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Section One: General CNC Questions 1) The spindle speed for a particular tool in a program is incorrect and you wish to reduce it. The kind of CNC word you must change is: q A) an F word q C) an S word q B) a G word q D) a T word 2) You determine that a feedrate for a particular tool must be 5.0 inches per minute (or 5 millimeters per minute in the metric mode). The correct designation in the program would be: q A) F0.5 q C) F5.0 q B) S5.0 q D) F0.005 3) You are running a proven program (one run before) for the first time in a new setup. You are cautiously allowing the first tool come into its approach position when you determine that the tool is not going where it is supposed to. It is most likely that: q A) the spindle speed is not correct q B) the program zero designation is not correct q C) the dry run switch should be turned on q D) the programmed coordinates are not correct 4) When coordinates going into a program are specified relative to the program zero point, it is called: q A) the incremental mode q B) the absolute mode q C) the rapid mode q D) the canned cycle mode 5) What mode switch position allows programs to be modified? q A) Jog q D) Edit q B) Auto...
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CONTENTS CHAPTER I Introduction to Computer Numerical Control Manufacturing I —I Chapter Objectives 1 2 Introduction — I I 1 3 Numerical Control Definition, Its Concepts and Advantages — I 1-4 Definition of Computer Numerical Control and Its Components 1-5 Advantages of CNC Compared with NC 4 1 6 Special Requirements for Utilizing CNC 4 — 1-7 Financial Rewards of CNC Investment 5 1 8 CNC Machining Centers and Turning Centers — 1-9 Other Types of CNC Equipment I —10 CNC Input and Storage Media I-11 Chapter Summary 6 8 8 II Review Exercises CHAPTER 1 13 Modern Machine Tool Controls 2-1 Chapter Objectives 2-2 Introduction 13 13 2-3 Different Types of System Control 13 2—4 Loop Systems f o r Controlling Tool Movement 16 2—5 Establishing Locations via Cartesian Coordinates 2-6 CNC Machine Axes of Motion 2-7 Types ofTool Positioning Modes 24 2-8 Units Used for Positioning Coordinates 2—9 Chapter Summary 19 20 25 25 Review Exercises CHAPTER 3 Too/ing for Hole and Milling Operations 3-1 Chapter Objectives 3—2 Introduction 32 32 32 3-3 Tooling for Drilling Operations 32 XI xii Contents 3 4 Carbide Insert Technology — 37 3 5 Tooling for Hole Operations That Follow Drilling — 3-6 Tool Speeds and Feeds for Hole Operations 41 3—7 Tooling for Profile Milling and Facing Operations 3-8 Coated Tooling 38 44 48 3-9 Tool Speeds and Feeds for Milling Operations 3-10 Feed Directions for Milling Operations 3-11 Cutting Fluids for CNC Operations 3-12 Chapter Summary 49 51 52 54 Review Exercises CHAPTER 4 Exploring Features of CNC Machining Centers 4-1 Chapter Objectives 4-2 Introduction 56 56 56 4-3 Background on CNC Machining Centers 56 4—4 Tooling Systems Used with Automatic Tool Changers 4-5 Methods of Securing Tools in Tool Holders 60 62 4—6 Methods of Securing Tooling Systems to the CNC Spindle 4-7 Automatic Tool Changer Systems 4-8 Pallet Loading Systems 64 65 67 4-9 Features of the Machine Control Unit (MCU) Machining Centers 4—10 Chapter Summary 70 77 Review Exercises CHAPTERS Review of Basic Blueprint Reading for CNC Programmers 5-1 Chapter Objectives 5-2 Introduction 5-3 Sheet Sizes 80 80 80 5 4 Drawing Formats — 81 5 5 Interpreting Lines in Drawings — 87 5-6 Projection Conventions Used in Drawings 91 5-7 Visualizing 3D Objects from 2D Othographic Views 5-8 Auxiliary Views 93 5-9 Sectional Views 93 5-10 Reading Dimensions 93 5-11 Reading Threads and Thread Notes 115 5-12 Reading Surface Finish Symbols and Notes 5-13 Chapter Summary Review Exercises Bibliography 80 131 125 93 Contents xiii CHAPTER 6 Review of Basic Material for CNC Programmers 6-1 Chapter Objectives 6-2 Introduction Specifications 133 133 133 6-3 Reading Material Specifications 133 6-4 Understanding Heat Treatment Notes 6—5 Interpreting Surface Coating Notes 6-6 Chapter Summary 141 145 150 Review Exercises Bibliography CHAPTER 7 Review of Basic Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for CNC Programmers 7-1 Chapter Objectives 7—2 Introduction 151 151 7-3 GDTTerminology 152 7—4 Part Form Controls 7-5 Datums 151 154 158 7-6 Part Profile Controls 159 7-7 Part Location, Orientation, and Runout Controls 7—8 Chapter Summary 166 159 < Review Exercises Bibliography CHAPTER 8 Mathematics 8-1 Chapter Objectives 8-2 Introduction for CNC Programming 168 168 8-3 Determining Sides of Right Triangles 8-4 Useful Angle Concepts 8—6 Oblique Triangles 168 169 8-5 Determining Angles of Right Triangles 173 175 8-7 KwikTrig Trigonometry/Geometry Software 8-8 Installation 168 175 176 8-9 Starting KwikTrig 8-10 Chapter Summary 176 178 Review Exercises CHAPTER 9 An Overview of CNC Shop Activities 9-1 Chapter Objectives 