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u "informacionom društvu" sve je postalo digitalno: od informacije i signala, preko prenosa i komunikacije, do racunara i mreže. Čak je i dnevni red, program rada ili strategija u toj oblasti određena kao -digitalna agenda. A, umesto informacionih usluga imamo "usluge informacionog drustva", "e-servise" itd.
1. Crops can be produced on non-arable land (not fit for farming). Ex. Land with poor soils, and contamination (i.e., high heavy metal and salinity levels). *The grower doesn’t have to have good soil since the systems, bags, etc. are placed on top of the ground. 2. Isolation from diseases or insect pests usually found in the soil. *The plant roots are contained in systems, bags, etc. and do not grow through soil that might contain diseases or other pests such as insects and nematodes. *Additionally, white fabric ground covers can be placed on the greenhouse floor to further isolate the systems and plants from soil-borne pests. NOTE: The white fabric also reflects light back up into the canopy enhancing photosynthesis, allows for ease of cleaning and helps control humidity and weeds. 3. Direct and immediate control over the rhizosphere. *Since the roots are either growing in water or growing through an inert medium, whatever is in the nutrient solution is bathing the roots. Therefore, nutrient concentrations and pH can be adjusted quickly. 4. High planting densities are possible which minimizes use of land area. *For field tomatoes a typical planting density is 4000 to 5000 plants per acre. Greenhouse hydroponic tomatoes can be 10,000 to 11,000 plants per acre! *Plants can be grown closer together because of the use of indeterminant (“vining”) varieties that take up less area than do bush varieties usually used for field cropping. Also they need less root room – the plants are “spoon fed” the nutrient and water they need and do not have to grow a large root system to find these, as field tomatoes do in the soil. 5. Higher yields are ...
History of Hydroponics. • Hanging gardens of ... World War II-hydroponics in western Pacific. • Plastics .... TOV (tomato on the vine): Tradiro, Ambiance,. Balance ... History of Hydroponics • • • • • Hanging gardens of Babylon Aztec floating gardens World War II-hydroponics in western Pacific Plastics changed everything! Boom in 1990’s – – – – Space program Growing in deserts Vertical farming Large scale production Advantages •Crops can be grown where soil is unsuitable •Reduced plant disease •More control •Bigger yields Disadvantages •Initial costs higher •Deeper knowledge is needed •If introduced, diseases can easily spread •Needs more attention The basics • Growing substrates • Nutrient solution • System designs Growing Substrates • What makes a good media? – Provides support – Good pore size – Does not clog system – Does not affect nutrient solution Photo: /www.aquaponicsusa.com
Nutrient Solution Formulation for Hydroponic (Perlite, Rockwool, NFT) Tomatoes in Florida1 George J. Hochmuth and Robert C. Hochmuth2 Plants require 16 elements for growth and these nutrients can be supplied from air, water, and fertilizers. The 16 elements are carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), boron (B), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo), and chlorine (Cl). The key to successful management of a fertilizer program is to ensure adequate concentrations of all nutrients throughout the life cycle of the crop. Inadequate or excessive amounts of any nutrient result in poor crop performance. Excessive amounts can be especially troublesome since they can damage the crop, waste money and fertilizer resources, and pollute the environment when fertilizer is released during flushing of the nutrient delivery system. problem comes early in the season when plants become too vegetative (bullish) from too much N. The bullish growth distorts the leaves and stems, causing cracks and grooves in the stems. These openings are excellent entry ports for decay-causing organisms such as soft rot. Bullish plants usually produce misshapen fruits often with significant amounts of blossom-end rot and cat-facing. Keeping the N level low (60 to 70 parts per million) early in the season helps eliminate bullishness. For Florida greenhouse vegetable producers, management focuses on all nutrients except for C, H, and O. The latter three elements are usually supplied in adequate amounts from air and water. Growers in northern climates, where greenhouses are not ventilated in the winter, see benefits from additions of C from carbon dioxide (CO2). Increased yields in Florida from additions of CO2 are unlikely due to the need for frequent ventilation. Nutrient management programs should begin with an understanding of the nutrient solution concentrations in parts per million (ppm) for the various nutrients required by tomato plants. By managing the concentrations of individual nutrients, growers can control the growth and yield of the crop. Table 1 presents the fertilizer recommendations for tomatoes for the various growth stages during the season in Florida. These recommendations are applicable to all types of production systems (perlite, rockwool, and NFT) in which healthy roots are maintained, and are a suitable base when determining a nutrient solution plan for cucumbers and peppers. However, cucumbers will need more N early in the season than tomato.
