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This booklet contains photographs of the installation and initial testing of two True Energy BLF 100 DC Sure Chill® vaccine refrigerators in Vietnam. The refrigerators were installed in May 2011, one in Thanh Ba district, Phu Tho province and the other in Thanh Phu district, Ben Tre province. The photo set accompanied an article on vaccine refrigerators in the April 2012 edition of Op.ti.mize, an electronic newsletter on the vaccine supply chain. You can view an archive of all Op.ti.mize newsletters here: www.path.org/projects/project-optimize-newsletter For more information on project Optimize: www.path.org/projects/project-optimize www.who.int/immunization_delivery/optimize Traditional solar refrigerator systems use batteries to store the sun’s energy for the night and cloudy periods. However, problems with battery maintenance have made solar refrigeration a challenge in many low-resource settings. To address the battery problem, refrigerator manufacturers have created a new category of solar refrigeration that eliminates the need for an energy-storage battery. Vietnam has piloted this battery-free solar refrigeration system to evaluate it as a vaccine storage solution, especially in areas where electricity is limited.
Plus SW 280 mono TUV Power controlled: Lowest measuring tolerance in industry Every component is tested to meet 3 times IEC requirements Designed to withstand heavy accumulations of snow and ice -0/+5 Wp WARRANTY Sunmodule Plus: Positive performance tolerance 25-year linear performance warranty and 10-year product warranty Glass with anti-reflective coating Anti-Reflective Coating World-class quality Fully-automated production lines and seamless monitoring of the process and material ensure the quality that the company sets as its benchmark for its sites worldwide. SolarWorld Plus-Sorting Plus-Sorting guarantees highest system efficiency. SolarWorld only delivers modules that have greater than or equal to the nameplate rated power. 25 years linear performance guarantee and extension of product warranty to 10 years SolarWorld guarantees a maximum performance degression of 0.7% p.a. in the course of 25 years, a significant added value compared to the two-phase warranties common in the industry. In addition, SolarWorld is offering a product warranty, which has been extended to 10 years.* *in accordance with the applicable SolarWorld Limited Warranty at purchase. www.solarworld.com/warranty solarworld.com Plus SW 280 mono PERFORMANCE UNDER STANDARD TEST CONDITIONS (STC)* PERFORMANCE AT 800 W/m², NOCT, AM 1.5 Maximum power Pmax Maximum power Pmax Open circuit voltage Voc 39.5 V Open circuit voltage Voc 36.1 V Maximum power point voltage Vmpp 31.2 V Maximum power point voltage Vmpp 28.5 V 280 Wp 209.2 Wp Short circuit current
This application report explains how to use the TPS61200 in combination with a single solar cell to charge a battery or storage device. A characteristic of solar cells is the internal resistance that can vary from less than 10 Ω up to more than 100 Ω. Therefore, it is important to control the load placed on the solar cell to ensure a reliable start-up of the application. This report describes an application that avoids the solar cell output voltage breaking down and manages the load as the solar cell power changes. The solution provides a reliable start-up of the TPS61200 using solar cells that can deliver at least 3 mA at 0.5 V. Solar Cell Knowledge In general, solar cells can be classified into two types, crystalline silicon solar cells and amorphous silicon solar cells on float glass. Both types have certain benefits in specific applications as a power source. Usually, the crystalline silicon solar cell has better efficiency compared to the amorphous silicon solar cell. On the other hand, the amorphous silicon solar cell is more sensitive to stray light than the crystalline solar cell. This does not totally compensate the lower efficiency but brings both types close together. The amorphous silicon solar cells cost less than crystalline solar cells. The power that can be drawn from a solar cell depends on the physical size and type of the cell – the smaller the solar cell, the less power it can deliver. For some applications, it can be beneficial to use solar cells in series to increase the module output voltage instead of boosting from a single solar cell. For ultralow power applications, this yields better efficiency numbers compared to what is achievable with a single-cell configuration with a nominal output voltage of 0.5 V. When using solar cells, it is important to consider what kind of light source is available. Sunlight delivers much more energy than artificial light. A bulb lamp is better than a fluorescent lamp. Therefore, it is necessary to match the solar cell with the application and the light condition for which it is used . Crystalline silicon solar cells work best if used outside with sunlight. For indoor use, amorphous silicon solar cells are more suitable. This type of solar cells has a different light sensitivity which fits the spectrum of artificial light much better than crystalline solar cells. Prepared for both light conditions is the stacked type of solar cells. It is build of two thin layers of amorphous silicon with a different spectral light sensitivity and stacked on top of each other. This kind of solar cell is working with a much wider spectrum of light than any other type. Therefore it is ideal for hand-held devices which can be used indoor and outdoor.
