) scenarios (including only anthropogenic forcing) run by the AOGCMs (warming averaged for 2011 to 2030 compared to 1980 to 1999 is between +0.64°C and +0.69°C, with a range of only 0.05°C). Thus, this warming rate is affected little by different scenario assumptions or different model sensitivities, and is consistent with that observed for the past few decades (see Chapter 3).

The Politicization of Climate Change and Polarization in ... - EPSCoR

Riley E. Dunlap Oklahoma State University We examine political polarization over climate change within the American public by analyzing data from 10 nationally representative Gallup Polls between 2001 and 2010. We find that liberals and Democrats are more likely to report beliefs consistent with the scientific consensus and express personal concern about global warming than are conservatives and Republicans. Further, the effects of educational attainment and self-reported understanding on global warming beliefs and concern are positive for liberals and Democrats, but are weaker or negative for conservatives and Republicans. Last, significant ideological and partisan polarization has occurred on the issue of climate change over the past decade. The Western experience of modernity—especially technological development, economic growth, material prosperity, urbanization, and democracy—has been built upon industrial capitalism, an economic system predicated on the accelerating extraction and consumption of fossil fuels for energy (Clark and York 2005). A major unintended consequence of the use of fossil fuels is anthropogenic global warming or climate change.1 Recognizing and responding to climate change, arguably the most challenging social problem of the modern era (Giddens 2009), thus poses a fundamental critique of continued modernization processes around the world (Antonio 2009). For two decades, European-based reflexive modernization theorists (e.g., Beck, Giddens, and Lash 1994; Mol 1996) have argued that forces of reflexivity, particularly science and environmentalism, compel us to confront threats to societal persistence such as climate change.2 In contrast, stimulated by the United States’s long-term, laggard response to climate change, a growing number of scholars have begun calling attention to forces of “anti-reflexivity” (McCright and Dunlap 2010)—particularly the industrial sector and the conservative movement—that defend the industrial capitalist order from critique by denying the significance of problems such as climate change (also see, e.g., *Direct all correspondence to Aaron M. McCright, Lyman Briggs College, Michigan State University, E-185 Holmes Hall, East Lansing, MI 48825-1107; e-mail: mccright@msu.edu The Sociological Quarterly 52 (2011) 155–194 © 2011 Midwest Sociological Society

Detection and Attribution of Climate Change: from Global to Regional

Atmospheric Temperatures More than half of the observed increase in global mean surface temperature (GMST) from 1951 to 2010 is very likely1 due to the observed anthropogenic increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations. The consistency of observed and modeled changes across the climate system, including warming of the atmosphere and ocean, sea level rise, ocean acidification and changes in the water cycle, the cryosphere and climate extremes points to a large-scale warming resulting primarily from anthropogenic increases in GHG concentrations. Solar forcing is the only known natural forcing acting to warm the climate over this period but it has increased much less than GHG forcing, and the observed pattern of long-term tropospheric warming and stratospheric cooling is not consistent with the expected response to solar irradiance variations. The Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) could be a confounding influence but studies that find a significant role for the AMO show that this does not project strongly onto 1951–2010 temperature trends. {10.3.1, Table 10.1} It is extremely likely that human activities caused more than half of the observed increase in GMST from 1951 to 2010. This assessment is supported by robust evidence from multiple studies using different methods. Observational uncertainty has been explored much more thoroughly than previously and the assessment now considers observations from the first decade of the 21st century and simulations from a new generation of climate models whose ability to simulate historical climate has improved in many respects relative to the previous generation of models considered in AR4. Uncertainties in forcings and in climate models’ temperature responses to individual forcings and difficulty in distinguishing the patterns of temperature response due to GHGs and other anthropogenic forcings prevent a more precise quantification of the temperature changes attributable to GHGs. {9.4.1, 9.5.3, 10.3.1, Figure 10.5, Table 10.1} GHGs contributed a global mean surface warming likely to be between 0.5°C and 1.3°C over the period 1951–2010, with the contributions from other anthropogenic forcings likely to be between –0.6°C and 0.1°C, from natural forcings likely to be between –0.1°C and 0.1°C, and from internal variability likely to be between –0.1°C and 0.1°C. Together these assessed contributions are consistent with the observed warming of approximately 0.6°C over this period. {10.3.1, Figure 10.5} It is virtually certain that internal variability alone cannot account for the observed global warming since 1951. The observed global-scale warming since 1951 is large compared to climate model estimates of internal variability on 60-year time scales.