9-2 Introduction 182 182 182 xiv Contents 9-3 Essential CNC Shop Activities 9-4 Part Drawing Study 182 182 9—5 Methodizing o f Operations f o r C N C Machining Centers 9-6 Deciding on a CNC Machine 185 9-7 Methods of Holding the Part During Machining 9—8 Machining Determination 9-9 Cutting Conditions 186 193 194 9-10 Writing a Programming Manuscript 194 9-11 Inputting Programs to the Machine Control Unit 9-12 Setup Procedure 194 195 9-13 Debugging and Verifying the Program 9-14 Part Production 185 200 201 9-15 Chapter Summary 201 Review Exercises C H A P T E R 10 Word Address Programming 10-1 Chapter Objectives 10-2 Introduction 203 203 203 10-3 Programming Language Format 203 10-4 Programming Language Terminology 204 10-5 Arrangement of Addresses in a Block 205 10-6 Program and Sequence Numbers (O, N Codes) 10-7 Preparatory Functions (G Codes) 207 10-8 Dimension Words ( X . Y . Z . . . Codes) 10-9 Feed Rate (F Code)
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“Among the things you can give and still keep are your word, a smile, and a grateful heart.” -Zig Ziglar PAGE 2 Special ‘Zig Ziglar Tribute’ Issue Hey, Zig: We’ll ‘See You At The Top!’ Zig Ziglar, the consummate salesman who became perhaps the most wellknown motivational speaker in history, unclipped his lavaliere microphone for the last time died last Wednesday, November 27, 2012, succumbing to pneumonia at his home in Plano, Texas. But the millions of books sold and dollars earned pales in comparison to the tens of millions of seeds that this man planted in the hearts and minds of those of us who want to achieve and give more of ourselves in this lifetime. And the next.
SOFTWARE UPDATE YOUR MOTOROLA XOOM JUST GOT EVEN BETTER. VERIZON WIRELESS AND MOTOROLA ENCOURAGE YOU TO DOWNLOAD THIS UPDATE. Verizon Wireless is pleased to announce a new software update, JZO54M for your MOTOROLA XOOM™ 3G and 4G LTE. This update includes an upgrade to the Android Operating System 4.1.2 (Jelly Bean). GOOGLE NOW NOTIFICATIONS Google Now displays relevant information before you even ask for it: today’s weather, how much traffic to expect, when the next train will arrive as you are standing on a train platform, or your favorite team’s score. Take action directly from the notification shade, such as emailing attendees of your meeting. Notifications are expandable to display deeper detail. DEVICE IMPROVEMENTS AND FIXES Voice Search speed has been improved Keyboard adapts over time and predicts user’s next word Settings application has been revised for clearer options “Accounts & Sync” has been moved from the Personal group to an independent group called “Accounts” Enhancements to modem stability to improve data connectivity Search Option has been added in YouTube Application For step-by-step instructions on how to perform this download, please visit verizonwireless.com/xoomsupport Data Usage Applies. © 2013 Verizon Wireless.
The Microsoft Xbox 360 is a stunning example of globalization and Globalization; the processes of both global interconnections (through production and access to the video game console) and also through the use of Globalization as a political buzz word (to generate an image of the Xbox 360 as the brand connecting users worldwide) (Sparke 2005a, 3). These two definitions of globalization; as a physical process of interconnections and as a political buzz word, can aid in understanding the systems at work when examining how Xbox is attempting to go 360. Microsoft’s Xbox as a technology can be seen as a computer with access to very specific content; all that is needed is the video game console and a connection to broadband Internet. When considering the qualifications to gain access to the Xbox 360 ‘experience,’ one must consider how to get an Internet connection and to the Xbox 360 console. While most citizens in the Xbox 360’s major markets, US, EU and Japan, may not consider these systems hard to obtain, many millions of people globally do not have the luxury of high-speed access to the Internet and the Xbox 360 console. Through understanding the impacts of creating a virtual community based on access to technology, which Microsoft states it hopes to do with the new Xbox 360 console, the inequality of the situation starts to be clarified. Introduction to Microsoft as a Global Company Microsoft is a well-known company in the computer software industry. It continues to expand to new...
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http://www.surfacesolutionsgroup.com/ | Recall is the last word a biomedical business wants to hear. But that is what struck the guidewire industry last year after a voluntary recall —that the FDA classified as Class 1†— for stainless steel guidewires going back to April 2013. The problem was poor adhesion of an aqueous PFOA*-free PTFE coating that resulted in flakes of coating being dislodged from guidewires during in vitro procedures.