where space is at a premium. Two solar cells can be arranged within an approximate rectangular area of 0.611 x 1.254 inches (1.55 x 3.18 cm) with a cell gap of 0.018 inches (0.46 mm). See picture. Each solar cell is ideally matched to charge a single 1.2 V battery cell (eg. Ni-MH, NiCad, etc.). Cells can be wired in parallel for increased current. Two solar cells in series can charge one 3.6V Li-ion battery cell. A major advantage using these solar cells compared to silicon cells is that they deliver greater than 4 times higher voltage. Therefore, only one of Spectrolab’s multi-junction solar cells is required to generate the same voltage as 5 Si solar cells connected in series Compared to typical silicon cells, these solar cells are over twice as efficient and thus will deliver more than twice the power for the same area. Uses and applications: A variety of power-consuming electronic equipment can benefit from these cells, especially if the area available is small or the time required for charging is limited. For example, these cells help power devices used during business trips, emergency situations or for the outdoor activities.
On April 25, 1954, proud Bell executives held a press conference where they impressed the media with the Bell Solar Battery powering a radio transmitter that was broadcasting voice and music. One journalist thought it important for the public to know that “linked together electrically, the Bell solar cells deliver power from the sun at the rate of 50 watts per square yard, while the atomic cell announced recently by the RCA Corporation merely delivers a millionth of a watt” over the same area. An article in U.S. News & World Report speculated that one day such silicon strips “may provide more power than all the world’s coal, oil, and uranium.” The New York Times probably best summed up what Chapin, Fuller, and Pearson had accomplished. On page one of its April 26, 1954, issue, the Times stated that the construction of the first solar module to generate useful amounts of power marks “the beginning of a new era, leading eventually to the realization of one of mankind’s most cherished dreams—the harnessing of the almost limitless energy of the sun for the uses of civilization.” In 1954, the world had less than a watt of solar cells capable of running electrical equipment. Fast-forward through 50 years of continued discovery and development of silicon and other PV materials and this is what you’ll see. Today, a billion watts of electricity generated by solar cells help to power the satellites so necessary for modern life, ensure the safe passage of ships and trains, bring abundant water, lighting, and telephone service to many who had done without, and supply clean power to those already connected to the grid. The worldwide market for solar electric energy has grown by 20%–25% per year over the past 10 years. According to Solarbuzz, the international solar electric industry now generates around $3–$4 billion (U.S.) in revenues each year.
Figure 1. A solar cell produces current in proportion to the amount of sunlight falling on it, while the cell’s open-circuit voltage remains relatively constant. Maximum power output occurs at the knee of each curve, where the cell transitions from a constant voltage device to a constant current device, as shown by the power curves. below a certain set point, the charge current is reduced. The charging current is adjusted via a control voltage across a current sensing resistor in series with the inductor of the buck regulator charging circuit. Decreased illumination (and/or increased charge current demands) can both cause the input voltage (panel voltage) to fall, pushing the panel away from its point of maximum power output. With the LT3652, when the input voltage falls below a certain set point, as defined by the resistor divider connected between the VIN and VIN_REG pins, the current control voltage is reduced, thus reducing the charging current. This action causes the voltage from the solar panel to increase along its characteristic VI curve until a new peak power operating point is found. If the solar panel is illuminated enough to provide more power than is required by the LT3652 charging circuit, the voltage from the solar panel increases beyond the control range of the voltage regulation loop, the charging current is set to its maximum value and a new operation point is found based entirely on the maximum charging current for the battery’s point in the charge cycle. If the electronic device is operating directly from solar power and the input voltage is above the minimum level of the input voltage regulation...
