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In response to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) fuel economy and emissions regulations, fuel injection systems replaced carburetors in new vehicles in the 1980s. Fuel injectors allow more precise control of fuel than carburetors, improving fuel efficiency and minimizing emissions. However, in order to work efficiently, they must be kept clean. Because performance suffers as fuel injectors become dirty, the U.S. government mandated in the mid-1990s that all gasoline sold in the U.S. be formulated with a lowest additive concentration (LAC) level of detergent additives to help keep engines clean and emissions under control. However, it takes a very low level of additive to pass the tests, and most gasoline on the market contains as little as 123 parts per million (ppm) of additive. The low levels of detergent additives in modern gasoline allow deposits to build up on critical fuel system components, and most motorists are unaware of how dirty the insides of their engines are. AMSOIL P.i. Performance Improver is an effective one-tank, total fuel system cleaner. More potent than other fuel additives on the market, P.i. effectively cleans everything the fuel touches, including both port and direct fuel injectors, intake valves and combustion chambers, in only one single tank of gasoline, removing the deposits that have built up over thousands of miles. Removing engine deposits with P.i. effectively improves fuel economy, reduces emissions, restores power, performance and acceleration, reduces octane requirements, increases engine life and reduces maintenance costs.
Diesel fuel injectors have always been prone to injector coking. However, the potential for negative impact on engine performance, emissions and fuel consumption is increasing, as injector designs become progressively more sophisticated. For example, the Euro 5 type injectors fitted to the Peugeot DW10 engine have 6 injector holes of size 110 microns, which is around the width of two human hairs. Injector holes for Euro 6 designs are predicted to go down to as little as 80 microns, with as many as 24 holes being used. Also contributing to this trend are other engineering factors such as increasing fuel injection pressures and temperatures. Finally, growing levels of biodiesel blending are also likely to increase coking severity. OEMs will need to know how their equipment behaves with respect to fouling and are keen to understand how different fuels and deposit control additives can control any coking that may occur. The engine used in the CEC injector coking test is a Peugeot DW10 2.0 litre common rail unit with a maximum injection pressure of 1600 bar, fitted with Euro 5 standard fuel injection equipment supplied by Siemens. The test procedure represents a step change in severity compared to the well understood CEC F-23-01 XUD9 method, which is based on a much older indirect injection engine. The method directly measures engine power, which is a function of the level of injector fouling.
1.0 OVERVIEW The HP EFI Universal Retrofit Kits (P/N 550-500 & 550-501) are designed for engines that have no off-the-shelf port fuel injection manifold available. It comes with almost all the components necessary for complete installation. Other components required are listed in this manual with guidelines for them. 2.0 SKILLS AND EQUIPMENT REQUIRED Various skills and tools are required for the complete installation and successful use of this kit. Machining for the fuel injector bungs and fuel rails requires the use of a Bridgeport mill or similar piece of machining equipment. It is nice to have a digital X/Y axis readout. The injector bungs ideally should be TIG-welded to the intake manifold, which requires an experienced aluminum TIG-welder. They can also successfully be epoxied, but welding will guarantee good durability. The fuel rails will also require tapping and/or machining depending upon the fittings chosen. Hold-downs for the fuel rails will also have to be fabricated. These should be welded to the manifold, but they can be designed to be bolted down. The tuning of the fuel injection system requires that an individual have basic computer and engine tuning skills. A manual is included that includes detailed and comprehensive tuning instructions. NOTE: This kit is a universal kit. The level of skill and fabrication required will vary for every application.