SBMPTN 2013 Biologi - Bisa Kimia

Doc. Name: SBMPTN2013BIO999 Doc. Version : 2013-10 | 01. Contoh keberadaan satwa pada suatu habitat yang dijaga dengan baik sebagai upaya pelestarian ex situ adalah… (A) Orang utan di hutan Kalimantan. (B) Cendrawasih di hutan Papua. (C) Rusa di Kebun Raya Bogor. (D) Pesut diSungai Mahakam. (E) Anoa di Pulau Sulawesi 02. Komunitas mikroba yang melekat pada suatu substrat/benda sehingga dapat merusak substrat/benda tersebut disebut… (A) Biodegradator. (B) Bioaktivator. (C) Biokatalis. (D) Biodeposit. (E) Biofilm. 03. Bagian sistem pencernaan yang berperan dalam memecah polipeptida menjadi oligopeptida adalah… (A) Duodenum. (B) Usus besar. (C) Lambung. (D) Jejunum. (E) Ileum. 04. Asam absisat melindungi tanaman yang mengalami kekurangan air melalui mekanisme… (A) Peningkatan pembentukan kutikula. (B) Penurunan tekanan turgor sel penjaga. (C) Peningkatan kecepatan pembelahan sel. (D) Penurunan kecepatan pembentangan sel. (E) Penghambatan pemanjangan sel epidermis. halaman 1 05. Pernyataan yang salah mengenai fotofosforilisasi siklik dan non siklik adalah… (A) Pada fotofosforilisasi non siklik sumber elektron yang memasuki Fotosistem II adalah molekul air, pada fotofosforilisasi siklik, sumber dari elektron adalah Fotosistem I. (B) Pada fotofosforilisasi non siklik penerima elktron terakhir adalah NADP, pada fotofosforilisasi siklik, penerima elektron terakhir adalah Fotosistem I. (C) Hasil dari fotofosforilisasi non siklik adalah ATP, NADPH, dan O2, sedangkan hasil dari fotofosforilisasi siklikhanya ATP. (D) Fotofosforilisasi non siklik melibatkan Fotosistem I dan II, fotofosforilisasi siklik hanya melibatkan Fotosistem II. 06. Perhatikan diagram saluran kreb berikut! Tahap dimana berlangsung hidrasi adalah (A) 1 dan 4 (B) 1 dan 5 (C) 2 dan 6 (D) 3 dan 7 (E) 3 dan 8 Kunci dan pembahasan soal ini bisa dilihat di www.zenius.net dengan memasukkan kode 3117 ke menu search. Copyright © 2013 Zenius Education SBMPTN 2013 Biologi, Kode Soal doc. name: SBMPTN2013BIO999 halaman 2 doc. version : 2013-10 | 07. Perhatikan gambar tahapan mitosis berikut! 10. Grafik berikut menunjukan kinerja insulin sintetis. Tahap telofase, metaphase, anaphase dan profasen ditunjukan oleh urutan angka…