Hearty welcome among Ducati fans! Please accept our best compliments for choosing a Ducati motorcycle. We think you will ride your Ducati motorcycle for long journeys as well as short daily trips. Ducati Motor Holding S.p.A. wishes you smooth and enjoyable riding. We are steadily doing our best to improve our “Technical Assistance” service. For this reason, we recommend you to strictly follow the indications given in this manual, especially for motorcycle running-in. In this way, your Ducati motorbike will surely give you unforgettable emotions. For any servicing or suggestions you might need, please contact our authorised service centres. Note Ducati Motor Holding S.p.A. declines any liability whatsoever for any mistakes incurred in drawing up this manual. The information contained herein is valid at the time of going to print. Ducati Motor Holding S.p.A. reserves the right to make any changes required by the future development of the above-mentioned products. E Enjoy your ride! For your safety, as well as to preserve the warranty, reliability and worth of your motorcycle, use original Ducati spare parts only. Warning This manual forms an integral part of the motorcycle and - if the motorcycle is resold - must always be handed over to the new owner. 3 Table of contents RH switch 43 Throttle twistgrip 43 Front brake lever 44 Rear brake pedal 45 Gear change pedal 45 Setting the gear change and rear brake pedals 46 Main components and devices 48 E General 6 Warranty 6 Symbols 6 Useful information for safe riding 7 Carrying the maximum load allowed 8 Identification data 10 Controls 11 Position of motorcycle controls 11 Instrument panel 12 LCD unit functions 14 LCD – Parameter setting/display 16 The immobilizer system 35 Code Card 36 Immobilizer override procedure 37 Duplicate keys 39 Key-operated ignition switch and steering lock 40 LH switch 41 Clutch lever 42 4 Position on the vehicle 48 Fuel tank plug 49 Opening the seat 50 Opening the glove compartment door 51 Side stand 52 Front fork adjusters 53 Rear shock absorber adjusters 55 Rear-view mirror adjustment 56 Changing motorcycle track alignment (1100S) 57 Directions for use 59 Running-in recommendations 59 Pre-ride checks 61 Starting the engine 62 Moving off 64 Braking 64 Stopping the motorcycle 65 Parking 65 Refuelling 66 Tool kit and accessories 67 Main maintenance operations 68 Top-ups 95 Engine 96 Timing system 96 Performance data 97 Spark plugs 97 Fuel system 97 Exhaust system 97 Transmission 98 Brakes 99 Frame 100 Wheels 100 Tyres 100 Suspensions 101 Available colours 101 Electric system 102 Removing the fairing 68 Checking brake and clutch fluid level 70 Checking brake pads for wear 72 Lubricating joints 73 Adjusting throttle control free play 74 Charging the battery 75 Checking drive chain tension 76 Chain lubrication 77 Replacing the headlight bulbs 78 Replacing the rear turn indicator bulbs 80 Replacing the number plate light bulbs 81 Beam setting 82 Tubeless tyres 84 Checking engine oil level 86 Cleaning and replacing the spark plugs 87 Cleaning the motorcycle 88 Storing the bike away 89 Important notes 89 For United States of America version only 107 Maintenance 90 Routine maintenance record 116 E Scheduled maintenance chart: operations to be performed by the dealer 90 Scheduled maintenance chart: operations to be performed by the customer 93 Technical data 94 Overall dimensions (mm) 94 Weights 94
