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Purposes and Principles of Cancer Staging - Sutter Medical ...

The extent or stage of cancer at the time of diagnosis is a key factor that defines prognosis and is a critical element in deter­ mining appropriate treatment based on the experience and outcomes of groups of prior patients with similar stage. In addition, accurate staging is necessary to evaluate the results of treatments and clinical trials, to facilitate the exchange and comparison of information among treatment centers, and to serve as a basis for clinical and translational cancer research. At a national and international level, the agreement on classi­ fications of cancer cases provides a method of clearly convey­ ing clinical experience to others without ambiguity. Several cancer staging systems are used worldwide. Dif­ ferences among these systems stem from the needs and objectives of users in clinical medicine and in population surveillance. The most clinically useful staging system is the tumor node metastasis (TNM) system maintained collabor­ atively by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the International Union for Cancer Control (UICC). The TNM system classifies cancers by the size and extent of the primary tumor (T), involvement of regional lymph node (N), and the presence or absence of distant metasta­ ses (M), supplemented in recent years by carefully selected nonanatomic prognostic factors. There is a TNM staging algorithm for cancers of virtually every anatomic site and histology, with the primary exception in this manual being staging of pediatric cancers.

Cancer of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction

Previous American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer (AJCC/UICC) stage groupings for esophageal cancer have not been data driven or harmonized with stomach cancer. At the request of the AJCC, worldwide data from 3 continents were assembled to develop data-driven, harmonized esophageal staging for the seventh edition of the AJCC/UICC cancer staging manuals. METHODS: All-cause mortality among 4627 patients with esophageal and esophagogastric junction cancer who underwent surgery alone (no preoperative or postoperative adjuvant therapy) was analyzed by using novel random forest methodology to produce stage groups for which survival was monotonically decreasing, distinctive, and homogeneous. RESULTS: For lymph node-negative pN0M0 cancers, risk-adjusted 5-year survival was dominated by pathologic tumor classification (pT) but was modulated by histopathologic cell type, histologic grade, and location. For lymph node-positive, pNþM0 cancers, the number of cancer-positive lymph nodes (a new pN classification) dominated survival. Resulting stage groupings departed from a simple, logical arrangement of TNM. Stage groupings for stage I and II adenocarcinoma were based on pT, pN, and histologic grade; and groupings for squamous cell carcinoma were based on pT, pN, histologic grade, and location. Stage III was similar for histopathologic cell types and was based only on pT and pN. Stage 0 and stage IV, by definition, were categorized as tumor in situ (Tis) (high-grade dysplasia) and pM1, respectively.

Sample Student PDC 124, Online Career Research Paper The ...

The career that I had in mind when I first began college was one in counseling psychology. Luckily, this career was one matched closely to my interests and personality type. Although I’ve begun considering other career avenues, I still chose to research this specific career in depth. A person in counseling psychology will typically use personality tests/assessments, interviews, case histories, and observation methods to evaluate a patients problems, needs, and goals. Counseling psychologists will evaluate data and, from there, create an action plan or treatment plan to counsel the patient with. The goal in this career is to help each patient work toward developing and adjusting social, educational, personal, and vocational skills. I’m most definitely interested in this career. I’ve always had an interest in listening to people and their “problems”. Even in my early teenage years, and now into my adult years, people of all ages have come to me for emotional support, advice, and confidentiality. I’ve wondered what people see in me, but have always been humbled by the trust people place in me. The idea of helping people achieve a happier lifestyle is thrilling to me. The idea of being the person that one person can talk to about anything is very exciting and fulfilling to me; I love the idea of being a problem solver. I see this career as having many advantages and few disadvantages. From a personal standpoint, the biggest disadvantage or problem I foresee is becoming too wrapped up in a patient’s problems. I tend to worry, so this roadblock may be one to consider and learn to overcome.

Formal Research APA Sample Paper
by anand 0 Comments favorite 40 Viewed Download 0 Times

Some assignments will call for an abstract. An abstract is a summary of your paper. An abstract should be short and concise but include the topic of your paper, the main points you are writing about, and the conclusions you reach. Do not indent the 1st line of your Abstract It should be written in block format Include a brief sentence summary for all sections of your paper. An abstract is typically 150-250 words long. Your paper should: word Introduction as a heading. It is understood that the opening paragraph of your paper is your introduction. The APA suggests the following set up for an * be double spaced * have 1 inch margins introduction: Introduce the problem, explore the importance of the problem, describe relevant scholarship, and explain your approach to solving the problem. This may vary depending on your assignment. * be typed in Times font * indent paragraphs ½ inch or 5-7 spaces The Body of your Paper Headings should After you write the introduction, you will develop the body of the paper. be boldfaced, centered, and all major words In a formal psychology paper documenting an experiment, the standard capitalized structure for an experiment is: Method, Results, Discussion. Each of these Footnotes can be used to provide additional information sections would use a heading to guide the reader through the paper. The paper ends with References, Footnotes, Appendices and Supplemental Materials1. Consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association

APA-Formatted Research Proposal - Vanguard University of ...