FINAL Deep Dive Report - Federal Railroad Administration

This report of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) on its safety assessment of the MetroNorth Commuter Railroad (Metro-North), called Operation Deep Dive, is provided to Congress pursuant to report language in the Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 Omnibus Appropriations Act. Metro-North is the second largest commuter railroad in the Nation, serving New York, Connecticut, and New Jersey, with an annual ridership of almost 83 million people. MetroNorth is a subsidiary agency of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA), a New York State Authority. In 2013, four high-profile accidents occurred on Metro-North (Appendix 1). • On May 17, 2013, in Bridgeport, Connecticut, an accident occurred on Metro-North’s New Haven Line, when an eastbound Metro-North train of 8 cars, traveling 74 mph, derailed and came to rest on an adjacent track. Approximately 20 seconds later, a westbound Metro-North train on that adjacent track struck the derailed train. As a result of the accident, more than 50 people, some seriously injured, were hospitalized, rail operations were suspended, and millions in property damage occurred. • On May 28, 2013, a second accident occurred when a Metro-North train in West Haven, Connecticut, that was traveling 70 mph, struck and killed a Metro-North maintenance-ofway (MOW) employee who was part of a roadway work group performing railroad maintenance on a construction project. • On July 18, 2013, a third accident occurred when a CSX Transportation freight train derailed while traveling over Metro-North’s system. No one was injured, but property damage was significant. • On December 1, 2013, the fourth accident occurred when a Metro-North train of 7 cars traveling south from Poughkeepsie, New York, to Grand Central Terminal in New York City, derailed as it approached the Spuyten Duyvil Station. All cars derailed and the front cab came to rest close to the Harlem River. Four passengers were killed, and more than 70 were injured. Rail operations were suspended, and millions of dollars in property damage alone was sustained. On December 3, 2013, 2 days after the fourth and most serious of these accidents, FRA sent a letter to MTA expressing support for Governor Andrew Cuomo’s directive that MTA hold a safety stand-down, and directing Metro-North to implement a Confidential Close Call Reporting System (C3RS) (Appendix 2). Additionally, FRA issued Emergency Order 29 and Safety Advisory 2013-08. • Emergency Order 29, issued on December 6, 2013, required Metro-North to take immediate action to prevent excessive train speeds by identifying and prioritizing highrisk areas, modifying its existing signal system to ensure speed limits are obeyed, and 1 requiring a higher level of engagement and communication among operating crewmembers in areas in which major speed restrictions are in place. • Safety Advisory 2013-08, issued on December 10, 2013, urged railroads to provide additional training, increase the frequency of operational testing, and reinforced the importance of communication between crew members. The purpose was to ensure that all railroads adhere to Federal regulations and railroad operating rules regarding maximum authorized train speed limits.

Lines 802/805 (06/29/14) -- Metro Rail Red/Purple Lines (Union ...

Monday through Friday Red & Purple Lines Effective Jun 29 2014 All service after 9:00PM is subject to minor delays for system maintenance. Todo servicio después de las 9:00PM es sujeto a retrasos menores para mantenencia a la sistema. — 1:09A — 1:11A Friday Late Night and Saturday Late Night Only 12:08A — 12:10A 1:14 12:12A 1:16 12:14A 1:18 12:15A 1:19 12:16A 1:20 12:19A 1:23 Red & Purple Lines 11:47 11:52 NORTH HOLLYWOOD UNIVERSAL CITY HOLLYWOOD 11:54 11:56 11:59 12:01A DC12:12ADC12:14ADC12:15ADC12:17A C12:19A C12:21A See Friday Late Night and Saturday Late Night Only 8:14 — 8:24 — 8:34 — 8:44 — 8:54 — 9:04 — 9:15 — 8:15 — 8:25 — 8:35 — 8:45 — 8:55 — 9:05 — 9:16 — North Hollywood l 8:12 — 8:22 — 8:32 — 8:42 — 8:52 — 9:02 — 9:13 — Universal City l — 8:59 — 9:11 — 9:24 — 9:36 — 9:48 — 10:00 — 10:12 — 10:24 — 10:36 — 10:48 — 11:00 — 11:12 — 11:24 — 11:36 — 11:48 — 11:59 — 12:12P — 12:24 — 12:36 — 12:48 — 1:00 — 1:12 — 1:24 — 1:36 — 1:48 — 2:00 — 2:12 — 2:24 — 2:36 — 2:48 — 3:01 — 3:13 — 3:25 — 3:35 — 4:46A 4:49A 5:04 5:07 — — 5:20 5:23 5:27 5:30 — — 5:40 5:43 — — 5:53 5:56 — — 6:03 6:06 — — 6:13 6:16 — — 6:23 6:26 — — 6:33 6:36 — — 6:41 6:44 10 minutes — — 9:01 9:04 — — 9:13 9:16 — — 9:26 9:29 — — 9:38 9:41 — — 9:50 9:53 — — 10:02 10:05 — — 10:14 10:17 — — 10:26 10:29 — — 10:38 10:41 — — 10:50 10:53 — — 11:02 11:05 — — 11:14 11:17 — — 11:26 11:29 — — 11:38 11:41 — — 11:50 11:53 — — 12:02P 12:05P — — 12:14 12:17 — — 12:26 12:29 — — 12:38 12:41 — — 12:50 12:53 — — 1:02 1:05 — — 1:14 1:17 — — 1:26 1:29 — — 1:38 1:41 — — 1:50 1:53 — — 2:02 2:05 — — 2:14 2:17 — — 2:26 2:29 — — 2:38 2:41 — — 2:50 2:53 — — 3:03 3:06 — — 3:15 3:18 — — 3:27 3:30 — — 3:37 3:40 — — 10 minutes 8:17 8:20 — — 8:27 8:30 — — 8:37 8:40 — — 8:47 8:50 — — 9:00 8:57 — — 9:07 9:10 — — 9:18 9:21 — — 20 minutes 10 minutes Hollywood/Highland