ACCESSORY AND OUTFIT ASSEMBLY AF FL steel ring nut - Passenger seat strap fastener SIDE STAND ASSEMBLY Finished side stand pivot - Side stand pivot pack fastener Finished centring rod pin - Rod reference dowel fastener for side stand spring Pin for spring centring rod hinge - Pin fastening for spring centring rod hinge Side stand magnet - Side stand magnet fastener CHAIN-SPROCKET ASSEMBLY TBEI screw M5x8 10.9 STSTR087 - Sprocket cover fastener TCEIF screw M10x1.25x30 10.9 STSTR110 - Sprocket fastener LIGHT ASSEMBLY AF screw 3.5x10 - Cover to conveyor fastener (only base version) AF screw 3.5x10 - Conveyor to headlight fastener (only S version) TBEIF screw M5x12 - Conveyor to headlight fastener (only base version) TEF screw M5x25 8.8 - Headlight to support fastener AF screw 4.5x12 UNI 9707 - Headlight to tail guard fastener TBEIF screw M5x16 10.9 - Special fastener to subframe TCEIF screw M5x12 8.8 - Turn indicator to number plate holder fastener INSTRUMENT ASSEMBLY AB FL M5 nut serpress - Silent block to headlight support fastener 2/17 Rev. 01 - 26/03/2012 Tightening torques 1199 Panigale_Rev01.doc TIGHTENING TORQUES - 1199 PANIGALE (all versions) Application description Thread pitch Torque: [Nm]±10% *[Nm]±5% Notes M37x1 M6x1 M6x1 40 8* 10 LOCTITE 128455 SHELL RETINAX HDX2 (Seq: 1-2-3 / 2-1-3) LOCTITE 243 M5x0,8 5 M6x1 M8x1,25 M8x1,25 M8x1,25 M35x1 M8x1,25 M6x1 M6x1 6* 19* 22* 22* 25* 10 10 10 SHELL RETINAX HDX2 (Seq: EST-INT-EST) SHELL RETINAX HDX2 SHELL RETINAX HDX2 SHELL RETINAX HDX2 SHELL RETINAX HDX2 LOCTITE 601 LOCTITE 222 LOCTITE 222 M5x0,8 M6x1 M5x0,8 M5 af M6x1 M5x0,8 M5x0,8 M5x0,8 M6x1 M5x0,8 5 10 5 2 4 6 4 5 8 3 LOCTITE 222 FRONT FORK ASSEMBLY Steering shaft to bottom yoke fastener TCEIF screw M6x22 8.8 - Base clamps on forks fastener Nut M6 UNI 5588 - Steering limit stop screw fastener TCEI special screw M5x9 collar 1.8x8.5 f/f - Bottom yoke to splashguard fastener (only base version) TCEI screw M6x25 8.8 - Marzocchi fork feet clamps to clevis pin fastener Ohlins fork feet clamps to clevis pin fastener (only S version) TCEIF screw M8x25 8.8 - Steering head clamps to fork fastener TCEIF screw M8x25 8.8 - Steering head clamps to steering shaft fastener Finished steering bearing ring nut - Steering shaft pack fastener Screw - Eyelet to Ohlins steering damper fastener (only S version) TBEIF screw M6x30 10.9 - Steering damper to frame fastener TCEIF screw M6x18 8.8 - Steering damper to handlebars fastener ELECTR.-ELECTRONIC ASSEMBLY TCEIF screw M5x22 8.8 - Electric system supports to frame fastener TEF screw M6x22 10.9 - Battery support to engine fastener TCEI screw M5x9 collar 8.5 - Cover to battery support fastener AF SCREW 5x16 - Fuse cable protection to battery support fastener TEIC screw - Cable eyelet to battery fastener TCEIF screw M6x10 8.8 - Cable eyelet to solenoid starter fastener Nut - Cable eyelet to starter motor fastener TBEIF M5x14 black large head screw - Wiring bracket to head fastener M5 self-locking nut serpress - Solenoid starter support to generator cover fastener TEF M6x25 screw - Voltage rectifier fastener TBEI screw M5x10 8.8 - ECU bracket fastener 3/17
This procedure applies to all Testastretta engines. Ducati motorcycles are beautiful expressions of form and function. Adhering to the maintenance intervals is important to ensure optimum performance. There is an urban legend that Ducati valve adjustment is mysterious and difficult. This guide will dispel that myth and help you understand the ease with which valve clearance measurement and adjustment can be accomplished. There are several methods for taking the measurements of the shims. In much of the written information and on the web forums the terms “Loaded” and “Unloaded” are frequently used. These terms evolved from working on 2-Valve and earlier Desmoquattro (4 Valve) valve trains where access was limited due to the cylinder head design. These methods will give valid results for the Testastretta engines, but are not required. Ducati has made measuring these clearances very easy. If this is your first time measuring and adjusting the desmodromic engines, take your time and enjoy working on your bike. Getting to the cylinder heads is the first step in the process. DISASSEMBLY Secure the bike to a stand or a lift. Take pictures of everything, especially electrical connections and routing of leads, hoses, etc. to aid in reassembly. Use a paint pen or other marking device to make alignment marks (i.e.