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Table of Contents Standard Elementary Diagram Symbols ..................... 1-3 NEMA and IEC Markings and Schematic Diagrams ...... 4 Control and Power Connection Table 4 Terminology ...................................................................... 5 Examples of Control Circuits .......................................... 6 2-Wire Control 6 3-Wire Control 6-9 Shunting Thermal Units During Starting Period 10 Overcurrent Protection for 3-Wire Control Circuits 11 AC Manual Starters and Manual Motor Starting Switches ........................................................... 12 Class 2510 12 Class 2511 and 2512 13 2-Speed AC Manual Starters and IEC Motor Protectors...................................................... 14 Class 2512 and 2520 14 GV1/GV3 14 Drum Switches................................................................ 15 Class 2601 15 DC Starters, Constant and Adjustable Speed.............. 16 Class 7135 and 7136 16 Reversing DC Starters, Constant and Adjustable Speed ........................................................... 17 Class 7145 and 7146 17 Mechanically Latched Contactors ................................ 18 Class 8196 18 Medium Voltage Motor Controllers.......................... 18-25 Class 8198 18-25 Solid State Protective Relays ................................... 26-27 Class 8430 26-27 General Purpose Relays ................................................ 28 Class 8501 28 NEMA Control Relays..................................................... 29 Class 8501 and 9999 29 General Purpose Relays ................................................ 30 Class 8501 30 Sensing Relays............................................................... 30 RM2 LA1/LG1 30 IEC Relays.................................................................. 31-32 IEC D-Line Control Relays 31 Class 8501 32 Type P Contactors..................................................... 33-35 Class 8502 33-35 Class 8702 35 Type T Overload Relays............................................ 33-35 Class 9065 33-35 Type S AC Magnetic Contactors.............................. 36-40 Class 8502 36-40 IEC Contactors .......................................................... 41-42 IEC Contactors and Auxiliary Contact Blocks 41 Input Modules and Reversing Contactors 42 Type S AC Magnetic Starters ................................... 43-50 Class 8536 43-50 8538 and 8539 45,49 1-Phase, Size 00 to 3 43 2-Phase and 3-Phase, Size 00 to 5 44 3-Phase, Size 6 45 3-Phase, Size 7 46 3-Phase Additions and Special Features 47-50 Integral Self-Protected Starters ............................... 51-57 Integral 18 State of Auxiliary Contacts 51-52 Integral 32 and 63 State of Auxiliary Contacts 53-54 Wiring Diagrams 55-57 Type S AC Combination Magnetic Starters ............ 58-59 Class 8538 and 8539 58-59 3-Phase, Size 0-5 58 3-Phase Additions and Special Features 59 Reduced Voltage Controllers ................................... 60-66 Class 8606 Autotransformer Type 60-61 Class 8630 Wye-Delta Type 62-63 Class 8640 2-Step Part-Winding Type 64 Class 8647 Primary-Resistor Type 65 Class 8650 and 8651 Wound-Rotor Type 66 Solid State Reduced Voltage Starters .......................... 67 Class 8660 ALPHA PAK®, Type MD-MG 67 Solid State Reduced Voltage Controllers ............... 68-70 Class 8660 Type MH, MJ, MK and MM 68-70

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Hardware, Circuit schematic,

This tutorial presents an introduction to the Quartus R II CAD system. It gives a general overview of a typical CAD ﬂow for designing circuits that are implemented by using FPGA devices, and shows how this ﬂow is realized in the Quartus II software. The design process is illustrated by giving step-by-step instructions for using the Quartus II software to implement a very simple circuit in an Altera FPGA device. The Quartus II system includes full support for all of the popular methods of entering a description of the desired circuit into a CAD system. This tutorial makes use of the schematic design entry method, in which the user draws a graphical diagram of the circuit. Two other versions of this tutorial are also available, which use the Verilog and VHDL hardware description languages, respectively. The last step in the design process involves conﬁguring the designed circuit in an actual FPGA device. To show how this is done, it is assumed that the user has access to the Altera DE2 Development and Education board connected to a computer that has Quartus II software installed. A reader who does not have access to the DE2 board will still ﬁnd the tutorial useful to learn how the FPGA programming and conﬁguration task is performed. The screen captures in the tutorial were obtained using the Quartus II version 8.0; if other versions of the software are used, some of the images may be slightly different. Contents: Typical CAD Flow Getting Started Starting a New Project Schematic Design Entry Compiling the Design Pin Assignment Simulating the Designed Circuit Programming and Conﬁguring the FPGA Device Testing the Designed Circuit 1 Computer Aided Design (CAD) software makes it easy to implement a desired logic circuit by using a programmable logic device, such as a ﬁeld-programmable gate array (FPGA) chip. A typical FPGA CAD ﬂow is illustrated in Figure 1.

