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Reading and understanding centrifugal pump curves is key to proper pump selection, and to their reliable and efficient operation. This Tech Brief examines how pump curves can provide data about a pump’s ability to produce flow against certain head, shows how to read a typical centrifugal pump curve, and provides information about pump efficiency and brake horsepower. Pumps are the workhorses of any drinking water distribution or wastewater collection system. They operate 24 hours a day, 365 days a year getting water to homes and business, and removing wastewater from them. A correctly sized pump will work efficiently for many years, saving a system money and energy. An incorrectly sized pump can fail if it’s too small or result in unnecessary expense if it’s too big. Pump curves provide a way to see the correct size a pump should be for specific conditions. Pump Terminology Before discussing specific details, it helps to understand typical terms associated with pump curves: Impeller—the moving element in a pump that drives the liquid. Volute—the spiral-shaped casing surrounding a pump impeller that collects the liquid discharged by the impeller. Head—a measure of the pressure or force exerted by water expressed in feet. Centrifugal pump curves show pressure as head, which is the equivalent height of water with specific gravity = 1. Static Head—the vertical height difference from the surface of a water source to the centerline of the impeller. The vertical height difference from the centerline of the impeller to the discharge point is called discharge static head, while the vertical height difference from the surface of the water source to the discharge point is known as total static head. Total Head / Total Dynamic Head—the total height difference (total static head) plus friction losses and demand pressure from nozzles etc. (total discharge head) = total dynamic head. Capacity/Flow—the rate of liquid flow that can be carried, typically measured in gallons per minute (gpm). Net Positive Suction Head—how much suction lift a pump can achieve by creating a partial vacuum. Atmospheric pressure then pushes liquid into pump. A method of calculating if the pump will work or not. Cavitation—cavities or voids in liquid. Bubbles take up space leading to a drop in pump capacity. Collapsing bubbles can damage the impeller and volute, making cavitation a problem for both the pump and the mechanical seal. Specific Gravity—the weight of liquid in comparison to water at approximately 20° C (SG = 1). Specific Speed—a measure of the function of pump flow, head, and efficiency. Vapor Pressure—the force exerted by the gas released by a liquid in a closed space. If the vapor pressure of a liquid is greater than the surrounding air pressure, the liquid will boil. Viscosity—a measure of a liquid’s resistance to flow (i.e., how thick it is). The viscosity determines the type of pump used, how fast it can run, and with gear pumps, the internal clearances required. Friction Loss—the amount of pressure / head required to force liquid through pipes and fittings.
The all-new 2014 Chevrolet Silverado 1500 and GMC Sierra 1500 arrive first as a crew cab, followed soon by a regular cab and a double cab, which replaces the extended cab of previous years. Early buyers can choose from either a 4.3L V6 engine or a 5.3L V8 engine. A new 6.2L V8 engine will follow later in the year. For the first time, 1500 crew cabs will be available with a longer 6’6” cargo box, in addition to the previous 5’8” cargo box, enabling customers to carry more cargo while still being able to park in many garages. Three all-new EcoTec3 engines will be offered. The EcoTec3 engines feature three state-of-the-art technologies — direct injection, V4 Active Fuel Management (cylinder deactivation) and continuously variable valve timing — to make the most of power, torque and efficiency across a broad range of operating conditions. Full-Size Truck Brake Pipe Kit All kits are pre-formed and pre-flared to aid installation. The brake pipe kits have a nylon coating that provides better All-New 2014 Chevrolet Silverado 1500 and GMC Sierra 1500 Have Arrived. . . . . . 1 Full-Size Truck Brake Pipe Kit . . . . . . . . . . 1 New EcoTec3 Engines ACDelco recently released new hydraulic brake pipe kits for 1999-2007 Chevrolet Silverados and GMC Sierras and 1999-2006 Cadillac Escalade, Chevrolet Tahoe, Chevrolet Suburban, Chevrolet Avalanche and GMC Yukon models. These kits can be used any time the replacement of the entire brake pipe assembly is required. IN THIS ISSUE corrosion protection; and they are a lower-cost alternative to pipe replacement. The kits are not intended for the repair of a single damaged brake pipe. They are intended for the replacement of the entire brake pipe assembly due to c orrosion or wear. Service bulletin 13D-079 GMT800 details the procedures for installing these kits. It includes a part number l isting for each application. continued on page 3...