-oil pressure sensor connection) for reassembly purposes. Remove the side fairings Disconnect the battery (the battery negative terminal is the first removed and the last installed) Remove enough interference to gain access to the cylinder heads. This may include the fuel tank/seat cowling assembly, the air-box, and radiator. Get a picture of cooling fan connections (both sides). Place a catch pan underneath the radiator hoses to catch the fluid during removal Remove coil Remove the spark plugs Remove the rocker cover Remove the timing belt covers: Undo the bolts securing the vertical timing belt cover and remove it from the vertical cylinder assembly. Some finesse may be required as this is a tight fit in the frame. Undo the bolts securing the timing belt cover and remove it from the horizontal cylinder unit. Remove the spark plugs. This is important: the engine will not rotate with the spark plugs installed. The engine will have to be rotated during valve adjustment/belt replacement and is made easier with the removal of the spark plugs.
Ducati ’03 ST4s Timing Belt Adjustment This instruction on cam belt adjustment starts after you remove the fairing pieces. Plan on an hour to remove these. Since you are performing your own service, buying Ducati belts may not be that expensive. There may be another belt source, but I have not confirmed this for the 996 engine of the 02-03 ST4s. Fig 1 – ST4s ready for belt adj./ repl. Fig 2 – Crank tool installed. See dwg. 1) Ensure maximum of ½ tank of gas. Fuel will leak into the charcoal canister, then onto the floor if the tank is over half full and the tank is tilted up on its hinge. So put the tank up on its hinge. 2) Remove spark plugs. Cover sparkplug wells with boots or rags. This is a great time to toss out those Champions for a set of NGK DCPR8E’s. 3) Remove the front shield from the horizontal cylinder head. 4) Remove crankshaft cover on Riders LH side and insert crank tool. A crank tool can be made by following the drawing at the end of this document. See Fig 2 above. The flat head screws used are kind of soft so beware on their removal. 5) Remove oil pressure sending unit cable and remove oil sending unit. No oil should pour out. 6) Remove battery and remove bolts fastening battery box to engine/frame. You can let the battery box dangle or partially support it via a bungee cord. Be careful of the cable on the ground of the ECU. By dangling the battery box excess stress could be placed on this cables connector and you don’t want to troubleshoot an intermittent electrical issue. 7) Remove cam belt covers. The two covers over the cams are real easy. The center piece is removed by pulling it down. You may have to move some hoses and cables out Timing belt adj.doc 1 of the way because it is a tight fit. Removing the oil pressure sending unit gave clearance for the removal. Fig 1 shows bike ready to be worked on. On the Rider’s LH is a window on the case cover. Using a flashlight to illuminate the area, marks can be rotated into view using the engine turning tool. There are two marks denoting the TDC of each of the cylinders. When a mark in the window aligns with the pointer, look at the crank driving pulley on the Rider’s RH of the engine. If the driving pulley’s mark is aligned with the pointer on the engine case, you are at TDC horizontal cylinder. If the pulley mark and the pointer on the engine do not align, rotate the engine until the mark in the window on the Rider’s LH side case cover aligns as well as the pulley’s mark and the engine’s pointer. Fig 3 shows the engine pulley and pointer. You can check that the horizontal piston is at TDC by inserting a welding rod into the spark plug well and touch the top of the piston with it to sense its position.