Tags:
Circuit schematic, Hardware,

This tutorial will guide you through the creation and analysis of a simple MOSFET circuit in PSPICE Schematic. The circuit diagram below is what you will build in PSPICE. In the analysis we will find the ID current and the VDS voltage at the given values of VDD and VGS. We perform PSPICE schematics circuit simulation according to following steps: 1. Design your circuit in schematics. This can be divided into following substeps. 1). First insert all the parts without considering their values (for example, place a resistor without considering the resistance value of it, etc.). 2). Make the necessary rotations for the parts, and move the parts to appropriate locations. 3). Make all the necessary wire connections. 4). Mark the nodes you are interested in with labels. 5). Set the values for all the parts, for example, the resistance values of resistors, the width (W) and length (L) of transistor, etc. 2. Define the SPICE model for NMOS and PMOS transistors. 3. Setup analysis to tell SPICE what simulation you need (transient analysis, DC sweep, etc.) 4. Run the simulation. 5. Observe the simulation results (traces of signals) in OrCAD PSpice A/D Demo. Step 1. Design you circuit in Schematics Before we start our design, first please create your own folder in C: drive. Because our lab computer has some access limitation on certain system folders, if you are working in a system directory, you may not be able to save your design or your spice library. Thus first please click on Windows start menu: Start—All Programs—Accessories—Windows Explorer. In Windows Explorer, click on C: drive symbol to select C: drive, and click menu “File—New—Folder”, as shown below. You will see a new folder is created on C: drive. Rename the new folder to any name you like, for example, “John” or something else, and remember this folder path and name. By creating your own folder, you will have full access to it. You will save all your design files into this folder. ...

Tags:
Circuit schematic, Hardware,

Complete Tutorial (Includes Schematic & Layout) Download 1. Go to the "Download Free PCB123 Software" button or click here. 2. Enter your e-mail address and for your primary interest in the product. (Your information is kept private.) 3. After you submit this information, we will send a link to your e-mail for you to download the free software. Typical download time is: • 10-to-15 minutes for a modem • >30 seconds for DSL or cable modem Want to know who else is using PCB123? Click here. Installing Software 1. Click on the software link in your e-mail and the downloading process will begin. 2. A dialog box will then ask you where you would like to install the software. 3. Go through the quick installing procedure, which includes a standard EULA (end user licensing agreement) 4. You are now ready to begin designing your printed circuit board!! PCB123 Testing Tutorial There are two applications included in our product that we will be using in our tutorial. • PCB123Schematic: You can create an easy to read, one dimensional schematic diagram of a functional circuit and from this diagram a netlist can be generated. This netlist is basically a description of all the parts in your diagram and describes how these parts are connected to make your circuit. The netlist is useful for PCB123Layout to start with. • PCB123Layout: You can layout and design physical characteristics of your schematic with PCB123Layout. Although you can design circuit boards without a schematic diagram, it is needed to run the batch routing routines in the PCB123Layout application. It is also a good idea to start with a schematic diagram to aid in the verification that all your circuits are connected properly on your final printed circuit board layout. If you see problems or omissions from this document please let us know ASAP support@pcb123.com

Tags:
Circuit schematic, Hardware,

The Method of Solution: 1. Understand the problem. 2. Draw a diagram. 3. Introduce notation (Q is to be maximized or minimized) 4. Find relation between quantities (Q and all others) 5. Make the relation look like Q = f (x) (one variable) 6. Solve f (x) = 0 for x. 7. Explain whether you have found a max or min, and if possible if it is an absolute extrema (Closed Interval Method, First Derivative Test, Second Derivative Test, argue based on the geometry of the problem) 8. Write a concluding statement. Example A farmer has 2400 ft of fencing. What are the dimensions of the rectangular pen that produce the largest area? • Understand the problem: We need a rectangle. The rectangle should have maximum area for a given perimeter. • Draw a diagram : A x y • Introduce notation and ﬁnd relations: The perimeter is P = 2x + 2y. The area is A = xy. This is what we want to maximize. We need to eliminate y from the equation for A. Use P = 2x + 2y = 2400, −→ y = 1200 − x. Therefore, A = xy = x(1200 − x) = 1200x − x2 . If x < 0, the area would be negative. This is unphysical. If x > 1200, the area would be negative. This is unphysical. The domain for the area is 0 ≤ x ≤ 1200. • Find the maximum of A(x) = 1200x − x2 , 0 ≤ x ≤ 1200. A = 1200 − 2x. A = 0 = 1200 − 2x → x = 600 ft. This is a maximum since A (600) = −2 < 0 and A will be concave down by the second derivative test. Check endpoints: A(0) = 0 = A(1200) < A(600) = 360 000. The absolute maximum is 360,000 ft2 when the rectangle is a square of side 600 ft...