MSD Pro-Billet Ready-to-Run Chevrolet V8 Distributor, PN 8360 Chevrolet 348, 409 Distributor, PN 8393 ONLINE PRODUCT REGISTRATION: Register your MSD product online and you’ll be entered in our monthly 8.5mm Super Conductor Spark Plug Wire give-away! Registering your product will help if there is ever a warranty issue with your product and helps the MSD R&D team create new products that you ask for! Go to www.msdignition.com/registration. Important: Read these instructions before attempting the installation. Parts Included: 1 - Pro-Billet Distributor 1 - Rotor, PN 8467 1 - Distributor Cap, PN 8433 1 - Wire Retainer 2 - 1.5" Self Tapping Screws 2 - 10-32 x 3/4" Socket Head Screws 1 - Advance Kit 1 - 3-Pin Harness 1 - Gasket 1 - Tube of Gear Lubricant 2 - O-Rings 1 - Vacuum Advance Lock-Out Kit 1 - Gray Tach Jumper WARNING: Before installing the MSD Ready to Run Distributor, disconnect the battery cables. When disconnecting the battery cables, always remove the Negative (-) cable first and install it last. Note: The terminals of this Ready-to-Run Distributor require spark plug style terminals. You may need to change the terminals and boots of your wires. MSD offers two kits, PN 8849 or PN 8848 that are supplied with nine boots and terminals. Note: If the gear is ever replaced, MSD Gear (PN 8531) is required for replacement due to the .500" diameter shaft. TIMING FUNCTIONS Before continuing with the installation, here are a few definitions you should be aware of: Initial Timing: This is the base timing (also referred to as idle timing) of the engine before the centrifugal advance begins. Centrifugal Advance: The centrifugal (or mechanical) advance mechanism is made up of weights, springs, advance cams, and an advance stop bushing. The amount and rate of advance that your distributor is capable of is determined by the centrifugal timing. If you ever wish to lock out the centrifugal advance, refer to the centrifugal advance section. Total Timing: This is the total of the initial timing plus the centrifugal advance added together. Example: 10° Initial + 25° centrifugal = 35° Total Timing. (When checking Total timing, disconnect and cap the vacuum canister and plug the vacuum line.) Vacuum Advance: The vacuum advance will advance the timing up to 10° during partial throttle driving (with 15 lbs. of vacuum). The vacuum line should be routed to a ported vacuum outlet above the throttle plates. Note: MSD Distributors are supplied with the heavy (slow) advance springs and the 21° stop bushing installed. This is to prevent detonation in certain applications. Review the information on pages 2-4 to determine the best advance curve for your application. M S D
MSD Chevrolet V8 Pro-Billet Distributor PN 85551, PN 85561, PN 8547 Important: Read these Instructions before attempting the installation. Contents Timing Functions Choosing an Advance Curve Setting or Locking Out the Centrifugal Advance Installing the Distributor Adjusting the Slip Collar Wiring the Distributor Parts Included: 1 - Pro-Billet Distributor 1 - Rotor, PN 8467 1 - Distributor Cap, PN 8433 1 - Gasket 2 - O-ring Seals 1 - Tube of Gear Lubricant 1 - Advance Kit Note: An MSD Pro-Billet Distributor must be used with an MSD Ignition Control. TIMING FUNCTIONS Before continuing with the installation, here are a few definitions you should be aware of: Initial Timing: This is the base timing (also referred to as idle timing) of the engine before centrifugal advance begins. Centrifugal Advance: The centrifugal advance mechanism is made up of weights, springs, advance cam, and an advance stop bushing. The amount and rate of advance that your distributor is capable of is determined by the centrifugal timing. If you ever wish to lock out the centrifugal advance, refer to the centrifugal advance section. Total Timing: This is the total of the initial timing plus the centrifugal advance added together. Example: 10° Initial + 25° centrifugal = 35° Total Timing. AUTOTRONIC CONTROLS CORPORATION • 1490 HENRY BRENNAN DR., EL PASO, TEXAS 79936 • (915) 857-5200 • FAX (915) 857-3344 2 INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS CHOOSING AN ADVANCE CURVE The function of the advance curve is to match the ignition timing to the burning rate of the fuel and speed (rpm) of the engine. Any factor that changes the burning rate of the fuel or the engine speed can cause a need for an ignition timing change. Figure 1 shows some of the factors that will affect engine timing. FACTOR Cylinder Pressure RPM Vacuum Energy of Ignition Fuel Octane Mixture (Air/Fuel) Temperature Combustion Chamber Shape Spark Plug Location Combustion Turbulence Load Advance Timing For Low High High Low High Rich Cool Open Offset Low Light Retard Timing For High Low Low High Low Lean Hot Compact Center High Heavy Figure 1 Ignition Timing Factors. As you can see from the chart, most factors will change throughout the range of the engine operation. The timing mechanism of the distributor must make timing changes based on these factors. Example: A Chevy V8 has 11:1 compression, a high energy ignition and turns 5,500 rpm. With the specifications given, you will have to retard the timing for the high compression, low rpm and high energy ignition. By comparing the engine’s specifications against the chart, a usable timing guideline can be found. Engines with a combination of items from both columns will require a timing that is set in the mid range. Obviously a full technical explanation of correct ignition timing would be very complicated. The best way to arrive at a suitable ignition curve for your engine is to use the Ignition Timing Factors Chart as a guide and compare it to the Advance Graphs in Figure 2 until a suitable curve is found. When selecting your advance curve, use detonation (engine ping) as an indicator of too much advance, and a decrease in power as an indicator of too little advance. TIPS ON SELECTING AN ADVANCE CURVE • • • • • ...