CATEGORY 4 CONTINENTAL MOTORS AIRCRAFT ENGINE SERVICE INFORMATION DIRECTIVE COMPLIANCE WILL ENHANCE SAFETY, MAINTENANCE OR ECONOMY OF OPERATION SID97-3F SUPERSEDES: SID97-3E and SID07-3A Technical Portions SUBJECT: FAA APPROVED CONTINENTAL MOTORS, INC. (CMI) CONTINUOUS FLOW FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS ADJUSTMENT SPECIFICATIONS AND INSTRUCTIONS. PURPOSE: Provide specifications and instructions for adjustment of CMI fuel injection systems. COMPLIANCE: MODELS AFFECTED: At Engine Installation, 100 hour/Annual Inspection, fuel system component replacement or as required if operation is not within specifications. All CMI continuous flow fuel injected engine models except L/TSIO-360-RB; TSIO520-L, LB, WB; GTSIO-520-F, K, N and GIO-550-A Engine Models. Supplemental Type Certificate Holder’s FAA approved instructions. WARNING Fuel System Operational Check is required after any of the following circumstances: (1) at engine installation, (2) during 100 hour and annual inspections, (3) whenever a fuel system component is replaced or adjusted, (4) when changes occur in the operating environment. The instructions and values provided in the document apply to CMI fuel injected engines that conform to the original type design. Refer to the Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) holder’s instructions for aircraft that have been modified from the original type design.
GP2D120 Optoelectronic Device FEATURES • Analog output • Effective range: 4 to 30 cm • Typical response time: 39 ms 1 2 3 • Typical start up delay: 44 ms • Average Current Consumption: 33 mA DESCRIPTION PIN SIGNAL NAME The GP2D120 is a distance measuring sensor with integrated signal processing and analog voltage output. 1 VO 2 GND 3 VCC GP2D120-8 Figure 1. Pinout GND VCC PSD SIGNAL PROCESSING CIRCUIT VOLTAGE REGULATOR OSCILLATOR CIRCUIT OUTPUT CIRCUIT LED DRIVE CIRCUIT Vo LED MEASURING DISTANCE IC GP2D120-4 Figure 2. Block Diagram 1 Data Sheet GP2D120 ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS Absolute Maximum Ratings Ta = 25°C, VCC = 5 VDC PARAMETER SYMBOL RATING UNIT Supply Voltage VCC -0.3 to +7 V Output Terminal Voltage VO -0.3 to (VCC +0.3) V Operating Temperature Topr -10 to +60 °C Storage Temperature Tstg -40 to +70 °C Operating Supply Voltage PARAMETER SYMBOL RATING UNIT Operating Supply Voltage VCC 4.5 to 5.5 V Electro-optical Characteristics Ta = 25°C, VCC = 5 VDC PARAMETER SYMBOL Measuring Distance Range ΔL Output Terminal Voltage VO CONDITIONS MIN. TYP. MAX. UNIT NOTES 4 — 30 cm 1, 2 L = 30 cm...
PEMBAHASAN DAN KUNCI JAWABAN GEOGRAFI KELAS XII PAKET B 1. Berdasarkan soal nomor 1 a. Konsep aglomerasi adalah merupakan gabungan, kumpulan, 2 atau lebih pusat kegiatan dalam 1 lokasi/kawasan terterntu seperti kawasan industri, pemukiman, perdagangan, dsb. b. Konsep morfologi menjelaskan kenampakan bentuk-bentuk muka bumi, seperti dataran rendah, lereng, bukit/dataran tinggi. c. Konsep pola menitik beratkan pada pola keruangan baik fisik maupun sosialnya seperti pola permukiman penduduk, pola aliran sungai, dsb. d. Konsep lokasi mengkaji letak suatu objek dipermukaan bumi. Pada konsep ini utamanya dalam menjawab pertanyaan dimana (where). e. Konsep ketergantungan adalah konsep yang menunjukkan keterkaitan keruangan antar wilayah akibat adanya perbedaan potensi antar wilayah. Seperti keterkaitan antara desa dengan kota. Kunci jawaban D 2. Prinsip-prinsip geografi ada 4 a. Prinsip deskripsi, merupakan penjelasan lebih jauh mengenai gejala-gejala yang diselidiki/dipelajari. Deskripsi disajikan dalam bentuk tulisan, diagram tabel/gambar/peta. b. Prinsip korologi, merupakan gejala, fakta/masalah geografi disuatu tempat yang ditinjau dari sebaran, interelasi, interaksi, dan integrasinya dalam ruang. c. Prinsip persebaran, merupakan suatu gejala dan fakta yang tersebar tidak merata dipermukaan bumi. d. Prinsip interelasi, merupakan suatu hubungan yang saling terkait dalam ruang antara gejala yang 1 dengan gejala lain. e. Prinsip distribusi, merupakan suatu gejala dan fakta yang tidak merata dipermukaan bumi.