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Calculus problems, Education,

Lecture 1 Lecture 1: Introduction to Engineering Mechanics Engineering Mechanics Engineering mechanics is the physical science which studies __________________ _________________________________________________________. The subject is usually divided into two parts namely ________________ and __________________. Statics. This branch of mechanics studies the ________________________ of bodies under the action of ____________________________________________________. Examples of static systems include an aeroplane at cruising speed, a hovering helicopter, a floating ship, etc. Page 1 of 12 MEE211: Engineering Mechanics I [Statics] Lecture 1 Dynamics. This branch of mechanics studies the ______________________of bodies, ie. a system where a body is acted upon by an externally applied force which results in a motion. Examples of dynamic systems are a grandfather clock pendulum, a massspring system, an accelerating/decelerating vehicle, etc. (This part is not cover in this course.) Basic terminologies • A ___________________ quantity only consists of ____________________. Mass, time, volume, distance, speed and energy are examples of scalar quantities. • A ___________________ quantity consists of both __________________ and __________________. Weight, displacement, velocity, acceleration, force and moment are examples of vector quantities. Page 2 of 12 MEE211: Engineering Mechanics I [Statics] Lecture 1 • _____________________ is the action of one body on another. • The __________________________ of force acting on a body depend on the magnitude, direction and the point of application of the force. The resultant effects can be the ____________________________ (translation, rotation) or ________________ (bending, denting, breaking, and destruction) of the body. • The ______________________________________ of a body is defined as a single point where when a force acts through it, there is no resultant moment. Page 3 of 12 MEE211: Engineering Mechanics I [Statics] • Lecture 1 _______________________. When a force is not acting through the centre of gravity of a body, it generates a moment. The effect of the resultant moment is the tendency to ___________________ or _________________ the body. Free body diagrams A free body diagram shows an ___________________________________________ (or a single member of a structure) and _____________________________________ acting on it. This is a very powerful tool to help us determine the forces acting on the structures and its members.

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Engineering mechanics, Education,

quilibrium of Rigid Bodies – 2D • For a rigid body in static equilibrium, the external forces and moments are balanced and will impart no translational or rotational motion to the body. • The necessary and sufficient condition for the static equilibrium of a body are that the resultant force and couple from all external forces form a system equivalent to zero, r r r r ∑ F = 0 ∑ M O = ∑ (r × F ) = 0 • Resolving each force and moment into its rectangular components leads to 6 scalar equations which also express the conditions for static equilibrium, ∑ Fx = 0 ∑ Fy = 0 ∑ Fz = 0 ∑Mx = 0 ∑M y = 0 ∑Mz = 0 4-1 Engineering Mechanics: Statics Free-Body Diagram First step in the static equilibrium analysis of a rigid body is identification of all forces acting on the body with a free-body diagram. • Select the extent of the free-body and detach it from the ground and all other bodies. • Indicate point of application, magnitude, and direction of external forces, including the rigid body weight. • Indicate point of application and assumed direction of unknown applied forces. These usually consist of reactions through which the ground and other bodies oppose the possible motion of the rigid body. • Include the dimensions necessary to compute the moments of the forces. 4-2 Engineering Mechanics: Statics Equilibrium of a Rigid Body in Two Dimensions • For all forces and moments acting on a twodimensional structure, Fz = 0 M x = M y = 0 M z = M O • Equations of equilibrium become ∑ Fx = 0 ∑ Fy = 0 ∑ M A = 0 where A is any point in the plane of the structure. • The 3 equations can be solved for no more than 3 unknowns. • The 3 equations can not be augmented with additional equations, but they can be replaced ∑ Fx = 0 ∑ M A = 0 ∑ M B = 0 4-3 Engineering Mechanics: Statics Free Body Diagram - 2D • Create a free-body diagram 4-4 Engineering Mechanics: Statics Free Body Diagram – 2D • Create a free-body diagram for the frame and cable. 4-5

Tags:
Engineering mechanics, Education,