SYSTEM WIRING DIAGRAMS. 1995 Chevrolet Tahoe. 1995 System Wiring Diagrams. Chevrolet - Tahoe. AIR CONDITIONING. A/C Circuit ... SYSTEM WIRING DIAGRAMS 1995 Chevrolet Tahoe 1995 System Wiring Diagrams Chevrolet - Tahoe AIR CONDITIONING A/C Circuit Heater Circuit ANTI-LOCK BRAKES Anti-lock Brake Circuits COMPUTER DATA LINES Data Link Connector Circuit COOLING FAN Cooling Fan Circuit CRUISE CONTROL
Helpful Guidelines for Successful Weight Loss Weight loss should occur when you eat fewer calories than you burn. Increasing physical activity while limiting your calories will increase your rate of weight loss. Increasing physical activity will also help you to maintain your weight after weight loss. Discuss appropriate calorie levels and serving sizes with your dietitian. 1. Keep a written food and physical activity journal. 2. Weigh yourself once per week at the same time of day, with the same amount of clothing, and on the same scale. 3. Eat breakfast everyday and do not skip meals. Skipping meals can lead to extreme hunger, overeating and poor food choices. 4. Plan your meals and eat around the same time every day. 5. Pick an eating area at home and/or work. 6. Turn off the TV and/or computer during meals and snacks. 7. Eat slowly. Take 30 minutes for a meal. It takes 20 minutes before you feel full, so wait 20 minutes after your first serving before taking a second serving. 8. Eat protein foods first to help you feel full sooner. 9. Read food labels to help control portions of food. 10. Eat less fat and sugar. Eat more fiber, including fresh fruits/vegetables and whole grains. 11. Limit restaurant and fast food meals. 12. Don’t keep problem foods around the house and/or at work. A problem food is a food that you are likely to eat too much of or too often if readily available. 13. Drink at least 8 cups (64 ounces) of liquids per day. Focus on calorie-free, caffeine-free beverages. 14. Get adequate sleep each night (7-9 hours). Clinical Dietitians, Food & Nutrition Services, UC Davis Medical Center (3/06) © 2006 The Regents of the University of California. All Rights Reserved. Food Preparation Use lowfat cooking methods such as baking, grilling, boiling, poaching, broiling, roasting, steaming or microwaving without additional fat. Avoid or limit frying. Place meat on a rack so the fat will drain off during cooking. Remove skin from poultry before cooking. Trim all visible fat from food (i.e. poultry and meat) before cooking. Use non-stick cookware or cooking sprays. Use egg whites or egg substitute in place of whole eggs. Season food with spices, butter flavoring (such as Butter Buds®), lemon or low-fat dressings. Limit high-fat sauces or gravies such as sour cream, regular salad dressings, full-fat gravy, and cream or cheese sauces (such as Hollandaise or Alfredo sauce). Use a sugar substitute in place of sugar. Replace sugar in recipes with a sugar substitute that can be used in baking or cooking.
Through the application of fundamental physics and the utilization of attractive materials, PVE has virtually created a transportation vehicle within a bubble.
