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There is an increasing need for high-precision gear machining to meet customer demand for low-noise and low-vibration planetary gear systems. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has been developing high-precision gear-cutting technologies for use before heat treatment in the production of ring (internal) gears, one of the components of planetary gear systems. However, high-precision high-efficiency gear grinding is also essential after heat treatment to eliminate distortion and improve gear accuracy. In this paper, we report on the development of the Mitsubishi ZI20A grinding machine, the world's first internal gear grinder for use in volume production. Planetary gear systems are widely used in automatic transmissions of vehicles and power transfer systems for hybrid cars because of their compactness and high reduction ratio. There has been an increasing demand for higher precision internal gears as well as for external gears in transmissions to suppress noise and vibration. To meet this demand, gear manufacturers are seeking high-precision high-efficiency techniques for grinding internal gears after heat treatment. Figure 1 shows the manufacturing flow for the volume production of ring (internal) gears. Traditionally, ring gears have often been built into gear systems after heat treatment without being subjected to the finishing process. However, controlling the precision of gears after heat treatment...
930394-52 Rev. 12/22/05 4:21 PM Page 1 HYDRO-BOOST BRAKE BOOSTER Installation Guide 4. Enable ignition system and start the engine. 7. Check fluid level and add fluid if needed. 5. Turn the steering wheel from stop to stop several times. Do not hold it against the stop. 8. Again start engine and turn steering wheel from stop to stop several times (avoid turning fully against stops as much as possible). Recheck fluid level and fill as required. If there is evidence of fluid foaming, turn off engine and wait an hour for foam to clear. Lacks Power Assist Booster or Pedal Chatters X X X Looses Reserve Pressure HAIRPIN CLIP BRAKE PEDAL PUSHROD X PUSHROD SPACER PUSHROD BUSHING 6. Loosen the locknuts holding the HydroBoost unit to the firewall and then slide the linkage, nylon washers and brushing off the pedal pin. 4. Disconnect all hydraulic lines from the Hydro-Boost unit (pressure, steering gear and return lines). PRESSURE LINE MASTER CYLINDER HYDRO-BOOST SPACER X X X BRAKE LINES DO NOT DISCONNECT JDA356 STOP-LIGHT SWITCH 3. Separate the master cylinder from the mounting studs. N OT E : DO NOT disconnect the brake lines from the master cylinder unless necessary to avoid bending or damaging those lines. X Pedal Returns Slowly 5. Disconnect the Hydro-Boost pushrod linkage from the brake pedal. NOT E : It may be necessary to remove the stoplight switch from the brake pedal. If so, unplug the stoplight switch wires, remove the hairpin retainer, slide the switch off the pedal pin just far enough to permit removing the switch from the pin. Do not damage the switch. N OT E : Before beginning work, be sure vehicle is parked in a level area and that wheels are chocked to prevent unintentional movement. Read all of these instructions before attempting to install the HydroBoost unit. 2. Remove the nuts attaching the master cylinder to the Hydro-Boost unit.
(2) Four brake booster installation nuts A: REMOVAL 1) Remove or disconnect the following parts in the engine compartment. (1) Disconnect the connector of brake fluid level gauge. (2) Remove the brake pipe from the master cylinder. (3) Remove the master cylinder installation nut. (1) CAUTION: In order to prevent the contact of the bracket and check valve, be sure to loosen the master cylinder mounting nut while holding the bracket with hand. Otherwise it may deform the bracket. (1) Check valve (2) Bracket (4) Disconnect the vacuum hose from brake booster. 2) Remove the following parts from the pedal bracket. (1) Snap pin and clevis pin Nut Clevis pin Snap pin Operating rod Brake pedal 3) Remove the brake booster while avoiding the brake pipe. NOTE: • Make sure that the booster shell and vacuum pipe are not subject to strong impacts. • Be careful not to drop the brake booster. If the booster is dropped, replace it. • Use special care when handling the operating rod. If excessive force is applied to the operating rod, the angle may change by r3°, and it may result in damage to power piston cylinder. • Be careful when placing the brake booster on floor. • Do not change the push rod length. CAUTION: • Do not disassemble the brake booster.
