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Vacuum elevators use a sealed lift tube and the clever manipulation of air pressure to raise and lower the lift. Each ascent uses only a minimal amount of electricity, and descending requires almost no energy at all. It’s all controlled by gravity and air – no heavy machinery required.
JANE WILLIAMS, PhD, RN Dean and Professor of Nursing School of Nursing, Rhode Island College 600 Mt. Pleasant Avenue, Providence, RI 02908 TEL: 401 456-9608: FAX: 401 456-8206 Email: email@example.com CURRENT EMPLOYMENT Rhode Island College, Dean and Professor of Nursing, School of Nursing, 1975-present; initial appointment as assistant professor, 1975; appointed Professor, 1995, Department Chairperson, 2000, and Dean, 2007. EDUCATION University of Rhode Island, College of Nursing, Kingston, Rhode Island, Ph.D., Nursing, 1995. New York University, School of Education, New York, New York, M.A., Major in Education and Minor in Nursing, 1968; University of Michigan, School of Nursing, Ann Arbor, Michigan, B.S.N. with Distinction, 1966. PUBLICATIONS Williams, J., Brumbaugh, M. & Vares, L., (2006), “Education to improve interdisciplinary practice of health care professionals: A pilot project”, Medicine & Health, Rhode Island, 89 (9), p. 312-313. Mosser, N., Williams, J. & Wood, C. (2006), “The use of progression testing throughout nursing programs: How two colleges promote success on NCLEX-RN”. Annual Review of Nursing Education. Vol.4, p. 305-319. Newman, M. and Williams, J. (2003) "Educating Nurses in Rhode Island: A lot of diversity in a little place", Journal of Cultural Diversity, Vol. 10, No. 3, p. 91-95. Williams, J., (2001) “The Clinical Notebook: Using Student Portfolios to Enhance Teaching and Learning, Journal of Nursing Education. Vol. 40, p. 135-137. Ferszt, G., Massotti, E., Miller, J. & Williams, J. (2000) “Art on Rounds: Research Study of an in-patient oncology unit”, Illness Crisis and Loss. Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 189-199. Williams, J. (1999) “When Interns Meet Managed Care” [Letter to the Editor]. New York Times, p. 30A. Williams, J., Wood, C., & Cunningham-Warburton, P. (1999) “A Narrative Study of Chemotherapy-Induced Alopecia”. Oncology Nursing Forum. Vol. 26, pp. 1463-1468. Willliams, J. (1999) “Health Policy Tool Kit Helps Students to Get Involved”. ONS Newsletter, 14 (9) p 5.
PERFOMANCE BOOST The Freescale* MPXV4115V pressure sensor is the ideal part for automotive vacuum sensing needs such as those found in the brake booster application. Prepared by Marc Osajda Automotive Sensor Marketing Motorola – Toulouse, France Advanced braking systems are becoming increasingly common in today’s automobiles. Higher level systems and technology now being used in “brake assist systems” (BAS) in several European cars, have made it possible for more efficient and intelligent braking systems. A key functional application block found in these braking systems that has advanced with this technology surge, is the vacuum brake booster function. Here are a few driving factors behind the need and use of the brake booster, which helps ensure a safer braking system. Independent Systems: In current gasoline engine cars, the engine’s intake manifold generates the vacuum for the brake booster. This system works fine with one exception. The amount of vacuum in the brake booster is unknown by the braking system. Thus the amount of amplification is also unknown. If heavy braking is needed, there is no possibility for the brake system to interact with the intake manifold if additional amplification is required. The manufacturer’s interest for having the vacuum generated by an auxiliary vacuum pump is that the brake system can manage the amount of vacuum as required, on demand. This in turns gives it the ability to perform amplification on its own, giving it complete independent from the engine’s operating condition. The auxiliary pump is also able to provide higher amounts of vacuum whenever necessary. In situations calling for heavy braking, the pressure will naturally decrease in the brake booster, also causing a decrease in the amplification during braking. With an external pump it is possible to maintain, or even increase the amplification during a heavy braking phase. Smart Safety: Wheel blocking due to high-braking force is controlled by the Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS). However, it has been observed that in many cases, drivers do not...
Vacuum Brake Booster Testing and Diagnosis Vacuum Brake Booster Testing and Diagnosis This procedure will require the use of a hand operated vacuum pump with a vacuum gauge. If you do not own one it can often be rented or borrowed from most “big box” parts stores. (Note: 18”HG is the minimum engine vacuum at idle in gear to effectively operate a vacuum booster 1) Remove vacuum hose from check valve on booster. Place hose from vacuum pump onto check valve and draw booster to 20” of vacuum. 2) Let booster sit with vacuum applied for 5 minutes. If vacuum does not stay steady at 20” it is faulty and needs to be replaced. If vacuum does hold steady at 20” proceed to step 3. 3) With 20” of vacuum in booster depress brake pedal once and release it. The booster should transfer some but not the entire vacuum in reserve. Depending on how hard the pedal is depressed it is normal to see 5-10” of vacuum depleted from reserve. The most important thing is to ensure the booster does transfer vacuum but does NOT transfer the entire vacuum in its reserve. If vacuum remains at 20” OR goes to zero the booster is bad and will need to be replaced. If vacuum transfer is within the above parameter proceed to step 4. 4) Once again draw booster down to 20” of vacuum. Go inside car and depress brake pedal and hold down for 30 seconds. You should see the gauge drop slightly and then hold steady. Vacuum should stay steady as long as you are holding the pedal down. If vacuum drops while pedal is being held down the booster is faulty and will need to be replaced.