To Riggins Hill and Fort Defiance “Battle of Shiloh” Courtesy Library of Congress CLARKSVILLE MURFREESBORO S N. Scroll flask and .36 caliber Navy Colt bullet mold found at Camp Trousdale site in Sumner County. Courtesy Pat Meguiar . ST ING PR 41 Stones River National Battlefield and Cemetery Oaklands Mansion 41 T. EGE S COLL Recapture of Clarksville KNOXVILLE 441 Evergreen Cemetery 231 40 Clarksville in the Civil War Surrender of Clarksville 275 CE S MER COM Rutherford County Courthouse T. 41 96 Old Gray Cemetery Mabry-Hazen House 40 231 Bleak House 24 68 Crew repairing railroad track near Murfreesboro after Battle of Stones River, 1863 – Courtesy Library of Congress 68 231 79 ALT 70 M I SSISS 104 Tennessee City (Camp Gillem/ Irish Shanty) New Johnsonville Clarksburg Fighting on the Tennessee River (Birdsong Marina) 70 Parker’s Crossroads (Multiple Sites) 48 McNairy’s Attack Dickson (Clement RR 96 Museum) 40 100 40 Centerville (Hickman Co. Courthouse) 87 412 19 Salem Cemetery Battlefield 61 Brownsville 59 Casey Jones Village 223 Covington Denmark (Presbyterian Church) Forts Randolph and Wright 178 13 100 Henderson 138 51 Doe Creek School 18 128 64 64 64 40 Collierville (Battle of Collierville and Chalmers’s Raid) LaGrange Battle of Moscow Grand Junction 57 Shiloh NMP Fallen Timbers Johnston’s Last Bivouac Davis Bridge Battlefield State Park Savannah (Cherry Mansion and Tennessee River Museum) Lawrenceburg Collinwood ALT 41 55 Five Points Lairdland Farm House Colt revolving rifle, used Nov. 3, 1863, by 2nd Iowa Cav. at Collierville, Shelby Co. Courtesy Norm Flayderman 240 64 Elkton Bridge Harlinsdale Farm Confederate Park 231 Sherman’s Crossing Suck Creek Lotz House FRANKLIN 280 Robbinsville (Civil War in Graham County) 19 Allison-Deaver House Franklin (Dixie Hall) Thomas’s Legion Macon Co. Historical Museum Cashiers (Zachary-Tolbert House) 19 CHATTANOOGA To Suck Creek E ANE CARNTON L Union Lt. Charles R. Ellet approaches Memphis to demand surrender, Harper’s Weekly, June 28, 1862 H R EW IS L To Winstead Hill Bleak House, Knoxville, circa 1874 Courtesy Knoxville Chapter 89, United Daughters of the Confederacy 129 R I V P E 31 Tellico Plains Waynesville (Multiple Sites) “Execution of Jacob Harmon and His Son Henry, Unionist bridge-burners,” from Parson Brownlow’s Book (1862) BU RG IV AV E E Kurz and Allison, “Battle of Franklin” Courtesy Williamson County Historical Society R Confederate Eastern Flank Carnton Plantation Confederate Cemetery National Landmark Occupied Chattanooga Ross’s Landing EESB ORO R D. Collins Farm McGavock’s Grove 64 Old Fort (Swannanoa Gap) 221 74 Coker Creek 40 76 Steamboats tied up at Ross’s Landing in Chattanooga, with Cameron Hill looming in the background Courtesy Library of Congress R Carson House 70 75 R URF R Vance Birthplace 70 28 Madisonville (Monroe County Courthouse) Niota Depot 27 T 55 Marshall (Col. Allen House) 321 Capt. Edwin Rocky Ford Engagement Mars Hill College 411 51 78 Hot Springs 25 (Warm Springs Hotel) Maggie Valley (Kirk’s Raid) Cleveland (Museum Center) (See Inset) Chattanooga Creek 19E (Multiple Sites)
14801 W. 114th Terrace, Lenexa KS 66215 • PH: 913.338.2886 • FX: 913.338. 2879 • www.ProCharger.com. BOLT ON. 140+. 2/11. The ULTIMATE Power Adder ... The ULTIMATE Power Adder® for the 1999-2010 Suzuki Hayabusa Specializing in building customized, high-performance motorcycles, this DAS-developed Stage 1 supercharger kit utilizes a highly-efficient ProCharger C-1 self-contained supercharger for maximum forced-induction power and performance. DAS Stage I Kit includes: ProCharger C-1 supercharger Intake Charge tube Full exhaust system Intank pump FMU K&N air cleaner DAS Performance Clutch springs Stage I MSRP: $6,599 Hose, clamp and misc hardware This same C-1 supercharger and drive system is capable of supporting even higher HP levels with additional engine and fuel system modifications. Stage 1: 240-275 rwhp Stage 2: 275-350 rwhp Stage 3: 350-550+ rwhp DAS Performance dasperformance.com 1901 Bridge Street Dracut, MA 01826 978/453-0807 14801 W. 114th Terrace, Lenexa KS 66215 • PH: 913.338.2886 • FX: 913.338.2879 • www.ProCharger.com 2/11