Fifty percent less pedal force I n most of the models of the 1950s and 1960s, Mercedes-Benz provided a power brake booster manufactured by ATE. The booster does not pro- vide additional braking capacity, a common misconception, but rather reduces the pedal force required for braking. The power brake is a vacuum-assisted hydraulic component using the pressure difference between engine intake manifold vacuum and atmospheric pressure for its operation. The power unit increases the pressure created physically in the brake master cylinder so that the same braking effect can be produced with less pedal effort. With a brake booster installed, the pedal force required for braking is reduced by 50 percent. The ATE T50 Brake Booster uses vacuum to “boost” the hydraulic brakeline pressure. The booster contains a hydraulic cylinder, a large vacuum piston that presses against the hydraulic cylinder, and a control circuit that regulates the vacuum flow based on brake-line pressures. This technology had been well proven since the early 1900s, and the T50 has been exceptionally reliable over many years of use. The Booster in action The power booster is a very simple design requiring only a vacuum source to operate. In gasoline-engine cars, the engine provides a vacuum suitable for the boosters. Because diesel engines do not produce a vacuum, dieselpowered vehicles must use a separate vacuum pump. A vacuum hose from the intake manifold on the engine pulls air from both sides of the diaphragm when the engine is running. When the driver steps on the brake pedal, the input rod assembly in the booster moves forward, blocking off the vacuum port to the backside of the diaphragm and opening an atmospheric port that allows air to enter the back chamber. Suddenly, the diaphragm has vacuum pulling against one side and air pressure pushing on the other. The result is forward pressure that assists in pushing the input rod, which in turn pushes the piston in the master cylinder. The amount of power assist that’s provided by the booster depends on the size of the diaphragm and the amount of intake manifold vacuum produced by the engine. A larger diaphragm will increase the boost.
The clutch master cylinder is a device that transforms mechanical force into hydraulic pressure. As the driver presses the clutch pedal, the pedal lever applies force to the clutch master cylinder which transmits hydraulic pressure to the clutch release (slave) cylinder that disconnects engine power to the transmission. Structure and Components [Conventional Type] Inlet Union Oil Spill Hole Aluminum Body Flare Nut Pipe Joint Boot Spring Primary Cup Resin Piston Push Rod Rel Secondary Cup Spring Metallic Clevis Damper Stud Bolt The clutch master cylinder structure consists of the piston, cups, and springs, built within a precision machined body. The primary cup, positioned on the leading side of the body, functions to create hydraulic pressure when fluid is forced inside by the piston. Located on the trailing side is the secondary cup, which guides the piston and prevents fluid from leaking. When the clutch pedal is pressed, the primary cup is blocked away by the piston from the oil spill port leading to the reservoir tank, pressure in the cylinder rises as the fluid is fed through the pipeline. When the clutch pedal is released, the hydraulic pressure and the force of the return spring pulls back the piston to relieve fluid back into the reservoir. The clutch master cylinder is what provides the necessary force to control the application of drivetrain power. 2 Clutch Master Cylinder Variations Clutch Master Cylinder Variations Conventional Port-less Type Stand Alone / Integrated Reservoir Type Types With and Without Stud Bolts Types With and Without Clevis Damper Types With and Without Clutch Booster ...
– Drivelines and Universal Joints Universal Joint Maintenance • Most factory-installed universal joints are sealed and don’t require periodic lubrication • After-market replacement joints are equipped with a grease fitting and must be greased periodically Drive Shaft Problem Diagnosis • Road testing – Vehicle should be driven while accelerating and decelerating as well as at various steady speeds – Vibrations caused by worn U-joints usually occur while accelerating Types and Causes of Vibrations • High speed vibrations – Usually caused by driveshaft imbalance • Vibrations during acceleration – Usually caused by worn double Cardan joint ball and socket • Low speed vibrations – Usually caused by improper operating angles Noise Diagnosis • Clunking noise while accelerating from a dead stop – Usually caused by worn or damaged U-joint – Can be caused by problems including excessive clearance between slip joint and extension housing • Squeaking noise – Often caused by worn or poorly lubricated U-joint Reasons for Universal Joint Failure • Lack of lubrication • Pushing another car • Towing a trailer • Changing gears abruptly • Carrying heavy loads Steps in Lubricating U-Joints 1. Wipe off the nozzle of the fitting 2. Attach the hose of the grease gun to the fitting 3. Pump grease slowly into the fitting 4. Stop pumping when grease appears at the bearing cups Inspecting the Drive Shaft • Check for fluid leaks • Check the U-joints for signs of rust or leakage • Check for movement in the joint while trying to turn the yoke and the shaft in opposite directions • Check the drive shaft for dents, missing weights, and undercoating or dirt...
A significant function of drilling fluids is reduction of frictional forces between the wellbore and the drill string. New techniques in drilling and completions are being used to drill horizontal wells in unconventional resources.