1. Introduction The design of the All Digital FM Receiver circuit in this project uses Phase Locked Loop (PLL) as the main core. The task of the PLL is to maintain coherence between the input (modulated) signal frequency, ωi and the respective output frequency, ωo via phase comparison. This self-correcting ability of the system also allows the PLL to track the frequency changes of the input signal once it is locked. Frequency modulated input signal is assumed as a series of numerical values (digital signal) via 8-bit of analog to digital conversion (ADC) circuit. The FM Receiver gets the 8 bit signal every clock cycle and outputs the demodulated signal. The All Digital FM Receiver circuit is designed using VHDL, then simulated and synthesized using ModelSim SE 6 simulator and Xilinx ISE 6.3i, respectively. FPGA implementation also provided, here we use Virtex2 device. The real measurement is done using ChipScope Pro 6.3i. 2. Architecture Description The system of All Digital FM Receiver consists of a digital PLL cascaded with digital low pass filter. The block diagram of system is shown in Fig. 1.
LM3089 FM Receiver IF System Y General Description The LM3089 has been designed to provide all the major functions required for modern FM IF designs of automotive high-fidelity and communications receivers Y Features Y Y Y Three stage IF amplifier limiter provides 12 mV (typ) b 3 dB limiting sensitivity Balanced product detector and audio amplifier provide 400 mV (typ) of recovered audio with distortion as low as 0 1% with proper external coil designs Y Y Four internal carrier level detectors provide delayed AGC signal to tuner IF level meter drive current and interchannel mute control AFC amplifier provides AFC current for tuner and or center tuning meters Improved operating and temperature performance especially when using high Q quadrature coils in narrow band FM communications receivers No mute circuit latchup problems A direct replacement for CA3089E Connection Diagram Dual-In-Line Package TL H 7149 – 2 Top View Order Number LM3089N See NS Package Number N16E C1995 National Semiconductor Corporation TL H 7149 RRD-B30M115 Printed in U S A LM3089 FM Receiver IF System September 1992 Toko America 1250 Feehanville Drive Mount Prospect IL 60056 (312) 297-0070 TL H 7149 – 1
LM3089 FM Receiver IF System Literature Number: SNOSBQ6A LM3089 FM Receiver IF System The LM3089 has been designed to provide all the major functions required for modern FM IF designs of automotive high-fidelity and communications receivers Y Features Y Y Y Three stage IF amplifier limiter provides 12 mV (typ) b 3 dB limiting sensitivity Balanced product detector and audio amplifier provide 400 mV (typ) of recovered audio with distortion as low as 0 1% with proper external coil designs Y Y Four internal carrier level detectors provide delayed AGC signal to tuner IF level meter drive current and interchannel mute control AFC amplifier provides AFC current for tuner and or center tuning meters Improved operating and temperature performance especially when using high Q quadrature coils in narrow band FM communications receivers No mute circuit latchup problems A direct replacement for CA3089E Connection Diagram bs ol et Dual-In-Line Package e Y General Description TL H 7149 – 2 Top View O Order Number LM3089N See NS Package Number N16E C1995 National Semiconductor Corporation TL H 7149 RRD-B30M115 Printed in U S A LM3089 FM Receiver IF System
Merico (Rico) Fantigrossi retired from the United States Marine Corps in November of 1991, after serving his country honorably in both war and peace for over twenty-six years. Upon his retirement, he returned to his hometown-Rochester, New York. While waiting for an opportunity in law enforcement, he took a position as an automobile salesman for Gabrielle Ford, in Churchville, New York, a suburb of Rochester. What began as a temporary job, soon developed into a permanent and very successful career. Rico consistently rose to the top of the sales team in sales, gross per unit, customer satisfaction, and both repeat and referral business. After eighteen successful months as a salesman, he moved rapidly in the dealership, from deal closer and assistant manager to desk manager and back-up F&I manager.