The role of the perceived gender of an infant and the gender of adolescents on ratings of the infant will be explored. Thirty-six junior high students (18 boys and 18 girls) will view a photo of a 3-month-old infant. Students will be told the infant’s name is either “Larry,” “Laurie,” or they will not be told the infant’s name. Each student will rate the infant on 6 bipolar adjective scales (firm/soft, big/little, strong/weak, hardy/delicate, well coordinated/awkward, and beautiful/plain). It is predicted that both the name assigned to the infant and the students’ gender will affect ratings. Implications of the results for parenting and for future research will be discussed.Effect of Infant’s Perceived Gender on Adolescents’ Ratings of the Infant Many researchers agree that gender role socialization begins at the time of an infant’s birth (Haugh, Hoffman, & Cowan, 1980; Honig, 1983). Most parents are extremely interested in learning whether their newborn infant is a boy or a girl, and intentionally or not, this knowledge elicits in them a set of expectations about sex role appropriate traits (Rubin, Provenzano, & Luria, 1974). Empirical research suggests that these initial expectations, which form the basis of gender schemas (Leone & Robertson, 1989), can have a powerful impact on parents’ perceptions of and behavior toward infants (Fagot, 1978; Lewis, 1972). Gender contributes to the initial context within which adults respond to an infant and may become an influential agent in the socializing process and the development of the child’s sense of self (Berndt & Heller, 1986). Stereotyped expectations may influence gender role socialization and the acquisition of sex-typed behavior through a self-fulfilling prophecy process (Darley & Fazio, 1980). Preconceived gender-based expectations may cause the parent to elicit expected behavior from the infant and to reinforce expected behavior when it occurs; this would confirm the parents’ initial expectations.

Cisco Systems Inc. 2013 Annual Report - (PDF)

To Our Shareholders, Fiscal 2013 was another strong year for Cisco, and we were pleased to have delivered record results despite a challenging and inconsistent global macroeconomic environment. Our results underscored the effectiveness of our vision and strategy and our strong execution. We consistently delivered on the commitments we made— to our customers, partners, employees, and you, our shareholders. By utilizing decades of networking investments, coupled with the breadth of our portfolio, we are providing our customers with an integrated architectural approach that solves their critical business requirements. This unique approach brings together application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs), software, hardware, and services, which we believe are key to our customers’ success now and into the future. In our view, we are the only company in the industry that can deliver on this integrated architectural approach. Our momentum reflects the fundamental role the network is playing in the key technology transitions in the market, including software, silicon, cloud, mobility, bring your own device (BYOD), security, and the Internet of Everything (IoE). We believe we are well positioned as the pace of these transitions increases, because we have accelerated our own speed of innovation to stay ahead of these transitions and help our customers capitalize on them to meet their business goals.

English Tutor London
by alvagordan31 0 Comments favorite 34 Viewed Download 0 Times

If two different people are making use of the same language, interacting is made simple. Therefore if the language spoken isn't the same, surely, there'll be a complication. To break this language barrier, languages like French and English are now taught to students by many educational institutions.

Immigration Finance, Overseas Finance-Cstaroverseas

CstarOverseas is the famous study abroad educational consultancy website offers various services Student Finance,Overseas Finance,Immigration Finance,Student Finance provider, visa consultants hyderabad.

Microsoft Microsoft PowerPoint 2007 PowerPoint 2007 Efficient ...

Technology Training and Consulting Services PowerPoint 2007 Efficient Techniques For The Haas School of Business, UC Berkeley - Dash Designs Consulting Microsoft PowerPoint 2007 Efficient Presentation Techniques For The Haas School of Business, University of California Revised: July 18, 2007 Copyrights and Trademarks  2007, Dash Designs Consulting, Jerry Maletsky San Rafael, CA 94903 email: jerry@dashdesignsconsulting.com web site: www.dashdesignsconsulting.com fax (415) 491-1490 Dash Designs Consulting gives permission to the Haas School of Business of the University of California at Berkeley to reprint this training manual for internal use only. No re-sale of this material or renunciation of copyrights are granted by this author. Any mention or use of Microsoft®, University of California, or any third party products is hereby acknowledged by Dash Designs Consulting to be for the sole purpose of editorial and educational use of this training manual and for the benefit of the mentioned PowerPoint 2007 Efficient Techniques For The Haas School of Business, UC Berkeley - Dash Designs Consulting

Datasheet english - ARP
by damina 0 Comments favorite 23 Viewed Download 0 Times

100% Jam Free Laminator High Performance Large Office Laminator For Heavy Use •Unique heated belt-driven technology for ultimate jam-proof laminating •The only laminator that allows instant changes between different pouches without heat-up or cool-down time •AutoLam pouch detection and speed adjustment automatically sets the optimum speed/heat combination •CleanMe auto-glue sensor alerts the user to clean the laminator belt if glue or dirt has built up •Accepts all pouch types up to 250 microns Unique features •2 year full warranty. SPECIFICATIONS Item Number Model Name Laminating mechanism Entry width Heat up time Temp adjustment Speed Max micron 5704201 Voyager A3 Belt drive 330mm 4mins AUTO 90cm/min 250micron ® FELLOWES Voyager A3 Unique Features Automatic pouch detection and speed adjustment ensures best laminating results Unique heated belt driven technology for ultimate jam free laminating Reduces the surface temperature of the laminator by up to 50% Allows user to open up the laminator to clean and maintain the rollers for consistent quality results Laminator switches to standby or mode off during periods of inactivity to reduce energy consumption.

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