Available applications and services are subject to change at any time. Table of Contents Get Started 1 Your Phone at a Glance 1 Set Up Your Phone 1 Activate Your Phone 4 Complete the Setup Screens 4 Set Up Voicemail 6 Sprint Account Information and Help 7 Sprint Account Passwords 7 Manage Your Account 7 Sprint Support Services 8 Phone Basics 10 Your Phone’s Layout 10 S Pen Overview 11 Understanding the S Pen 12 Removing the S Pen from your Phone 12 Using the S Pen 13 Screen Capture 15 Air View 17 Turn Your Phone On and Off 17 Turn Your Screen On and Off 17 Multi Window Overview 18 Enable Multi Window 18 Display Multi Window 18 Work With Multi Window 18 Touchscreen Navigation 19 Your Home Screen 24 Home Screen Overview 24 Creating Shortcuts 25 Adding and Removing Primary Shortcuts 26 Adding and Removing Widgets 27 Extended Home Screens 27 Recently Used Applications 28 Status Bar 29 i Enter Text 31 Touchscreen Keyboards 32 Text Input Methods 32 Google Voice Typing 33 Samsung Keyboard Input Options 34 Samsung Keyboard Options 36 Swype Input Options 37 Swype Text Entry Options 38 Tips for Editing Text 40 Phone Calls Make Phone Calls 41 41 Call Using the Keypad 41 Call from Logs 41 Call from Contacts 42 Call a Number in a Text Message 43 Call a Number in an Email Message 43 Call Emergency Numbers 43 Receive Phone Calls 44 Answer an Incoming Call 44 Mute the Ringing Sound 44 Reject an Incoming Call 45 Reject a Call with a Text Message 45 Voicemail (Traditional) 45 Set Up Voicemail Through the Phone App 45 Retrieve Your Voicemail Messages 46 Voicemail Notification 46 Visual Voicemail 46 Set Up Visual Voicemail 47 Review Visual Voicemail 47 Listen to Multiple Voicemail Messages 47 Configure Visual Voicemail Options 48 Configure Visual Voicemail Settings 49 Automatically Enable the Speakerphone 50 Change Your Main Greeting via the Voicemail Menu 50 Edit the From Name via the Voicemail Menu 50 Record a Visual Voicemail Message 51 Phone Call Options 51 ii Dialing Options 51 Caller ID 52 Call Waiting 52 3-way Calling 52 Call Forwarding 53 In-call Options 53 Speed Dialing 54 Logs 56 View Logs. 56 Logs Options 56 Clear Logs 57 Call Settings 57 Call Rejection 57 Set Reject Messages 57 Ringtones and Keypad Tones 58 Call Alert 58 Call Answering/Ending 59 Auto Screen Off During Calls 59 Accessory Settings for Call 59 My Call Sound 59 Use Extra Volume for Calls 60 Increase Volume in Pocket 60 Additional Settings 60 US Dialing 61 International Dialing 61 TTY Mode 61 DTMF Tones 62 Voicemail Settings 62 Voice Privacy 63 Contacts 65 Get Started With Contacts 65 Access Contacts 65 The Contacts List 66 Add a Contact 67 Save a Phone Number 68 Edit a Contact 70 Add or Edit Information for a Contact 70 iii Assign a Stored Picture to a Contact 71 Assign a New Picture to a Contact 71 Assign a Ringtone to a Contact 72 Join a Contact 72 Delete a Contact 72 Synchronize Contacts 73 Add Entries to Your Favorites 74 Add Facebook Content to Your Contacts 74 Create Groups 75 Share a Contact 76 Accounts and Messaging 78 Gmail / Google 78 Create a Google Account 78 Sign In to Your Google Account 79 Access Gmail 79 Send a Gmail Message 79 Read Gmail Messages 80 Reply to Gmail Messages 81 Email 81 Add an Email Account 82 Add a Corporate Email Account 82 Compose and Send Email 84 View and Reply to Email 84 Manage Your Email Inbox 85 Corporate Email Features 86 Edit Email Account Settings 87 Edit Corporate Email Account Settings 88 Delete an Email Account 90 Add the Email Widget 90 Text Messaging and MMS 91 Compose Text Messages 91 Send a Multimedia Message (MMS) 91 Save and Resume a Draft Message 93 New Messages Notification 93 Managing Message Conversations 93 Text and MMS Options 95 Social Networking Accounts 98
Available applications and services are subject to change at any time. Table of Contents Get Started 1 Your Phone at a Glance 1 Set Up Your Phone 1 Activate Your Phone 2 Complete the Setup 3 Set Up Voicemail 4 Sprint Account Information and Help 5 Sprint Account Passwords 5 Manage Your Account 5 Sprint Support Services 6 Phone Basics Your Phone’s Layout Key Functions 7 7 7 Turn Your Phone On and Off 8 Turn Your Screen On and Off 9 Features 9 Motions and Gestures 9 Smart Screen 10 Air View 11 Voice Control 12 Multi Window 12 Touchscreen Navigation 13 Tap 13 Touch and Hold 14 Swipe or Slide 14 Drag 15 Flick 15 Rotate 16 Pinch and Spread 17 Your Home Screen 17 Create Shortcuts 18 