No. BPI 10-06 Subject: Temporary reduction in power brake assist in extreme cold weather Vehicles Involved: Models: 2009 BUICK ENCLAVE 2009 CHEVROLET TRAVERSE 2009 GMC ACADIA 2009 SATURN OUTLOOK From 9J100008 From 9S100002 From 9J100016 From 9J100003 to to to to 9J190898 9S143268 9J190899 9J190888 Condition: If the brake check valves are NOT installed correctly, an increased amount of brake pedal effort will be required to obtain brake function, and the brake assist system will NOT perform as designed. Repair: Replace the first design brake booster vacuum hose check valve (1) with a second design brake booster vacuum hose check valve (2). An arrow on the second design check valve indicates the vacuum draw direction (3). 1. Remove the fuel injector sight shield (engine cover) from the engine. 4400 Prime Parkway McHenry, IL 60050 (815) 363-9000 Determine where the two brake booster vacuum hose check valves are located. Refer to callouts 1 and 2 in the illustration 2. Release the quick connect (4) from the power brake booster auxiliary pump (3). 3. Remove the protective wrap (5) from the brake booster vacuum hose to locate check valve # (1). 4400 Prime Parkway McHenry, IL 60050 (815) 363-9000 4. Remove the check valve (1) from the brake booster vacuum hose that routes to the power brake booster auxiliary pump (3). 5. Remove the check valve (2) from the brake booster hose that routes to the intake manifold vacuum port (6). Note If necessary, a small amount of denatured alcohol can be used as an assembly aid for installing the vacuum hose to the manifold vacuum port. Do not use soap. 6. Install a new check valve (1) to the brake booster hose that routes to the power brake booster auxiliary pump (3). Ensure the arrow on the check valve (1) ...
(2) Four brake booster installation nuts A: REMOVAL 1) Remove or disconnect the following parts in the engine compartment. (1) Disconnect the connector of brake fluid level gauge. (2) Remove the brake pipe from the master cylinder. (3) Remove the master cylinder installation nut. (1) CAUTION: In order to prevent the contact of the bracket and check valve, be sure to loosen the master cylinder mounting nut while holding the bracket with hand. Otherwise it may deform the bracket. (1) Check valve (2) Bracket (4) Disconnect the vacuum hose from brake booster. 2) Remove the following parts from the pedal bracket. (1) Snap pin and clevis pin Nut Clevis pin Snap pin Operating rod Brake pedal 3) Remove the brake booster while avoiding the brake pipe. NOTE: • Make sure that the booster shell and vacuum pipe are not subject to strong impacts. • Be careful not to drop the brake booster. If the booster is dropped, replace it. • Use special care when handling the operating rod. If excessive force is applied to the operating rod, the angle may change by r3°, and it may result in damage to power piston cylinder. • Be careful when placing the brake booster on floor. • Do not change the push rod length. CAUTION: • Do not disassemble the brake booster.
Safety Recall No. 983 Brake Booster Vacuum Hose Models 2000-2001 (PL) Dodge and Plymouth Neon NOTE: This recall applies only to the above vehicles equipped with a: Ø 2.0L engine (“C” in the 8th VIN Position) built through March 21, 2001 (MDH 0321XX) or a Ø 2.0L High Output engine (“F” in the 8th VIN Position) built through April 11, 2001 (MDH 0411XX). IMPORTANT: Some of the involved vehicles may be in dealer new vehicle inventory. Federal law requires you to stop sale and complete this recall service on these vehicles before retail delivery. Dealers should also consider this requirement to apply to used vehicle inventory and should perform this recall on vehicles in for service. Involved vehicles can be determined by using the DIAL VIP System. Subject The brake booster vacuum hose on about 350,000 of the above vehicles may swell due to oil contamination and become disconnected. A disconnected hose could cause a loss of power brake assist and an increase in engine idle speed. This can increase stopping distance and cause an accident without warning. Repair The brake booster vacuum hose must be replaced. © Copyright 2001, DaimlerChrysler Corporation, All Rights Reserved Safety Recall No. 983 -- Brake Booster Vacuum Hose Page 2 Parts Information Each dealer to whom vehicles in the recall were invoiced (or the current dealer at the same street address) will receive enough Brake Booster Vacuum Hoses to service about 10% of those vehicles. Dealers should determine which brake booster vacuum hose is required for each vehicle at the time appointments are scheduled to assure that the correct part is available when the customer arrives. The vacuum hose for the vehicle to be serviced may be determined by: Ø Using the part code in the third column of the VIN list along with the following table (involved dealers); Ø Using the VIN and part number list electronically transmitted to DIAL System Function 53 (involved dealers); or...