Metro North's Harbor View Place Metro North's ... - Metro North CDC

FEATURES: Attractive 3 and 4 Bedroom Homes Beautiful Decorative Door  Attractive Lighting w /Ceiling Fans Family Room Nook Dining Room Master Bedroom w/ walk in closets Two/Three Additional Bedrooms Master Bath & Full Bathroom Spacious Energy Efficient Kitchen w/ Granite Countertops Refrigerator w/ Ice Maker  Dishwasher Flat Top Range Washer/Dryer Ceramic Tile Floors Wood Laminate Floors Central Heat & Air Pre-Wired for Cable Activated Security System  Irrigation System Covered LanaiLarge Backyard 4230-4250 HARBOR VIEW PLACE For Sale! Asking Prices are in the Lower $100.000’s CALL TODAY! OUR HOUSING COUNSELOR WILL GUIDE YOU THROUGH THE PROGRAM AND PREPARE YOU FOR THE RESPONSIBILITY OF HOMEOWNERSHIP. 904-358-1224 *Subsidy amount may vary ** For more information visit our website 3105 N. Main Street Jacksonville, FL 32206 Office: 904-358-1224 Get A $250 Visa Card for every home buyer you refer that closes w/ Metro North CDC www.MetroNorthCDC.com Metro North’s Harbor View Place You May Receive Up To $40,000 In Down Payment Assistance* FEATURES: Attractive 3 and 4 Bedroom Homes Beautiful Decorative Door  Attractive Lighting w /Ceiling Fans Family Room Nook Dining Room Master Bedroom w/ walk in closets Two/Three Additional Bedrooms Master Bath & Full Bathroom Spacious Energy Efficient Kitchen w/ Granite Countertops Refrigerator w/ Ice Maker  Dishwasher Flat Top Range Washer/Dryer Ceramic Tile Floors Wood Laminate Floors Central Heat & Air Pre-Wired for Cable Activated Security System  Irrigation System Covered LanaiLarge Backyard 4230-4250 HARBOR VIEW PLACE For Sale! Asking Prices are in the Lower $100.000’s CALL TODAY! OUR HOUSING COUNSELOR WILL GUIDE YOU THROUGH THE PROGRAM AND PREPARE YOU FOR THE RESPONSIBILITY OF HOMEOWNERSHIP. 904-358-1224 *Subsidy amount may vary ** For more information visit our website Get A $250 Visa Card for every home buyer you refer that closes w/ Metro North CDC 3105 N. Main Street Jacksonville, FL 32206 Office: 904-358-1224 www.MetroNorthCDC.com