Add and Remove Primary Shortcuts 19 Add and Remove Widgets 19 i Extended Home Screens 20 Recent Applications 20 Status Bar 20 Enter Text 21 Text Input Methods 21 Google Voice Typing 22 Samsung Keyboard 23 Swype 23 Tips for Editing Text 24 Phone Calls Make Phone Calls 25 25 Call Using the Keypad 25 Call from Logs 25 Call from Contacts 25 Call a Number in a Text Message 26 Call a Number in an Email Message 26 Call Emergency Numbers 26 Receive Phone Calls 27 Answer an Incoming Call 27 Mute the Ringing Sound 27 Reject an Incoming Call 28 Reject a Call with a Text Message 28 Phone Call Options 28 Dialing Options 28 Caller ID 29 Call Waiting 29 3-way Calling 29 Call Forwarding 30 In-call Options 30 Speed Dials 31 Voicemail 32 Set Up Voicemail 32 Retrieve Your Voicemail Messages 33 Voicemail Notification 33 Visual Voicemail 33 Logs 34 View Logs 34 ii Logs Options 34 Clear Logs 34 Contacts 36 Get Started With Contacts 36 Access Contacts 36 Contacts Options 36 Add a Contact 37 Save a Phone Number 38 Edit a Contact 38 Add or Edit Information for a Contact 38 Assign a Picture to a Contact 39 Assign a Ringtone to a Contact 39 Link a Contact 40 Delete a Contact 40 Add Entries to Your Favorites 40 Create Groups 40 Share a Contact 41 Accounts and Messaging 43 Google Account 43 Create a Google Account 43 Sign In to Your Google Account 43 Access Gmail 44 Send a Gmail Message 44 Read and Reply to Gmail Messages 45 Samsung Account 45 Email 45 Add an Email Account 46 Add a Microsoft Exchange ActiveSync Account 46 Compose and Send Email 47 Reply or Forward Email 48 Manage Your Email Inbox 48 Edit Email Settings 49 Delete an Email Account 51 Text and Multimedia Messaging 52 Send a Text Message (SMS) 52 Send a Multimedia Message (MMS) 52 Save and Resume a Draft Message 53 iii New Messages Notification 54 Managing Messages 54 Text and MMS Settings 56 Social Networking Accounts 58 YouTube 58 Google+ 58 Hangouts 59 Apps and Entertainment DivX 60 60 DivX Legal Information 60 Locate Your VOD Registration Number 60 Register Your DivX Device for VOD Playback of Purchased Movies 60 Google Play Store 61 Find and Install an App 61 Create a Google Wallet Account 62 Open an Installed App 62 Uninstall an App 63 Navigation 63 Google Maps 63 Scout™ 63 Samsung Apps 64 Music Apps 64 Google Play Music 64 Music 64 Sprint Music Plus 67 Google Play Movies & TV 68 Google Play Books 68 Google Play Games 68 Google Play Magazines 68 Group Play 69 Sprint Zone 70 Sprint TV & Movies 70 Samsung Link 71 Configure Samsung Link Settings 71 Use Samsung Link to Share Media with Another Device 72 CBS Sports 72 BaconReader 73
Available applications and services are subject to change at any time. TABLE OF CONTENTS GET STARTED 1 Your Phone at a Glance 1 Set Up Your Phone 1 Install the battery 1 Charge the Battery 2 Turn your Phone On 2 Activation and Service 3 Create Your Account and Pick Your Plan 3 Activate Your Phone 4 Manage Your Account 4 Top-Up Your Account 4 Additional Information 5 Complete the Setup 5 Set Up Voicemail 6 Memory Card 6 Install a microSD Card 7 Remove a microSD Card 7 View microSD Card Memory 7 Format a microSD Card 7 Unmount a microSD Card 8 PHONE BASICS Your Phone’s Layout Key Functions 9 9 9 Turn Your Phone On and Off 10 Turn Your Screen On and Off 10 Touchscreen Navigation 11 Multi Window 16 Your Home Screen 17 Creating Shortcuts 18 Adding and Removing Primary Shortcuts 18 Adding and Removing Widgets 19 Extended Home Screens 19 Recent Apps 20 i Status Bar 20 Enter Text 21 Touchscreen Keyboards 21 Text Input Methods 22 Google Voice Typing 22 Samsung Keyboard 23 Swype 23 Tips for Editing Text 24 PHONE CALLS Make Phone Calls 26 26 Call Using the Keypad 26 Call from Logs 26 Call from Contacts 26 Call a Number in a Text Message 27 Call a Number in an Email Message 27 Call Emergency Numbers 27 Enhanced 911 (E911) Information 28 Receive Phone Calls 28 Answer an Incoming Call 28 Mute the Ringing Sound 28 Reject an Incoming Call 29 Voicemail 29 Retrieve Voicemail Messages 29 Voicemail Notification 29 Visual Voicemail 30 Phone Call Options 30 Dialing Options 30 Caller ID 30 Call Waiting 31 3-Way Calling 31 Call Forwarding 31 In-call Options 32 Speed Dialing 33 Logs 33 View Logs 34 Logs Options 34 Clear Logs 34 ii CONTACTS 35 Get Started with Contacts 35 Access Contacts 35 Add a Contact 35 Save a Phone Number 36 Edit a Contact 36 Add or Edit Information for a Contact 37 Assign an Image to a