Ultrasound is used to precisely guide the injection of adipose-derived stem cells into the suspensory ligament. The still-developing technology of stem cell therapy, which uses unspecified cells from the horse’s body, has the potential to help racehorses heal sounder than ever before. A tendon is a bundle of elastic fibers, mostly made of collagen, that attaches muscle to bone and helps move the skeleton. Ligaments are similar but attach bone to bone and provide stability. When a horse bows a tendon, it tears the fibers at a certain point of the tendon (the location results in a name, such as high or low bow), weakening it significantly. When the tendon begins to knit back together, it is significantly hampered by lack of blood flow. Blood provides several healing mechanisms, including adult stem cells, which are able to convert themselves into specific types of cells the body needs to heal itself (in this case, tendon cells). If the tendon does not get enough help, it eventually develops scar tissue, which weakens the tendon because it is nonelastic and haphazardly knitted together. The injury takes a long time to heal – a typical racetrack cure was pinfiring or blistering, followed by six months to a year of turnout. If a horse was brought back to the track and the tendon had mostly healed with scar tissue, the weakened tendon could give way and the injury recur.
Congratulations, you and your MacBook Air were made for each other. Built-in iSight camera Video chat with up to three friends anywhere in the world at the same time. www.apple.com/macbookair Mac Help isight Finder Browse the contents of your computer using Cover Flow. Time Machine Automatically back up your files to an extra hard drive. www.apple.com/macosx www.apple.com/macosx Mac Help Mac Help finder time machine iMovie Collect all your video in one library. Create and share movies in minutes. iPhoto Organize all your photos with Events. Publish to a Web Gallery with a click. www.apple.com/ilife/imovie www.apple.com/ilife/iphoto iMovie Help iPhoto Help movie GarageBand Create music by adding musicians to a virtual stage. Enhance your song to sound like a pro. www.apple.com/ilife/garageband GarageBand Help record photo iWeb Create beautiful websites with photos, movies, blogs, podcasts, and dynamic web widgets. www.apple.com/ilife/iweb iWeb Help website Contents Chapter 1: Ready, Set Up, Go 8 9 10 15 16 19 22 Welcome What’s in the Box Setting Up Your MacBook Air Setting Up DVD or CD Sharing Migrating Information to Your MacBook Air Getting Additional Information onto Your MacBook Air Putting Your MacBook Air to Sleep or Shutting It Down Chapter 2: Life with Your MacBook Air 26 28 30 32 34 35 Basic Features of Your MacBook Air Keyboard Features of Your MacBook Air Ports on Your MacBook Air Using the Trackpad and Keyboard Running Your MacBook Air on Battery Power Getting Answers Chapter 3: Problem, Meet Solution 40 Problems That Prevent You from Using Your MacBook Air 44 Using Apple Hardware Test Contents
Date introduced June 10, 2013 Climate Change Greenhouse gas emissions have an impact on the planet’s balance of land, ocean, and air temperatures. Most of Apple’s corporate greenhouse gas emissions come from the production, transport, use, and recycling of its products. Apple seeks to minimize greenhouse gas emissions by setting stringent design-related goals for material and energy eﬃciency. The chart below provides the estimated greenhouse gas emissions for the 11-inch MacBook Air over its life cycle. Greenhouse Gas Emissions for 11-inch MacBook Air Recycling, 1% Transport, 5% The 11-inch MacBook Air is designed with the following features to reduce environmental impact: Production, 75% Customer use, 19% • Arsenic-free display glass • Mercury-free LED-backlit display • Brominated flame retardant–free Total greenhouse gas emissions: 320 kg CO2e • PVC-free2 • Recyclable aluminum enclosure Meets ENERGY STAR® Version 5.2 requirements Achieves a Gold rating from EPEAT3 Energy Eﬃciency Because one of the largest portions of product-related greenhouse gas emissions results from actual use, energy efficiency is a key part of each product’s design. Apple products use powerefficient components, and software that intelligently powers them down during periods of inactivity. The result is that MacBook Air is energy efficient right out of the box. The 11-inch MacBook Air outperforms the stringent requirements of the ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Computers Version 5.2. Using only 5.9W in idle with the display on, it consumes less power than any Mac, and consumes 49 percent less energy than the original MacBook Air. The following table details power consumed in diﬀerent use modes. Power Consumption for 11-inch MacBook Air Mode 100V 115V 230V Oﬀ 0.18W 0.18W 0.26W Sleep 0.65W 0.66W 0.74W Idle—Display oﬀ / on