MacBook Air 11 inch Mid 2013 Quick Start - Support - Apple

When you start your MacBook Air for the first time, Setup Assistant will help you get going. Just follow a few simple steps to quickly connect to your Wi-Fi network, transfer your stuff from another Mac or a PC, and create a user account for your Mac. You’ll also be able to log in with your Apple ID. This will allow you to shop the App Store, iTunes Store, and Apple Online Store. It will let you keep in touch using Messages and FaceTime. And it will let you access iCloud, which is automatically set up on your Mac in apps like Mail, Contacts, and Calendar. If you don’t have an Apple ID, you can create one in Setup Assistant. It’s easy to move files like documents, email, photos, music, and movies to your new Mac from another Mac or a PC. The first time you start your new Mac, it will walk you through the process step by step. All you have to do is follow the onscreen instructions. Multi-Touch gestures You can do a lot of things on your MacBook Air using simple gestures on the trackpad. Here are some of the most popular ones. Get to know your desktop The desktop is where you can find everything and do anything on your Mac. The Dock at the bottom of the screen is a handy place to keep the apps you use most. It’s also where you can open System Preferences, which lets you customize your desktop and other settings on your Mac. Click the Finder icon to quickly get to all your files and folders. The menu bar at the top has lots of useful information about your Mac. To check the status of your wireless Internet connection, click the Wi-Fi icon. Your Mac automatically connects to the network you chose during setup. Click Press down anywhere on the trackpad to click. Or, with Tap to Click enabled, simply tap the surface. Double click Press down two times anywhere on the trackpad. Or, with Tap to Click enabled, double-tap the surface. Pinch to zoom Zoom in and out of photos and web pages more precisely by pinching your thumb and finger. Rotate Turn your thumb and finger clockwise or counterclockwise to rotate an image. Power button Secondary click (right click) Click with two fingers to open shortcut menus. Or, with Tap to Click enabled, tap two fingers anywhere. Quick Start Guide MagSafe 2 power connector Multi-Touch trackpad Menu bar Help menu Two-finger scroll Brush two fingers along the trackpad to scroll in any direction—up, down, or sideways. Switch between full-screen apps Swipe with three fingers to move from one full-screen app to another. View Mission Control Swipe up with three fingers to see every open window on your Mac. Swipe to navigate Swipe with two fingers to flip through web pages, documents, and more.

Qualified Apple Mac Systems for Media Composer 7.0

Earliest MC/Sym Version Supported* Nitris DX Mojo DX ISIS MediaNetwork (Fibre only) Notes** Mac Desktops 16, 32 or 64 GB DDR31866Mhz ECC memory (4 DIMMs required) Mac Pro 3.5 Ghz 6- core, 3.0 Ghz 8-core, or 2.7 Ghz 12-core “Ivy Bridge” CPU Mac Pro dual 6-Core 2.66 GHz "Westmere" Mac Pro dual Quad Core 2.66 or 2.93 GHz "Nehalem" Mac Pro dual Quad Core 2.26 GHz “Nehalem” Mac Pro dual Quad Core 3.0 or 3.2 GHz "Harpertown" GeForce 8800 GT Rev 4 February 27, 2014 Dual AMD FirePro D500 or D700 6.5.4.1 or 7.0.3 ATI Radeon HD 5770 NVIDIA GeForce GT 120 Important note for customers running v6.5.4.1 or v7.0.3 only: Media Composer will not launch without a Core Audio device present. See this Knowledge Base article for details. No DX Thunderbolt Adapter Required Yes No 5.03 Yes Yes Yes Yes 6GB, 12 GB, or 24 GB DDR3 1333 ECC (3 DIMMs per CPU) RAM 3.5 Yes Yes Yes Yes 6GB, 12 GB, or 24 GB DDR3 1066 ECC (3 DIMMs per CPU) RAM NVIDIA GeForce GT 120 3.5 No No Yes No NVIDIA GeForce 8800GT 3.0 Yes Yes Yes Yes 6GB, 12 GB, or 24 GB DDR3 1066 ECC (3 DIMMs per CPU) RAM 4GB or 8 GB DDR2 800 ECC RAM http://avid.custkb.com/avid/app/selfservice/search.jsp?DocId=422411 System iMac 27" 3.2,3.4 GHz i5 or 3.5 Ghz i7 Quad core Late 2013 Thunderbolt iMac 21.5" 2.9 GHz i5 or 3.1 Ghz i7 Quad core Late 2013 Thunderbolt iMac 27” 2.9GHz Quadcore Intel i5*, 3.2Ghz Quad-core Intel i5*, 3.4 GHz Quad Core Intel i7 Late 2012 iMac 21.5” 2.9GHz Quad-core Intel i5*, 3.1GHz Quad-core Intel i7 Late 2012 iMac 27" display 3.4 GHz i7 Quad core with HT – Thunderbolt Mid 2011 iMac 21.5" display 2.8 GHz i7 Quad core with HT – Thunderbolt Mid 2011 GPU Nvidia GeForce GTX 775 Nvidia GeForce GTX 750 NVIDIA GeForce GTX 660M or NVIDIA GeForce GTX 675MX NVIDIA GeForce 650M Earliest MC/Sym Version Supported*

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