Contact 37 Assign a Ringtone to a Contact 37 Link a Contact 38 Delete a Contact 38 Add Contacts to Your Favorites 38 Create Groups 39 Create a New Group 39 Add a Contact to a Group 39 Send a Message to Group Members 39 Share a Contact ACCOUNTS AND MESSAGING Google 40 41 41 Create a Google Account 41 Access Gmail 41 Send a Gmail Message 42 Read and Reply to Gmail Messages 42 Email 43 Add an Email Account 43 Add a Microsoft Exchange ActiveSync Account 43 Compose and Send Email 44 View and Reply to Email 45 Manage Your Email Inbox 45 Edit Email Settings 46 Delete an Email Account 49 Text and Multimedia Messaging 49 Send a Message 49 New Messages Notification 50 Managing Message Conversations 50 Messaging Settings 52 Social Networking Accounts 54 iii Flipboard 54 Google+ 54 Hangouts 54 YouTube 55 APPS AND ENTERTAINMENT Samsung Link 56 56 Configure Samsung Link Settings 56 Use Samsung Link to Share Media with Another Device 57 Group Play 57 DivX 58 DivX Legal Information 59 Locating Your VOD Registration Number 59 Register Your DivX Device for VOD Playback of Purchased Movies 59 Google Play Store 60 Find and Install an App 60 Create a Google Wallet Account 61 Open an Installed App 61 Uninstall an App 61 Google Play Books 61 Google Play Magazines 62 Google Play Movies & TV 62 Google Play Music 62 Music App 62 Google Maps 63 WEB AND DATA 64 Internet 64 Chrome 64 Data Services (3G and 4G) 64 Your Data Services User Name 64 4G Services 65 Wi-Fi 65 Turn Wi-Fi On and Connect to a Wireless Network Bluetooth 65 66 Turn Bluetooth On or Off 66 Connect a Bluetooth Headset or Car Kit 67 Reconnect a Headset or Car Kit 67 Disconnect or Unpair from a Bluetooth Device 68
All rights reserved. Mechanical, electronic, photographic or other reproduction or copying from this book or parts of it are according to the present Danish copyright law not allowed without written permission from or agreement with GRUNDFOS Management A/S. GRUNDFOS Management A/S cannot be held responsible for the correctness of the information given in the book. Usage of information is at your own responsibility. In the Department of Structural and Fluid Mechanics we are happy to present the first English edition of the book: ’The Centrifugal Pump’. We have written the book because we want to share our knowledge of pump hydraulics, pump design and the basic pump terms which we use in our daily work. ’The Centrifugal Pump’ is primarily meant as an internal book and is aimed at technicians who work with development and construction of pump components. Furthermore, the book aims at our future colleagues, students at universities and engineering colleges, who can use the book as a reference and source of inspiration in their studies. Our intention has been to write an introductory book that gives an overview of the hydraulic components in the pump and at the same time enables technicians to see how changes in construction and operation influence the pump performance. In chapter 1, we introduce the principle of the centrifugal pump as well as its hydraulic components, and we list the different types of pumps produced by Grundfos. Chapter 2 describes how to read and understand the pump performance based on the curves for head, power, efficiency and NPSH. In chapter 3 you can read about how to adjust the pump’s performance when it is in operation in a system. The theoretical basis for energy conversion in a centrifugal pump is introduced in chapter 4, and we go through how affinity rules are used for scaling the performance of pump impellers. In chapter 5, we describe the different types of losses which occur in the pump, and how the losses affect flow, head and power consumption. In the book’s last chapter, chapter 6, we go trough the test types which Grundfos continuously carries out on both assembled pumps and pump components to ensure that the pump has the desired performance. The entire department has been involved in the development of the book. Through a longer period of time we have discussed the idea, the contents and the structure and collected source material. The framework of the Danish book was made after some intensive working days at ‘Himmelbjerget’. The result of the department’s engagement and effort through several years is the book which you are holding. We hope that you will find ‘The Centrifugal Pump’ useful, and that you will use it as a book of reference in you daily work. Enjoy!...