Fifty percent less pedal force I n most of the models of the 1950s and 1960s, Mercedes-Benz provided a power brake booster manufactured by ATE. The booster does not pro- vide additional braking capacity, a common misconception, but rather reduces the pedal force required for braking. The power brake is a vacuum-assisted hydraulic component using the pressure difference between engine intake manifold vacuum and atmospheric pressure for its operation. The power unit increases the pressure created physically in the brake master cylinder so that the same braking effect can be produced with less pedal effort. With a brake booster installed, the pedal force required for braking is reduced by 50 percent. The ATE T50 Brake Booster uses vacuum to “boost” the hydraulic brakeline pressure. The booster contains a hydraulic cylinder, a large vacuum piston that presses against the hydraulic cylinder, and a control circuit that regulates the vacuum flow based on brake-line pressures. This technology had been well proven since the early 1900s, and the T50 has been exceptionally reliable over many years of use. The Booster in action The power booster is a very simple design requiring only a vacuum source to operate. In gasoline-engine cars, the engine provides a vacuum suitable for the boosters. Because diesel engines do not produce a vacuum, dieselpowered vehicles must use a separate vacuum pump. A vacuum hose from the intake manifold on the engine pulls air from both sides of the diaphragm when the engine is running. When the driver steps on the brake pedal, the input rod assembly in the booster moves forward, blocking off the vacuum port to the backside of the diaphragm and opening an atmospheric port that allows air to enter the back chamber. Suddenly, the diaphragm has vacuum pulling against one side and air pressure pushing on the other. The result is forward pressure that assists in pushing the input rod, which in turn pushes the piston in the master cylinder. The amount of power assist that’s provided by the booster depends on the size of the diaphragm and the amount of intake manifold vacuum produced by the engine. A larger diaphragm will increase the boost.
RCC Turbos - Stage 1 Turbo Install: Suzuki Hayabusa (Gen 1) • Preparation/Disassembly: Remove the seat. Disconnect negative terminal on the battery. Drain the fuel tank. Remove the fuel tank. Remove the stock fuel pump from the tank. Remove the air box. Remove the MAP sensor and temperature sensor from the air box. Remove left and right side fairings. Drain engine oil. Drain engine coolant. Remove the oil filter Remove the oil restrictor, behind the filter. Remove the oil cooler lines. Remove the radiator and oil cooler, as one unit, leaving only the bracket/support for radiator (before reinstalling the radiator please remove all the tabs along the bottom of the radiator). Remove the entire exhaust system. Remove the PAIR system. Remove the oil pan from the engine. • Sensor Bracket Modification: On the left hand side of bike, on the inside of the frame, you will see a bracket, with a plastic vacuum canister, vacuum control solenoid valve, atmospheric pressure sensor, and some vacuum lines, with a check valve in the vacuum line. Please remove this entire bracket, eliminate all the vacuum lines, the plastic canister, and the control solenoid valve, and also cut off the metal tab that held the vacuum canister. Then reinstall this bracket with only the atmospheric pressure sensor, and plug the wires back in. • Tap/plug PAIR System Holes: Tap the four small PAIR system holes, above the exhaust ports, with an M6 x 1.0 tap. Install the four small M6 screws into the exhaust holes after tapping them. • Modify the Oil Pan: Drill a ¾” hole on the left side of the oil pan. Use thread sealant on the washer, and red Loctite on the threads. Make sure the sealing washer is against the inside of pan, then the stainless flat washer, then the nut. Once the fitting is installed, reinstall the oil pan. • Install Header/Turbo/Oil Lines/Exhaust: Install the header and turbo as a unit, but with the bolts loose. Use four of your original header bolts on the top of the turbo header (Allen head). Use the four new bolts on the bottom row of the header (M8, 10mm flange head). PLEASE NOTE! After installing the dump pipes and waste gate, the nipple on the top of the waste gate remains open, and no hose gets installed on the top fitting. The top fitting is used for boost control on Stage 2 and higher end kits. It is not used on Stage 1 kits.
Joint science academies’ statement: Global response to climate change Climate change is real There will always be uncertainty in understanding a system as complex as the world’s climate. However there is now strong evidence that significant global warming is occurring1. The evidence comes from direct measurements of rising surface air temperatures and subsurface ocean temperatures and from phenomena such as increases in average global sea levels, retreating glaciers, and changes to many physical and biological systems. It is likely that most of the warming in recent decades can be attributed to human activities (IPCC 2001)2. This warming has already led to changes in the Earth's climate. The existence of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is vital to life on Earth – in their absence average temperatures would be about 30 centigrade degrees lower than they are today. But human activities are now causing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases – including carbon dioxide, methane, tropospheric ozone, and nitrous oxide – to rise well above pre-industrial levels. Carbon dioxide levels have increased from 280 ppm in 1750 to over 375 ppm today – higher than any previous levels that can be reliably measured (i.e. in the last 420,000 years). Increasing greenhouse gases are causing temperatures to rise; the Earth’s surface warmed by approximately 0.6 centigrade degrees over the twentieth century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projected that the average global surface temperatures will continue to increase to between 1.4 centigrade degrees and 5.8 centigrade degrees above 1990 levels, by 2100.