Commercial-grade accessories that work as hard as you do. Designed, manufactured and validated to the strictest of GM standards — GMC Accessories offer quality, convenience and peace of mind. A big deal for small business owners No matter what your business, you need reliable vehicles, outstanding service and quality accessory upfits to get the job done. With the GM Business Choice Program, eligible business owners can receive up to $1,200* of select GMC Accessories, plus a business maintenance plan** on every eligible GMC vehicle. See page 19 for details. * Customer will need to spend at least $500 to be eligible. The 2013 GM Business Choice Program is valid from January 3, 2013, through September 30, 2013. Ask your dealer for details. ** According to your vehicle’s recommended maintenance schedule for up to two years or 30,000 miles, whichever comes first. Does not include air filters. See participating dealer for restrictions and complete details. 2 HARD FOLDING TONNEAU COVER WITH OPTIONAL PERSONAL CADDY® by sierra The patented, award-winning Fold-a-Cover hard folding tonneau cover is engineered to provide quick and easy access to your truck’s cargo area, while offering the ultimate protection for your payload. The optional Personal Caddy cargo management system is designed to work exclusively with the G4-Elite Fold-a-Cover, providing integrated clean, dry, and lockable storage for smaller items into the cargo area. GMC Accessories are professionally engineered to Tackle the toughest Jobs — any time, any day. Tonneau Cover — Hard Folding with Optional Personal Caddy Single-Lid Deep-Well Toolbox by FPO This toolbox provides the strength and dependability you rely on and security you count on. The patented, fully foamed lid creates a rigid wall to help prevent bending or warping. The box and lid take on heavy loads and withstand the impact from dropped tools. Accompanying coated J-hooks protect your truck from scratches and make for easy installation. Gullwing Toolbox by This toolbox combines convenience and security with easy access to either end of the box. An innovative connecting rod enclosure helps prevent the box contents from bending or jamming the locking system. With a slight pull, the self-closing struts automatically shut the lid and secure the toolbox. Coated J-hooks provide your truck protection from scratches and assist in easy installation. UWS Single-Lid Deep-Well Toolbox
2014 Silverado and Sierra Score a Safety First for Trucks New Chevrolet, GMC crew cabs receive first five-star scores under new rating system DETROIT – The 2014 Chevrolet Silverado 1500 and High Country and the GMC Sierra and Sierra Denali 1500 are the first pickup trucks to receive the highest possible five-star Overall Vehicle Score for safety since the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration changed its New Car Assessment Program for the 2011 model year. NHTSA only tested the crew cab models of Silverado and Sierra. Chevrolet and GMC expect crew cab models to account for 60 percent of their 2014 light duty full-size pickup truck sales. “Safety is as important to truck buyers as it is to car buyers,” said Gay Kent, GM general director of Vehicle Safety and Crashworthiness. “Silverado and Sierra set a benchmark for pickup truck safety by offering a full array of advanced features designed to protect occupants before, during and after a collision.” Silverado and Sierra offer fully boxed frames, extensive use of high-strength steel, and several segment-exclusive safety features are available, including Forward Collision Alert, Lane Departure Warning, and Safety Alert Seat. Safety Alert Seat warns the driver of potential traffic danger using directional vibration pulses from the seat cushion. The patented warning approach is tied to all of the onboard crash avoidance systems.